Thursday, July 12, 2007

Okay, so the city is twisted

Yeah, I think that last exchange of comments in the post below confirmed my suspicions that something bad is in some people's water (or genes) here. I think one of our regular contributors had a nervous breakdown.
But moving along, just to set things straight, the first and only time I mentioned Smith and Compora in a post in about two years now was the last post. I mentioned it because the debate is such a futile exercise and hoped we could move beyond it. Guess not. So we're twisted. Let's all resolve to live with that.
To further clarify things, I wish to state that familiarity seems to be breeding contempt. All this talk about Monroe going down the tube is nuts. Most reasonable people, even those who don't agree, probably would agree that Monroe is more vibrant than it's been in 20 years, despite a rotten and eroding state economy.
Sure, the city's not making as much revenue and there's a lot of rental housing, but it's obvious that some posters here don't get out and about much. Maybe they feel trapped in Monroe.
I can give you a whole list of places that make Monroe look like paradise -- we can start with Flint, or Adrian. Cripe, ask George Brown.
As for the election, I have a plan.
No I will not be running for office.
Al Cappuccilli will not be running for office.
Bill Burkett will run for mayor.
John Iacoangeli will run for mayor.
Mark Worrell will run for mayor.
What probably needs to happen is for a deal to be cut among these three.
I would suggest Iacoangeli run for council. This will give Worrell a decent shot at mayor and take Paisley out of the picture.
You'll end up with a better balance on council and someone as mayor who might be a little more talented at compromise.

68 Comments:

Anonymous alacajun said...

Observer;

Please begin using some "editorial" control over some of the stupid comments. It would be nice to have a good exchange of ideals on this forum. Otherwise we simply look like an Internet version of a council meeting.

I agree, by comparison, Monroe looks very good. I disagree that Iacoangenili would be preferable over Paisley - to some extent. I would prefer someone new - entirely. I don't know if Mark and John would co-exist. Can you imagine four, five, six hour meetings / work sessions / studies as each ideal, concept, notion is ferreted out. Patrick Lewis would surly become more busy - if that is even possible.

I would love to get some new blood in City Hall. Some of that will happen by attrition; Dorothy Edwards not running. Some should occur by necessity. I would also love to have our elections every four years and staggered. Oh, well, I can dream.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Bill said...

Exodus

1:1 Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob.

1:2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 1:3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 1:4 Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.

1:5 And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.

1:6 And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation.

1:7 And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them.

1:8 Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph.

1:9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we: 1:10 Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land.

1:11 Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses.

1:12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew.

And they were grieved because of the children of Israel.

1:13 And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour: 1:14 And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in morter, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour.

1:15 And the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah: 1:16 And he said, When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them upon the stools; if it be a son, then ye shall kill him: but if it be a daughter, then she shall live.

1:17 But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men children alive.

1:18 And the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto them, Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men children alive? 1:19 And the midwives said unto Pharaoh, Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the midwives come in unto them.

1:20 Therefore God dealt well with the midwives: and the people multiplied, and waxed very mighty.

1:21 And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that he made them houses.

1:22 And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive.

2:1 And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi.

2:2 And the woman conceived, and bare a son: and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months.

2:3 And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch, and put the child therein; and she laid it in the flags by the river's brink.

2:4 And his sister stood afar off, to wit what would be done to him.

2:5 And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the river; and her maidens walked along by the river's side; and when she saw the ark among the flags, she sent her maid to fetch it.

2:6 And when she had opened it, she saw the child: and, behold, the babe wept. And she had compassion on him, and said, This is one of the Hebrews' children.

2:7 Then said his sister to Pharaoh's daughter, Shall I go and call to thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee? 2:8 And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Go. And the maid went and called the child's mother.

2:9 And Pharaoh's daughter said unto her, Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages. And the women took the child, and nursed it.

2:10 And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh's daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses: and she said, Because I drew him out of the water.

2:11 And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown, that he went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens: and he spied an Egyptian smiting an Hebrew, one of his brethren.

2:12 And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand.

2:13 And when he went out the second day, behold, two men of the Hebrews strove together: and he said to him that did the wrong, Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow? 2:14 And he said, Who made thee a prince and a judge over us? intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian? And Moses feared, and said, Surely this thing is known.

2:15 Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian: and he sat down by a well.

2:16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters: and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock.

2:17 And the shepherds came and drove them away: but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock.

2:18 And when they came to Reuel their father, he said, How is it that ye are come so soon to day? 2:19 And they said, An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds, and also drew water enough for us, and watered the flock.

2:20 And he said unto his daughters, And where is he? why is it that ye have left the man? call him, that he may eat bread.

2:21 And Moses was content to dwell with the man: and he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter.

2:22 And she bare him a son, and he called his name Gershom: for he said, I have been a stranger in a strange land.

2:23 And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage.

2:24 And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.

2:25 And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect unto them.

3:1 Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb.

3:2 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.

3:3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.

3:4 And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.

3:5 And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.

3:6 Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.

3:7 And the LORD said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows; 3:8 And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

3:9 Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto me: and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them.

3:10 Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt.

3:11 And Moses said unto God, Who am I, that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt? 3:12 And he said, Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be a token unto thee, that I have sent thee: When thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain.

3:13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them? 3:14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

3:15 And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, the LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.

3:16 Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt: 3:17 And I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, unto a land flowing with milk and honey.

3:18 And they shall hearken to thy voice: and thou shalt come, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath met with us: and now let us go, we beseech thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God.

3:19 And I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not by a mighty hand.

3:20 And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the midst thereof: and after that he will let you go.

3:21 And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty.

3:22 But every woman shall borrow of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.

4:1 And Moses answered and said, But, behold, they will not believe me, nor hearken unto my voice: for they will say, The LORD hath not appeared unto thee.

4:2 And the LORD said unto him, What is that in thine hand? And he said, A rod.

4:3 And he said, Cast it on the ground. And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent; and Moses fled from before it.

4:4 And the LORD said unto Moses, Put forth thine hand, and take it by the tail. And he put forth his hand, and caught it, and it became a rod in his hand: 4:5 That they may believe that the LORD God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared unto thee.

4:6 And the LORD said furthermore unto him, Put now thine hand into thy bosom. And he put his hand into his bosom: and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous as snow.

4:7 And he said, Put thine hand into thy bosom again. And he put his hand into his bosom again; and plucked it out of his bosom, and, behold, it was turned again as his other flesh.

4:8 And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe thee, neither hearken to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign.

4:9 And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe also these two signs, neither hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land: and the water which thou takest out of the river shall become blood upon the dry land.

4:10 And Moses said unto the LORD, O my LORD, I am not eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant: but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue.

4:11 And the LORD said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh the dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the LORD? 4:12 Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what thou shalt say.

4:13 And he said, O my LORD, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him whom thou wilt send.

4:14 And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Moses, and he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he cometh forth to meet thee: and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart.

4:15 And thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth: and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do.

4:16 And he shall be thy spokesman unto the people: and he shall be, even he shall be to thee instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of God.

4:17 And thou shalt take this rod in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt do signs.

4:18 And Moses went and returned to Jethro his father in law, and said unto him, Let me go, I pray thee, and return unto my brethren which are in Egypt, and see whether they be yet alive. And Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace.

4:19 And the LORD said unto Moses in Midian, Go, return into Egypt: for all the men are dead which sought thy life.

4:20 And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt: and Moses took the rod of God in his hand.

4:21 And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.

4:22 And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel is my son, even my firstborn: 4:23 And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn.

4:24 And it came to pass by the way in the inn, that the LORD met him, and sought to kill him.

4:25 Then Zipporah took a sharp stone, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and cast it at his feet, and said, Surely a bloody husband art thou to me.

4:26 So he let him go: then she said, A bloody husband thou art, because of the circumcision.

4:27 And the LORD said to Aaron, Go into the wilderness to meet Moses. And he went, and met him in the mount of God, and kissed him.

4:28 And Moses told Aaron all the words of the LORD who had sent him, and all the signs which he had commanded him.

4:29 And Moses and Aaron went and gathered together all the elders of the children of Israel: 4:30 And Aaron spake all the words which the LORD had spoken unto Moses, and did the signs in the sight of the people.

4:31 And the people believed: and when they heard that the LORD had visited the children of Israel, and that he had looked upon their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped.

5:1 And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness.

5:2 And Pharaoh said, Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go.

5:3 And they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us: let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert, and sacrifice unto the LORD our God; lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword.

5:4 And the king of Egypt said unto them, Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, let the people from their works? get you unto your burdens.

5:5 And Pharaoh said, Behold, the people of the land now are many, and ye make them rest from their burdens.

5:6 And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people, and their officers, saying, 5:7 Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves.

5:8 And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish ought thereof: for they be idle; therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God.

5:9 Let there more work be laid upon the men, that they may labour therein; and let them not regard vain words.

5:10 And the taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and they spake to the people, saying, Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw.

5:11 Go ye, get you straw where ye can find it: yet not ought of your work shall be diminished.

5:12 So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble instead of straw.

5:13 And the taskmasters hasted them, saying, Fulfil your works, your daily tasks, as when there was straw.

5:14 And the officers of the children of Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and demanded, Wherefore have ye not fulfilled your task in making brick both yesterday and to day, as heretofore? 5:15 Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh, saying, Wherefore dealest thou thus with thy servants? 5:16 There is no straw given unto thy servants, and they say to us, Make brick: and, behold, thy servants are beaten; but the fault is in thine own people.

5:17 But he said, Ye are idle, ye are idle: therefore ye say, Let us go and do sacrifice to the LORD.

5:18 Go therefore now, and work; for there shall no straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks.

5:19 And the officers of the children of Israel did see that they were in evil case, after it was said, Ye shall not minish ought from your bricks of your daily task.

5:20 And they met Moses and Aaron, who stood in the way, as they came forth from Pharaoh: 5:21 And they said unto them, The LORD look upon you, and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us.

5:22 And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said, LORD, wherefore hast thou so evil entreated this people? why is it that thou hast sent me? 5:23 For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in thy name, he hath done evil to this people; neither hast thou delivered thy people at all.

6:1 Then the LORD said unto Moses, Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh: for with a strong hand shall he let them go, and with a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land.

6:2 And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the LORD: 6:3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.

6:4 And I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers.

6:5 And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered my covenant.

6:6 Wherefore say unto the children of Israel, I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments: 6:7 And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God: and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.

6:8 And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning the which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I am the LORD.

6:9 And Moses spake so unto the children of Israel: but they hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage.

6:10 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 6:11 Go in, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.

6:12 And Moses spake before the LORD, saying, Behold, the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me; how then shall Pharaoh hear me, who am of uncircumcised lips? 6:13 And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

6:14 These be the heads of their fathers' houses: The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel; Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi: these be the families of Reuben.

6:15 And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman: these are the families of Simeon.

6:16 And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations; Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari: and the years of the life of Levi were an hundred thirty and seven years.

6:17 The sons of Gershon; Libni, and Shimi, according to their families.

6:18 And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel: and the years of the life of Kohath were an hundred thirty and three years.

6:19 And the sons of Merari; Mahali and Mushi: these are the families of Levi according to their generations.

6:20 And Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife; and she bare him Aaron and Moses: and the years of the life of Amram were an hundred and thirty and seven years.

6:21 And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri.

6:22 And the sons of Uzziel; Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Zithri.

6:23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Naashon, to wife; and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.

6:24 And the sons of Korah; Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph: these are the families of the Korhites.

6:25 And Eleazar Aaron's son took him one of the daughters of Putiel to wife; and she bare him Phinehas: these are the heads of the fathers of the Levites according to their families.

6:26 These are that Aaron and Moses, to whom the LORD said, Bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies.

6:27 These are they which spake to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring out the children of Israel from Egypt: these are that Moses and Aaron.

6:28 And it came to pass on the day when the LORD spake unto Moses in the land of Egypt, 6:29 That the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, I am the LORD: speak thou unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say unto thee.

6:30 And Moses said before the LORD, Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken unto me? 7:1 And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.

7:2 Thou shalt speak all that I command thee: and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he send the children of Israel out of his land.

7:3 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.

7:4 But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.

7:5 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I stretch forth mine hand upon Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from among them.

7:6 And Moses and Aaron did as the LORD commanded them, so did they.

7:7 And Moses was fourscore years old, and Aaron fourscore and three years old, when they spake unto Pharaoh.

7:8 And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 7:9 When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying, Shew a miracle for you: then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a serpent.

7:10 And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so as the LORD had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent.

7:11 Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments.

7:12 For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents: but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods.

7:13 And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

7:14 And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh's heart is hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.

7:15 Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou shalt stand by the river's brink against he come; and the rod which was turned to a serpent shalt thou take in thine hand.

7:16 And thou shalt say unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee, saying, Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness: and, behold, hitherto thou wouldest not hear.

7:17 Thus saith the LORD, In this thou shalt know that I am the LORD: behold, I will smite with the rod that is in mine hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood.

7:18 And the fish that is in the river shall die, and the river shall stink; and the Egyptians shall lothe to drink of the water of the river.

7:19 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of water, that they may become blood; and that there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone.

7:20 And Moses and Aaron did so, as the LORD commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.

7:21 And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.

7:22 And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as the LORD had said.

7:23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house, neither did he set his heart to this also.

7:24 And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river.

7:25 And seven days were fulfilled, after that the LORD had smitten the river.

8:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me.

8:2 And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs: 8:3 And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up and come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine ovens, and into thy kneadingtroughs: 8:4 And the frogs shall come up both on thee, and upon thy people, and upon all thy servants.

8:5 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch forth thine hand with thy rod over the streams, over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt.

8:6 And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt.

8:7 And the magicians did so with their enchantments, and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt.

8:8 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Intreat the LORD, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people; and I will let the people go, that they may do sacrifice unto the LORD.

8:9 And Moses said unto Pharaoh, Glory over me: when shall I intreat for thee, and for thy servants, and for thy people, to destroy the frogs from thee and thy houses, that they may remain in the river only? 8:10 And he said, To morrow. And he said, Be it according to thy word: that thou mayest know that there is none like unto the LORD our God.

8:11 And the frogs shall depart from thee, and from thy houses, and from thy servants, and from thy people; they shall remain in the river only.

8:12 And Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh: and Moses cried unto the LORD because of the frogs which he had brought against Pharaoh.

8:13 And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the villages, and out of the fields.

8:14 And they gathered them together upon heaps: and the land stank.

8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

8:16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.

8:17 And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.

8:18 And the magicians did so with their enchantments to bring forth lice, but they could not: so there were lice upon man, and upon beast.

8:19 Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, This is the finger of God: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

8:20 And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh; lo, he cometh forth to the water; and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me.

8:21 Else, if thou wilt not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are.

8:22 And I will sever in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end thou mayest know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth.

8:23 And I will put a division between my people and thy people: to morrow shall this sign be.

8:24 And the LORD did so; and there came a grievous swarm of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants' houses, and into all the land of Egypt: the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies.

8:25 And Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said, Go ye, sacrifice to your God in the land.

8:26 And Moses said, It is not meet so to do; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to the LORD our God: lo, shall we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, and will they not stone us? 8:27 We will go three days' journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to the LORD our God, as he shall command us.

8:28 And Pharaoh said, I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness; only ye shall not go very far away: intreat for me.

8:29 And Moses said, Behold, I go out from thee, and I will intreat the LORD that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, to morrow: but let not Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the LORD.

8:30 And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD.

8:31 And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; there remained not one.

8:32 And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go.

9:1 Then the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and tell him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me.

9:2 For if thou refuse to let them go, and wilt hold them still, 9:3 Behold, the hand of the LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain.

9:4 And the LORD shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all that is the children's of Israel.

9:5 And the LORD appointed a set time, saying, To morrow the LORD shall do this thing in the land.

9:6 And the LORD did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one.

9:7 And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go.

9:8 And the LORD said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh.

9:9 And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt.

9:10 And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven; and it became a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast.

9:11 And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians.

9:12 And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken unto Moses.

9:13 And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me.

9:14 For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; that thou mayest know that there is none like me in all the earth.

9:15 For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence; and thou shalt be cut off from the earth.

9:16 And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.

9:17 As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou wilt not let them go? 9:18 Behold, to morrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof even until now.

9:19 Send therefore now, and gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field; for upon every man and beast which shall be found in the field, and shall not be brought home, the hail shall come down upon them, and they shall die.

9:20 He that feared the word of the LORD among the servants of Pharaoh made his servants and his cattle flee into the houses: 9:21 And he that regarded not the word of the LORD left his servants and his cattle in the field.

9:22 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch forth thine hand toward heaven, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, upon man, and upon beast, and upon every herb of the field, throughout the land of Egypt.

9:23 And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt.

9:24 So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.

9:25 And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field.

9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail.

9:27 And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned this time: the LORD is righteous, and I and my people are wicked.

9:28 Intreat the LORD (for it is enough) that there be no more mighty thunderings and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer.

9:29 And Moses said unto him, As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands unto the LORD; and the thunder shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know how that the earth is the LORD's.

9:30 But as for thee and thy servants, I know that ye will not yet fear the LORD God.

9:31 And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled.

9:32 But the wheat and the rie were not smitten: for they were not grown up.

9:33 And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands unto the LORD: and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured upon the earth.

9:34 And when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants.

9:35 And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, neither would he let the children of Israel go; as the LORD had spoken by Moses.

10:1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him: 10:2 And that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that ye may know how that I am the LORD.

10:3 And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? let my people go, that they may serve me.

10:4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast: 10:5 And they shall cover the face of the earth, that one cannot be able to see the earth: and they shall eat the residue of that which is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which groweth for you out of the field: 10:6 And they shall fill thy houses, and the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day that they were upon the earth unto this day. And he turned himself, and went out from Pharaoh.

10:7 And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, How long shall this man be a snare unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed? 10:8 And Moses and Aaron were brought again unto Pharaoh: and he said unto them, Go, serve the LORD your God: but who are they that shall go? 10:9 And Moses said, We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast unto the LORD.

10:10 And he said unto them, Let the LORD be so with you, as I will let you go, and your little ones: look to it; for evil is before you.

10:11 Not so: go now ye that are men, and serve the LORD; for that ye did desire. And they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.

10:12 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail hath left.

10:13 And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.

10:14 And the locust went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such.

10:15 For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt.

10:16 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you.

10:17 Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and intreat the LORD your God, that he may take away from me this death only.

10:18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD.

10:19 And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt.

10:20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go.

10:21 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.

10:22 And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days: 10:23 They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.

10:24 And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones also go with you.

10:25 And Moses said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD our God.

10:26 Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither.

10:27 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.

10:28 And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die.

10:29 And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more.

11:1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.

11:2 Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver and jewels of gold.

11:3 And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians.

Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people.

11:4 And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt: 11:5 And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.

11:6 And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more.

11:7 But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that the LORD doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel.

11:8 And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger.

11:9 And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you; that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.

11:10 And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land.

12:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt saying, 12:2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.

12:3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house: 12:4 And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb.

12:5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats: 12:6 And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.

12:7 And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.

12:8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.

12:9 Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof.

12:10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.

12:11 And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD's passover.

12:12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.

12:13 And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.

12:14 And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.

12:15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.

12:16 And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you.

12:17 And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.

12:18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.

12:19 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land.

12:20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.

12:21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover.

12:22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.

12:23 For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.

12:24 And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever.

12:25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service.

12:26 And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service? 12:27 That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD's passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped.

12:28 And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

12:29 And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.

12:30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.

12:31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.

12:32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.

12:33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men.

12:34 And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.

12:35 And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: 12:36 And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.

12:37 And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children.

12:38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

12:39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.

12:40 Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.

12:41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.

12:42 It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.

12:43 And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof: 12:44 But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.

12:45 A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof.

12:46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof.

12:47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.

12:48 And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.

12:49 One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.

12:50 Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

12:51 And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.

13:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 13:2 Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.

13:3 And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten.

13:4 This day came ye out in the month Abib.

13:5 And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service in this month.

13:6 Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD.

13:7 Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy quarters.

13:8 And thou shalt shew thy son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which the LORD did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt.

13:9 And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the LORD's law may be in thy mouth: for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt.

13:10 Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance in his season from year to year.

13:11 And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee, 13:12 That thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the matrix, and every firstling that cometh of a beast which thou hast; the males shall be the LORD's.

13:13 And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break his neck: and all the firstborn of man among thy children shalt thou redeem.

13:14 And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying, What is this? that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of hand the LORD brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage: 13:15 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go, that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast: therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the matrix, being males; but all the firstborn of my children I redeem.

13:16 And it shall be for a token upon thine hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes: for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.

13:17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt: 13:18 But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt.

13:19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you.

13:20 And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness.

13:21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night: 13:22 He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.

14:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 14:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.

14:3 For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.

14:4 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD. And they did so.

14:5 And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us? 14:6 And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him: 14:7 And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them.

14:8 And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an high hand.

14:9 But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pihahiroth, before Baalzephon.

14:10 And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD.

14:11 And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt? 14:12 Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness.

14:13 And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will shew to you to day: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever.

14:14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.

14:15 And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward: 14:16 But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.

14:17 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.

14:18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.

14:19 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them: 14:20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night.

14:21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.

14:22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.

14:23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.

14:24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians, 14:25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.

14:26 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.

14:27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.

14:28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.

14:29 But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.

14:30 Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore.

14:31 And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his servant Moses.

15:1 Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spake, saying, I will sing unto the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

15:2 The LORD is my strength and song, and he is become my salvation: he is my God, and I will prepare him an habitation; my father's God, and I will exalt him.

15:3 The LORD is a man of war: the LORD is his name.

15:4 Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea: his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red sea.

15:5 The depths have covered them: they sank into the bottom as a stone.

15:6 Thy right hand, O LORD, is become glorious in power: thy right hand, O LORD, hath dashed in pieces the enemy.

15:7 And in the greatness of thine excellency thou hast overthrown them that rose up against thee: thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as stubble.

15:8 And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were gathered together, the floods stood upright as an heap, and the depths were congealed in the heart of the sea.

15:9 The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.

15:10 Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them: they sank as lead in the mighty waters.

15:11 Who is like unto thee, O LORD, among the gods? who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders? 15:12 Thou stretchedst out thy right hand, the earth swallowed them.

15:13 Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people which thou hast redeemed: thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation.

15:14 The people shall hear, and be afraid: sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants of Palestina.

15:15 Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed; the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them; all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away.

15:16 Fear and dread shall fall upon them; by the greatness of thine arm they shall be as still as a stone; till thy people pass over, O LORD, till the people pass over, which thou hast purchased.

15:17 Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance, in the place, O LORD, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in, in the Sanctuary, O LORD, which thy hands have established.

15:18 The LORD shall reign for ever and ever.

15:19 For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and the LORD brought again the waters of the sea upon them; but the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea.

15:20 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances.

15:21 And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

15:22 So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water.

15:23 And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter: therefore the name of it was called Marah.

15:24 And the people murmured against Moses, saying, What shall we drink? 15:25 And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD shewed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet: there he made for them a statute and an ordinance, and there he proved them, 15:26 And said, If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egyptians: for I am the LORD that healeth thee.

15:27 And they came to Elim, where were twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm trees: and they encamped there by the waters.

16:1 And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt.

16:2 And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness: 16:3 And the children of Israel said unto them, Would to God we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots, and when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger.

16:4 Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.

16:5 And it shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall prepare that which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.

16:6 And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At even, then ye shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the land of Egypt: 16:7 And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that he heareth your murmurings against the LORD: and what are we, that ye murmur against us? 16:8 And Moses said, This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.

16:9 And Moses spake unto Aaron, Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, Come near before the LORD: for he hath heard your murmurings.

16:10 And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.

16:11 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 16:12 I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them, saying, At even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God.

16:13 And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host.

16:14 And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground.

16:15 And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat.

16:16 This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, Gather of it every man according to his eating, an omer for every man, according to the number of your persons; take ye every man for them which are in his tents.

16:17 And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less.

16:18 And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating.

16:19 And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning.

16:20 Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them.

16:21 And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted.

16:22 And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses.

16:23 And he said unto them, This is that which the LORD hath said, To morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD: bake that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.

16:24 And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade: and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein.

16:25 And Moses said, Eat that to day; for to day is a sabbath unto the LORD: to day ye shall not find it in the field.

16:26 Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none.

16:27 And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none.

16:28 And the LORD said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws? 16:29 See, for that the LORD hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.

16:30 So the people rested on the seventh day.

16:31 And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.

16:32 And Moses said, This is the thing which the LORD commandeth, Fill an omer of it to be kept for your generations; that they may see the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt.

16:33 And Moses said unto Aaron, Take a pot, and put an omer full of manna therein, and lay it up before the LORD, to be kept for your generations.

16:34 As the LORD commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the Testimony, to be kept.

16:35 And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan.

16:36 Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah.

17:1 And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys, according to the commandment of the LORD, and pitched in Rephidim: and there was no water for the people to drink.

17:2 Wherefore the people did chide with Moses, and said, Give us water that we may drink. And Moses said unto them, Why chide ye with me? wherefore do ye tempt the LORD? 17:3 And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured against Moses, and said, Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst? 17:4 And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying, What shall I do unto this people? they be almost ready to stone me.

17:5 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go.

17:6 Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink. And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.

17:7 And he called the name of the place Massah, and Meribah, because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and because they tempted the LORD, saying, Is the LORD among us, or not? 17:8 Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim.

17:9 And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek: to morrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in mine hand.

17:10 So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek: and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.

17:11 And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed: and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed.

17:12 But Moses hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.

17:13 And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.

17:14 And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.

17:15 And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovahnissi: 17:16 For he said, Because the LORD hath sworn that the LORD will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.

18:1 When Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses' father in law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel his people, and that the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt; 18:2 Then Jethro, Moses' father in law, took Zipporah, Moses' wife, after he had sent her back, 18:3 And her two sons; of which the name of the one was Gershom; for he said, I have been an alien in a strange land: 18:4 And the name of the other was Eliezer; for the God of my father, said he, was mine help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh: 18:5 And Jethro, Moses' father in law, came with his sons and his wife unto Moses into the wilderness, where he encamped at the mount of God: 18:6 And he said unto Moses, I thy father in law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her.

18:7 And Moses went out to meet his father in law, and did obeisance, and kissed him; and they asked each other of their welfare; and they came into the tent.

18:8 And Moses told his father in law all that the LORD had done unto Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel's sake, and all the travail that had come upon them by the way, and how the LORD delivered them.

18:9 And Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which the LORD had done to Israel, whom he had delivered out of the hand of the Egyptians.

18:10 And Jethro said, Blessed be the LORD, who hath delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh, who hath delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians.

18:11 Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods: for in the thing wherein they dealt proudly he was above them.

18:12 And Jethro, Moses' father in law, took a burnt offering and sacrifices for God: and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses' father in law before God.

18:13 And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening.

18:14 And when Moses' father in law saw all that he did to the people, he said, What is this thing that thou doest to the people? why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people stand by thee from morning unto even? 18:15 And Moses said unto his father in law, Because the people come unto me to enquire of God: 18:16 When they have a matter, they come unto me; and I judge between one and another, and I do make them know the statutes of God, and his laws.

18:17 And Moses' father in law said unto him, The thing that thou doest is not good.

18:18 Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee: for this thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to perform it thyself alone.

18:19 Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God shall be with thee: Be thou for the people to God-ward, that thou mayest bring the causes unto God: 18:20 And thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, and shalt shew them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do.

18:21 Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens: 18:22 And let them judge the people at all seasons: and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge: so shall it be easier for thyself, and they shall bear the burden with thee.

18:23 If thou shalt do this thing, and God command thee so, then thou shalt be able to endure, and all this people shall also go to their place in peace.

18:24 So Moses hearkened to the voice of his father in law, and did all that he had said.

18:25 And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.

18:26 And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves.

18:27 And Moses let his father in law depart; and he went his way into his own land.

19:1 In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai.

19:2 For they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the desert of Sinai, and had pitched in the wilderness; and there Israel camped before the mount.

19:3 And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel; 19:4 Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself.

19:5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine: 19:6 And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation.

These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.

19:7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before their faces all these words which the LORD commanded him.

19:8 And all the people answered together, and said, All that the LORD hath spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the LORD.

19:9 And the LORD said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever.

And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD.

19:10 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go unto the people, and sanctify them to day and to morrow, and let them wash their clothes, 19:11 And be ready against the third day: for the third day the LORD will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai.

19:12 And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying, Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it: whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death: 19:13 There shall not an hand touch it, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live: when the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.

19:14 And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their clothes.

19:15 And he said unto the people, Be ready against the third day: come not at your wives.

19:16 And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people that was in the camp trembled.

19:17 And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet with God; and they stood at the nether part of the mount.

19:18 And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.

19:19 And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a voice.

19:20 And the LORD came down upon mount Sinai, on the top of the mount: and the LORD called Moses up to the top of the mount; and Moses went up.

19:21 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto the LORD to gaze, and many of them perish.

19:22 And let the priests also, which come near to the LORD, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them.

19:23 And Moses said unto the LORD, The people cannot come up to mount Sinai: for thou chargedst us, saying, Set bounds about the mount, and sanctify it.

19:24 And the LORD said unto him, Away, get thee down, and thou shalt come up, thou, and Aaron with thee: but let not the priests and the people break through to come up unto the LORD, lest he break forth upon them.

19:25 So Moses went down unto the people, and spake unto them.

20:1 And God spake all these words, saying, 20:2 I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

20:3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me.

20:4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.

20:5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; 20:6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.

20:7 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.

20:8 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.

20:9 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: 20:10 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: 20:11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

20:12 Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.

20:13 Thou shalt not kill.

20:14 Thou shalt not commit adultery.

20:15 Thou shalt not steal.

20:16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

20:17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.

20:18 And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the noise of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and when the people saw it, they removed, and stood afar off.

20:19 And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear: but let not God speak with us, lest we die.

20:20 And Moses said unto the people, Fear not: for God is come to prove you, and that his fear may be before your faces, that ye sin not.

20:21 And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was.

20:22 And the LORD said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.

20:23 Ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold.

20:24 An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee.

20:25 And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it.

20:26 Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon.

21:1 Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them.

21:2 If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing.

21:3 If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married, then his wife shall go out with him.

21:4 If his master have given him a wife, and she have born him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he shall go out by himself.

21:5 And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free: 21:6 Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he shall serve him for ever.

21:7 And if a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the menservants do.

21:8 If she please not her master, who hath betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her.

21:9 And if he have betrothed her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters.

21:10 If he take him another wife; her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish.

21:11 And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out free without money.

21:12 He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death.

21:13 And if a man lie not in wait, but God deliver him into his hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee.

21:14 But if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die.

21:15 And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death.

21:16 And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.

21:17 And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.

21:18 And if men strive together, and one smite another with a stone, or with his fist, and he die not, but keepeth his bed: 21:19 If he rise again, and walk abroad upon his staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed.

21:20 And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished.

21:21 Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money.

21:22 If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine.

21:23 And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, 21:24 Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 21:25 Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.

21:26 And if a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his eye's sake.

21:27 And if he smite out his manservant's tooth, or his maidservant's tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth's sake.

21:28 If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die: then the ox shall be surely stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit.

21:29 But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death.

21:30 If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him.

21:31 Whether he have gored a son, or have gored a daughter, according to this judgment shall it be done unto him.

21:32 If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned.

21:33 And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall therein; 21:34 The owner of the pit shall make it good, and give money unto the owner of them; and the dead beast shall be his.

21:35 And if one man's ox hurt another's, that he die; then they shall sell the live ox, and divide the money of it; and the dead ox also they shall divide.

21:36 Or if it be known that the ox hath used to push in time past, and his owner hath not kept him in; he shall surely pay ox for ox; and the dead shall be his own.

22:1 If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep.

22:2 If a thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him.

22:3 If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.

22:4 If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double.

22:5 If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man's field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution.

22:6 If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith; he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution.

22:7 If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's house; if the thief be found, let him pay double.

22:8 If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour's goods.

22:9 For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour.

22:10 If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it: 22:11 Then shall an oath of the LORD be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good.

22:12 And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the owner thereof.

22:13 If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it for witness, and he shall not make good that which was torn.

22:14 And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof being not with it, he shall surely make it good.

22:15 But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall not make it good: if it be an hired thing, it came for his hire.

22:16 And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.

22:17 If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.

22:18 Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.

22:19 Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death.

22:20 He that sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed.

22:21 Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

22:22 Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child.

22:23 If thou afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry; 22:24 And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.

22:25 If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.

22:26 If thou at all take thy neighbour's raiment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down: 22:27 For that is his covering only, it is his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.

22:28 Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people.

22:29 Thou shalt not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors: the firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me.

22:30 Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep: seven days it shall be with his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it me.

22:31 And ye shall be holy men unto me: neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the dogs.

23:1 Thou shalt not raise a false report: put not thine hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness.

23:2 Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment: 23:3 Neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in his cause.

23:4 If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again.

23:5 If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help with him.

23:6 Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause.

23:7 Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked.

23:8 And thou shalt take no gift: for the gift blindeth the wise, and perverteth the words of the righteous.

23:9 Also thou shalt not oppress a stranger: for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

23:10 And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the fruits thereof: 23:11 But the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie still; that the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave the beasts of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard.

23:12 Six days thou shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest: that thine ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed.

23:13 And in all things that I have said unto you be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth.

23:14 Three times thou shalt keep a feast unto me in the year.

23:15 Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:) 23:16 And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of thy labours, which thou hast sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field.

23:17 Three items in the year all thy males shall appear before the LORD God.

23:18 Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the fat of my sacrifice remain until the morning.

23:19 The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.

23:20 Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared.

23:21 Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him.

23:22 But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries.

23:23 For mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off.

23:24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images.

23:25 And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee.

23:26 There shall nothing cast their young, nor be barren, in thy land: the number of thy days I will fulfil.

23:27 I will send my fear before thee, and will destroy all the people to whom thou shalt come, and I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto thee.

23:28 And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.

23:29 I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee.

23:30 By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land.

23:31 And I will set thy bounds from the Red sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before thee.

23:32 Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods.

23:33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be a snare unto thee.

24:1 And he said unto Moses, Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship ye afar off.

24:2 And Moses alone shall come near the LORD: but they shall not come nigh; neither shall the people go up with him.

24:3 And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which the LORD hath said will we do.

24:4 And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.

24:5 And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the LORD.

24:6 And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basons; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar.

24:7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the LORD hath said will we do, and be obedient.

24:8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words.

24:9 Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel: 24:10 And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness.

24:11 And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his hand: also they saw God, and did eat and drink.

24:12 And the LORD said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them.

24:13 And Moses rose up, and his minister Joshua: and Moses went up into the mount of God.

24:14 And he said unto the elders, Tarry ye here for us, until we come again unto you: and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you: if any man have any matters to do, let him come unto them.

24:15 And Moses went up into the mount, and a cloud covered the mount.

24:16 And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days: and the seventh day he called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud.

24:17 And the sight of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel.

24:18 And Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and gat him up into the mount: and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights.

25:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 25:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring me an offering: of every man that giveth it willingly with his heart ye shall take my offering.

25:3 And this is the offering which ye shall take of them; gold, and silver, and brass, 25:4 And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair, 25:5 And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim wood, 25:6 Oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, and for sweet incense, 25:7 Onyx stones, and stones to be set in the ephod, and in the breastplate.

25:8 And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them.

25:9 According to all that I shew thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it.

25:10 And they shall make an ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.

25:11 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about.

25:12 And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four corners thereof; and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it.

25:13 And thou shalt make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold.

25:14 And thou shalt put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them.

25:15 The staves shall be in the rings of the ark: they shall not be taken from it.

25:16 And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee.

25:17 And thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.

25:18 And thou shalt make two cherubims of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat.

25:19 And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end: even of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubims on the two ends thereof.

25:20 And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubims be.

25:21 And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark; and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.

25:22 And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel.

25:23 Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood: two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.

25:24 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make thereto a crown of gold round about.

25:25 And thou shalt make unto it a border of an hand breadth round about, and thou shalt make a golden crown to the border thereof round about.

25:26 And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold, and put the rings in the four corners that are on the four feet thereof.

25:27 Over against the border shall the rings be for places of the staves to bear the table.

25:28 And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold, that the table may be borne with them.

25:29 And thou shalt make the dishes thereof, and spoons thereof, and covers thereof, and bowls thereof, to cover withal: of pure gold shalt thou make them.

25:30 And thou shalt set upon the table shewbread before me alway.

25:31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same.

25:32 And six branches shall come out of the sides of it; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side: 25:33 Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick.

25:34 And in the candlesticks shall be four bowls made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers.

25:35 And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick.

25:36 Their knops and their branches shall be of the same: all it shall be one beaten work of pure gold.

25:37 And thou shalt make the seven lamps thereof: and they shall light the lamps thereof, that they may give light over against it.

25:38 And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of pure gold.

25:39 Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels.

25:40 And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was shewed thee in the mount.

26:1 Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubims of cunning work shalt thou make them.

26:2 The length of one curtain shall be eight and twenty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and every one of the curtains shall have one measure.

26:3 The five curtains shall be coupled together one to another; and other five curtains shall be coupled one to another.

26:4 And thou shalt make loops of blue upon the edge of the one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling; and likewise shalt thou make in the uttermost edge of another curtain, in the coupling of the second.

26:5 Fifty loops shalt thou make in the one curtain, and fifty loops shalt thou make in the edge of the curtain that is in the coupling of the second; that the loops may take hold one of another.

26:6 And thou shalt make fifty taches of gold, and couple the curtains together with the taches: and it shall be one tabernacle.

26:7 And thou shalt make curtains of goats' hair to be a covering upon the tabernacle: eleven curtains shalt thou make.

26:8 The length of one curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and the eleven curtains shall be all of one measure.

26:9 And thou shalt couple five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves, and shalt double the sixth curtain in the forefront of the tabernacle.

26:10 And thou shalt make fifty loops on the edge of the one curtain that is outmost in the coupling, and fifty loops in the edge of the curtain which coupleth the second.

26:11 And thou shalt make fifty taches of brass, and put the taches into the loops, and couple the tent together, that it may be one.

26:12 And the remnant that remaineth of the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that remaineth, shall hang over the backside of the tabernacle.

26:13 And a cubit on the one side, and a cubit on the other side of that which remaineth in the length of the curtains of the tent, it shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle on this side and on that side, to cover it.

26:14 And thou shalt make a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering above of badgers' skins.

26:15 And thou shalt make boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood standing up.

26:16 Ten cubits shall be the length of a board, and a cubit and a half shall be the breadth of one board.

26:17 Two tenons shall there be in one board, set in order one against another: thus shalt thou make for all the boards of the tabernacle.

26:18 And thou shalt make the boards for the tabernacle, twenty boards on the south side southward.

26:19 And thou shalt make forty sockets of silver under the twenty boards; two sockets under one board for his two tenons, and two sockets under another board for his two tenons.

26:20 And for the second side of the tabernacle on the north side there shall be twenty boards: 26:21 And their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board.

26:22 And for the sides of the tabernacle westward thou shalt make six boards.

26:23 And two boards shalt thou make for the corners of the tabernacle in the two sides.

26:24 And they shall be coupled together beneath, and they shall be coupled together above the head of it unto one ring: thus shall it be for them both; they shall be for the two corners.

26:25 And they shall be eight boards, and their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board.

26:26 And thou shalt make bars of shittim wood; five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle, 26:27 And five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the side of the tabernacle, for the two sides westward.

26:28 And the middle bar in the midst of the boards shall reach from end to end.

26:29 And thou shalt overlay the boards with gold, and make their rings of gold for places for the bars: and thou shalt overlay the bars with gold.

26:30 And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle according to the fashion thereof which was shewed thee in the mount.

26:31 And thou shalt make a vail of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning work: with cherubims shall it be made: 26:32 And thou shalt hang it upon four pillars of shittim wood overlaid with gold: their hooks shall be of gold, upon the four sockets of silver.

26:33 And thou shalt hang up the vail under the taches, that thou mayest bring in thither within the vail the ark of the testimony: and the vail shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most holy.

26:34 And thou shalt put the mercy seat upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy place.

26:35 And thou shalt set the table without the vail, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south: and thou shalt put the table on the north side.

26:36 And thou shalt make an hanging for the door of the tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with needlework.

26:37 And thou shalt make for the hanging five pillars of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold, and their hooks shall be of gold: and thou shalt cast five sockets of brass for them.

27:1 And thou shalt make an altar of shittim wood, five cubits long, and five cubits broad; the altar shall be foursquare: and the height thereof shall be three cubits.

27:2 And thou shalt make the horns of it upon the four corners thereof: his horns shall be of the same: and thou shalt overlay it with brass.

27:3 And thou shalt make his pans to receive his ashes, and his shovels, and his basons, and his fleshhooks, and his firepans: all the vessels thereof thou shalt make of brass.

27:4 And thou shalt make for it a grate of network of brass; and upon the net shalt thou make four brasen rings in the four corners thereof.

27:5 And thou shalt put it under the compass of the altar beneath, that the net may be even to the midst of the altar.

27:6 And thou shalt make staves for the altar, staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with brass.

27:7 And the staves shall be put into the rings, and the staves shall be upon the two sides of the altar, to bear it.

27:8 Hollow with boards shalt thou make it: as it was shewed thee in the mount, so shall they make it.

27:9 And thou shalt make the court of the tabernacle: for the south side southward there shall be hangings for the court of fine twined linen of an hundred cubits long for one side: 27:10 And the twenty pillars thereof and their twenty sockets shall be of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver.

27:11 And likewise for the north side in length there shall be hangings of an hundred cubits long, and his twenty pillars and their twenty sockets of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver.

27:12 And for the breadth of the court on the west side shall be hangings of fifty cubits: their pillars ten, and their sockets ten.

27:13 And the breadth of the court on the east side eastward shall be fifty cubits.

27:14 The hangings of one side of the gate shall be fifteen cubits: their pillars three, and their sockets three.

27:15 And on the other side shall be hangings fifteen cubits: their pillars three, and their sockets three.

27:16 And for the gate of the court shall be an hanging of twenty cubits, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with needlework: and their pillars shall be four, and their sockets four.

27:17 All the pillars round about the court shall be filleted with silver; their hooks shall be of silver, and their sockets of brass.

27:18 The length of the court shall be an hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty every where, and the height five cubits of fine twined linen, and their sockets of brass.

27:19 All the vessels of the tabernacle in all the service thereof, and all the pins thereof, and all the pins of the court, shall be of brass.

27:20 And thou shalt command the children of Israel, that they bring thee pure oil olive beaten for the light, to cause the lamp to burn always.

27:21 In the tabernacle of the congregation without the vail, which is before the testimony, Aaron and his sons shall order it from evening to morning before the LORD: it shall be a statute for ever unto their generations on the behalf of the children of Israel.

28:1 And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.

28:2 And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty.

28:3 And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

28:4 And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

28:5 And they shall take gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen.

28:6 And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work.

28:7 It shall have the two shoulderpieces thereof joined at the two edges thereof; and so it shall be joined together.

28:8 And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it, shall be of the same, according to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.

28:9 And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names of the children of Israel: 28:10 Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the rest on the other stone, according to their birth.

28:11 With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel: thou shalt make them to be set in ouches of gold.

28:12 And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod for stones of memorial unto the children of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before the LORD upon his two shoulders for a memorial.

28:13 And thou shalt make ouches of gold; 28:14 And two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathen work shalt thou make them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches.

28:15 And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.

28:16 Foursquare it shall be being doubled; a span shall be the length thereof, and a span shall be the breadth thereof.

28:17 And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: this shall be the first row.

28:18 And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond.

28:19 And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst.

28:20 And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their inclosings.

28:21 And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names, like the engravings of a signet; every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes.

28:22 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains at the ends of wreathen work of pure gold.

28:23 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate.

28:24 And thou shalt put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the breastplate.

28:25 And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two ouches, and put them on the shoulderpieces of the ephod before it.

28:26 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the breastplate in the border thereof, which is in the side of the ephod inward.

28:27 And two other rings of gold thou shalt make, and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the curious girdle of the ephod.

28:28 And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be above the curious girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod.

28:29 And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the LORD continually.

28:30 And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the LORD: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually.

28:31 And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue.

28:32 And there shall be an hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof: it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it, as it were the hole of an habergeon, that it be not rent.

28:33 And beneath upon the hem of it thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and bells of gold between them round about: 28:34 A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about.

28:35 And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the LORD, and when he cometh out, that he die not.

28:36 And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.

28:37 And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the mitre; upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be.

28:38 And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD.

28:39 And thou shalt embroider the coat of fine linen, and thou shalt make the mitre of fine linen, and thou shalt make the girdle of needlework.

28:40 And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for glory and for beauty.

28:41 And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.

28:42 And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach: 28:43 And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die: it shall be a statute for ever unto him and his seed after him.

29:1 And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow them, to minister unto me in the priest's office: Take one young bullock, and two rams without blemish, 29:2 And unleavened bread, and cakes unleavened tempered with oil, and wafers unleavened anointed with oil: of wheaten flour shalt thou make them.

29:3 And thou shalt put them into one basket, and bring them in the basket, with the bullock and the two rams.

29:4 And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash them with water.

29:5 And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the coat, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and gird him with the curious girdle of the ephod: 29:6 And thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and put the holy crown upon the mitre.

29:7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him.

29:8 And thou shalt bring his sons, and put coats upon them.

29:9 And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest's office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons.

29:10 And thou shalt cause a bullock to be brought before the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the bullock.

29:11 And thou shalt kill the bullock before the LORD, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

29:12 And thou shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with thy finger, and pour all the blood beside the bottom of the altar.

29:13 And thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul that is above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and burn them upon the altar.

29:14 But the flesh of the bullock, and his skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire without the camp: it is a sin offering.

29:15 Thou shalt also take one ram; and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the ram.

29:16 And thou shalt slay the ram, and thou shalt take his blood, and sprinkle it round about upon the altar.

29:17 And thou shalt cut the ram in pieces, and wash the inwards of him, and his legs, and put them unto his pieces, and unto his head.

29:18 And thou shalt burn the whole ram upon the altar: it is a burnt offering unto the LORD: it is a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

29:19 And thou shalt take the other ram; and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the ram.

29:20 Then shalt thou kill the ram, and take of his blood, and put it upon the tip of the right ear of Aaron, and upon the tip of the right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of their right foot, and sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about.

29:21 And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar, and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon the garments of his sons with him: and he shall be hallowed, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments with him.

29:22 Also thou shalt take of the ram the fat and the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder; for it is a ram of consecration: 29:23 And one loaf of bread, and one cake of oiled bread, and one wafer out of the basket of the unleavened bread that is before the LORD: 29:24 And thou shalt put all in the hands of Aaron, and in the hands of his sons; and shalt wave them for a wave offering before the LORD.

29:25 And thou shalt receive them of their hands, and burn them upon the altar for a burnt offering, for a sweet savour before the LORD: it is an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

29:26 And thou shalt take the breast of the ram of Aaron's consecration, and wave it for a wave offering before the LORD: and it shall be thy part.

29:27 And thou shalt sanctify the breast of the wave offering, and the shoulder of the heave offering, which is waved, and which is heaved up, of the ram of the consecration, even of that which is for Aaron, and of that which is for his sons: 29:28 And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' by a statute for ever from the children of Israel: for it is an heave offering: and it shall be an heave offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace offerings, even their heave offering unto the LORD.

29:29 And the holy garments of Aaron shall be his sons' after him, to be anointed therein, and to be consecrated in them.

29:30 And that son that is priest in his stead shall put them on seven days, when he cometh into the tabernacle of the congregation to minister in the holy place.

29:31 And thou shalt take the ram of the consecration, and seethe his flesh in the holy place.

29:32 And Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram, and the bread that is in the basket by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

29:33 And they shall eat those things wherewith the atonement was made, to consecrate and to sanctify them: but a stranger shall not eat thereof, because they are holy.

29:34 And if ought of the flesh of the consecrations, or of the bread, remain unto the morning, then thou shalt burn the remainder with fire: it shall not be eaten, because it is holy.

29:35 And thus shalt thou do unto Aaron, and to his sons, according to all things which I have commanded thee: seven days shalt thou consecrate them.

29:36 And thou shalt offer every day a bullock for a sin offering for atonement: and thou shalt cleanse the altar, when thou hast made an atonement for it, and thou shalt anoint it, to sanctify it.

29:37 Seven days thou shalt make an atonement for the altar, and sanctify it; and it shall be an altar most holy: whatsoever toucheth the altar shall be holy.

29:38 Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar; two lambs of the first year day by day continually.

29:39 The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning; and the other lamb thou shalt offer at even: 29:40 And with the one lamb a tenth deal of flour mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil; and the fourth part of an hin of wine for a drink offering.

29:41 And the other lamb thou shalt offer at even, and shalt do thereto according to the meat offering of the morning, and according to the drink offering thereof, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

29:42 This shall be a continual burnt offering throughout your generations at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD: where I will meet you, to speak there unto thee.

29:43 And there I will meet with the children of Israel, and the tabernacle shall be sanctified by my glory.

29:44 And I will sanctify the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar: I will sanctify also both Aaron and his sons, to minister to me in the priest's office.

29:45 And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be their God.

29:46 And they shall know that I am the LORD their God, that brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I may dwell among them: I am the LORD their God.

30:1 And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon: of shittim wood shalt thou make it.

30:2 A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be: and two cubits shall be the height thereof: the horns thereof shall be of the same.

30:3 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold round about.

30:4 And two golden rings shalt thou make to it under the crown of it, by the two corners thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou make it; and they shall be for places for the staves to bear it withal.

30:5 And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold.

30:6 And thou shalt put it before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee.

30:7 And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense every morning: when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it.

30:8 And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at even, he shall burn incense upon it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations.

30:9 Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt sacrifice, nor meat offering; neither shall ye pour drink offering thereon.

30:10 And Aaron shall make an atonement upon the horns of it once in a year with the blood of the sin offering of atonements: once in the year shall he make atonement upon it throughout your generations: it is most holy unto the LORD.

30:11 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 30:12 When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel after their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the LORD, when thou numberest them; that there be no plague among them, when thou numberest them.

30:13 This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary: (a shekel is twenty gerahs:) an half shekel shall be the offering of the LORD.

30:14 Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, from twenty years old and above, shall give an offering unto the LORD.

30:15 The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less than half a shekel, when they give an offering unto the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls.

30:16 And thou shalt take the atonement money of the children of Israel, and shalt appoint it for the service of the tabernacle of the congregation; that it may be a memorial unto the children of Israel before the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls.

30:17 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 30:18 Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and his foot also of brass, to wash withal: and thou shalt put it between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein.

30:19 For Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat: 30:20 When they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn offering made by fire unto the LORD: 30:21 So they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not: and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations.

30:22 Moreover the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 30:23 Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels, 30:24 And of cassia five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil olive an hin: 30:25 And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

30:26 And thou shalt anoint the tabernacle of the congregation therewith, and the ark of the testimony, 30:27 And the table and all his vessels, and the candlestick and his vessels, and the altar of incense, 30:28 And the altar of burnt offering with all his vessels, and the laver and his foot.

30:29 And thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be most holy: whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy.

30:30 And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.

30:31 And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, This shall be an holy anointing oil unto me throughout your generations.

30:32 Upon man's flesh shall it not be poured, neither shall ye make any other like it, after the composition of it: it is holy, and it shall be holy unto you.

30:33 Whosoever compoundeth any like it, or whosoever putteth any of it upon a stranger, shall even be cut off from his people.

30:34 And the LORD said unto Moses, Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense: of each shall there be a like weight: 30:35 And thou shalt make it a perfume, a confection after the art of the apothecary, tempered together, pure and holy: 30:36 And thou shalt beat some of it very small, and put of it before the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will meet with thee: it shall be unto you most holy.

30:37 And as for the perfume which thou shalt make, ye shall not make to yourselves according to the composition thereof: it shall be unto thee holy for the LORD.

30:38 Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereto, shall even be cut off from his people.

31:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 31:2 See, I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah: 31:3 And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship, 31:4 To devise cunning works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, 31:5 And in cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of timber, to work in all manner of workmanship.

31:6 And I, behold, I have given with him Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan: and in the hearts of all that are wise hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee; 31:7 The tabernacle of the congregation, and the ark of the testimony, and the mercy seat that is thereupon, and all the furniture of the tabernacle, 31:8 And the table and his furniture, and the pure candlestick with all his furniture, and the altar of incense, 31:9 And the altar of burnt offering with all his furniture, and the laver and his foot, 31:10 And the cloths of service, and the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's office, 31:11 And the anointing oil, and sweet incense for the holy place: according to all that I have commanded thee shall they do.

31:12 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 31:13 Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the LORD that doth sanctify you.

31:14 Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore; for it is holy unto you: every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death: for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people.

31:15 Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the LORD: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.

31:16 Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.

31:17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.

31:18 And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of communing with him upon mount Sinai, two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God.

32:1 And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down out of the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Up, make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.

32:2 And Aaron said unto them, Break off the golden earrings, which are in the ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring them unto me.

32:3 And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron.

32:4 And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.

32:5 And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation, and said, To morrow is a feast to the LORD.

32:6 And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play.

32:7 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go, get thee down; for thy people, which thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves: 32:8 They have turned aside quickly out of the way which I commanded them: they have made them a molten calf, and have worshipped it, and have sacrificed thereunto, and said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which have brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.

32:9 And the LORD said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people: 32:10 Now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of thee a great nation.

32:11 And Moses besought the LORD his God, and said, LORD, why doth thy wrath wax hot against thy people, which thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power, and with a mighty hand? 32:12 Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, and say, For mischief did he bring them out, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth? Turn from thy fierce wrath, and repent of this evil against thy people.

32:13 Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, thy servants, to whom thou swarest by thine own self, and saidst unto them, I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it for ever.

32:14 And the LORD repented of the evil which he thought to do unto his people.

32:15 And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand: the tables were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written.

32:16 And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables.

32:17 And when Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted, he said unto Moses, There is a noise of war in the camp.

32:18 And he said, It is not the voice of them that shout for mastery, neither is it the voice of them that cry for being overcome: but the noise of them that sing do I hear.

32:19 And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount.

32:20 And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strawed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it.

32:21 And Moses said unto Aaron, What did this people unto thee, that thou hast brought so great a sin upon them? 32:22 And Aaron said, Let not the anger of my lord wax hot: thou knowest the people, that they are set on mischief.

32:23 For they said unto me, Make us gods, which shall go before us: for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.

32:24 And I said unto them, Whosoever hath any gold, let them break it off. So they gave it me: then I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf.

32:25 And when Moses saw that the people were naked; (for Aaron had made them naked unto their shame among their enemies:) 32:26 Then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, Who is on the LORD's side? let him come unto me. And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him.

32:27 And he said unto them, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Put every man his sword by his side, and go in and out from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour.

32:28 And the children of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men.

32:29 For Moses had said, Consecrate yourselves today to the LORD, even every man upon his son, and upon his brother; that he may bestow upon you a blessing this day.

32:30 And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin: and now I will go up unto the LORD; peradventure I shall make an atonement for your sin.

32:31 And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said, Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made them gods of gold.

32:32 Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their sin--; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of thy book which thou hast written.

32:33 And the LORD said unto Moses, Whosoever hath sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book.

32:34 Therefore now go, lead the people unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee: behold, mine Angel shall go before thee: nevertheless in the day when I visit I will visit their sin upon them.

32:35 And the LORD plagued the people, because they made the calf, which Aaron made.

33:1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Depart, and go up hence, thou and the people which thou hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, Unto thy seed will I give it: 33:2 And I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite: 33:3 Unto a land flowing with milk and honey: for I will not go up in the midst of thee; for thou art a stiffnecked people: lest I consume thee in the way.

33:4 And when the people heard these evil tidings, they mourned: and no man did put on him his ornaments.

33:5 For the LORD had said unto Moses, Say unto the children of Israel, Ye are a stiffnecked people: I will come up into the midst of thee in a moment, and consume thee: therefore now put off thy ornaments from thee, that I may know what to do unto thee.

33:6 And the children of Israel stripped themselves of their ornaments by the mount Horeb.

33:7 And Moses took the tabernacle, and pitched it without the camp, afar off from the camp, and called it the Tabernacle of the congregation. And it came to pass, that every one which sought the LORD went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation, which was without the camp.

33:8 And it came to pass, when Moses went out unto the tabernacle, that all the people rose up, and stood every man at his tent door, and looked after Moses, until he was gone into the tabernacle.

33:9 And it came to pass, as Moses entered into the tabernacle, the cloudy pillar descended, and stood at the door of the tabernacle, and the Lord talked with Moses.

33:10 And all the people saw the cloudy pillar stand at the tabernacle door: and all the people rose up and worshipped, every man in his tent door.

33:11 And the LORD spake unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. And he turned again into the camp: but his servant Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the tabernacle.

33:12 And Moses said unto the LORD, See, thou sayest unto me, Bring up this people: and thou hast not let me know whom thou wilt send with me. Yet thou hast said, I know thee by name, and thou hast also found grace in my sight.

33:13 Now therefore, I pray thee, if I have found grace in thy sight, shew me now thy way, that I may know thee, that I may find grace in thy sight: and consider that this nation is thy people.

33:14 And he said, My presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest.

33:15 And he said unto him, If thy presence go not with me, carry us not up hence.

33:16 For wherein shall it be known here that I and thy people have found grace in thy sight? is it not in that thou goest with us? so shall we be separated, I and thy people, from all the people that are upon the face of the earth.

33:17 And the LORD said unto Moses, I will do this thing also that thou hast spoken: for thou hast found grace in my sight, and I know thee by name.

33:18 And he said, I beseech thee, shew me thy glory.

33:19 And he said, I will make all my goodness pass before thee, and I will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will shew mercy on whom I will shew mercy.

33:20 And he said, Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live.

33:21 And the LORD said, Behold, there is a place by me, and thou shalt stand upon a rock: 33:22 And it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a clift of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by: 33:23 And I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt see my back parts: but my face shall not be seen.

34:1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest.

34:2 And be ready in the morning, and come up in the morning unto mount Sinai, and present thyself there to me in the top of the mount.

34:3 And no man shall come up with thee, neither let any man be seen throughout all the mount; neither let the flocks nor herds feed before that mount.

34:4 And he hewed two tables of stone like unto the first; and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto mount Sinai, as the LORD had commanded him, and took in his hand the two tables of stone.

34:5 And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD.

34:6 And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, 34:7 Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation.

34:8 And Moses made haste, and bowed his head toward the earth, and worshipped.

34:9 And he said, If now I have found grace in thy sight, O LORD, let my LORD, I pray thee, go among us; for it is a stiffnecked people; and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for thine inheritance.

34:10 And he said, Behold, I make a covenant: before all thy people I will do marvels, such as have not been done in all the earth, nor in any nation: and all the people among which thou art shall see the work of the LORD: for it is a terrible thing that I will do with thee.

34:11 Observe thou that which I command thee this day: behold, I drive out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.

34:12 Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest it be for a snare in the midst of thee: 34:13 But ye shall destroy their altars, break their images, and cut down their groves: 34:14 For thou shalt worship no other god: for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God: 34:15 Lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they go a whoring after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice; 34:16 And thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go a whoring after their gods, and make thy sons go a whoring after their gods.

34:17 Thou shalt make thee no molten gods.

34:18 The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.

34:19 All that openeth the matrix is mine; and every firstling among thy cattle, whether ox or sheep, that is male.

34:20 But the firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb: and if thou redeem him not, then shalt thou break his neck. All the firstborn of thy sons thou shalt redeem. And none shall appear before me empty.

34:21 Six days thou shalt work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest: in earing time and in harvest thou shalt rest.

34:22 And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year's end.

34:23 Thrice in the year shall all your menchildren appear before the LORD God, the God of Israel.

34:24 For I will cast out the nations before thee, and enlarge thy borders: neither shall any man desire thy land, when thou shalt go up to appear before the LORD thy God thrice in the year.

34:25 Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven; neither shall the sacrifice of the feast of the passover be left unto the morning.

34:26 The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.

34:27 And the LORD said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel.

34:28 And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.

34:29 And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him.

34:30 And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come nigh him.

34:31 And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him: and Moses talked with them.

34:32 And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh: and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai.

34:33 And till Moses had done speaking with them, he put a vail on his face.

34:34 But when Moses went in before the LORD to speak with him, he took the vail off, until he came out. And he came out, and spake unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded.

34:35 And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses' face shone: and Moses put the vail upon his face again, until he went in to speak with him.

35:1 And Moses gathered all the congregation of the children of Israel together, and said unto them, These are the words which the LORD hath commanded, that ye should do them.

35:2 Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you an holy day, a sabbath of rest to the LORD: whosoever doeth work therein shall be put to death.

35:3 Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the sabbath day.

35:4 And Moses spake unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying, This is the thing which the LORD commanded, saying, 35:5 Take ye from among you an offering unto the LORD: whosoever is of a willing heart, let him bring it, an offering of the LORD; gold, and silver, and brass, 35:6 And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair, 35:7 And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim wood, 35:8 And oil for the light, and spices for anointing oil, and for the sweet incense, 35:9 And onyx stones, and stones to be set for the ephod, and for the breastplate.

35:10 And every wise hearted among you shall come, and make all that the LORD hath commanded; 35:11 The tabernacle, his tent, and his covering, his taches, and his boards, his bars, his pillars, and his sockets, 35:12 The ark, and the staves thereof, with the mercy seat, and the vail of the covering, 35:13 The table, and his staves, and all his vessels, and the shewbread, 35:14 The candlestick also for the light, and his furniture, and his lamps, with the oil for the light, 35:15 And the incense altar, and his staves, and the anointing oil, and the sweet incense, and the hanging for the door at the entering in of the tabernacle, 35:16 The altar of burnt offering, with his brasen grate, his staves, and all his vessels, the laver and his foot, 35:17 The hangings of the court, his pillars, and their sockets, and the hanging for the door of the court, 35:18 The pins of the tabernacle, and the pins of the court, and their cords, 35:19 The cloths of service, to do service in the holy place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's office.

35:20 And all the congregation of the children of Israel departed from the presence of Moses.

35:21 And they came, every one whose heart stirred him up, and every one whom his spirit made willing, and they brought the LORD's offering to the work of the tabernacle of the congregation, and for all his service, and for the holy garments.

35:22 And they came, both men and women, as many as were willing hearted, and brought bracelets, and earrings, and rings, and tablets, all jewels of gold: and every man that offered offered an offering of gold unto the LORD.

35:23 And every man, with whom was found blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair, and red skins of rams, and badgers' skins, brought them.

35:24 Every one that did offer an offering of silver and brass brought the LORD's offering: and every man, with whom was found shittim wood for any work of the service, brought it.

35:25 And all the women that were wise hearted did spin with their hands, and brought that which they had spun, both of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine linen.

35:26 And all the women whose heart stirred them up in wisdom spun goats' hair.

35:27 And the rulers brought onyx stones, and stones to be set, for the ephod, and for the breastplate; 35:28 And spice, and oil for the light, and for the anointing oil, and for the sweet incense.

35:29 The children of Israel brought a willing offering unto the LORD, every man and woman, whose heart made them willing to bring for all manner of work, which the LORD had commanded to be made by the hand of Moses.

35:30 And Moses said unto the children of Israel, See, the LORD hath called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah; 35:31 And he hath filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship; 35:32 And to devise curious works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, 35:33 And in the cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of wood, to make any manner of cunning work.

35:34 And he hath put in his heart that he may teach, both he, and Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan.

35:35 Them hath he filled with wisdom of heart, to work all manner of work, of the engraver, and of the cunning workman, and of the embroiderer, in blue, and in purple, in scarlet, and in fine linen, and of the weaver, even of them that do any work, and of those that devise cunning work.

36:1 Then wrought Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wise hearted man, in whom the LORD put wisdom and understanding to know how to work all manner of work for the service of the sanctuary, according to all that the LORD had commanded.

36:2 And Moses called Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wise hearted man, in whose heart the LORD had put wisdom, even every one whose heart stirred him up to come unto the work to do it: 36:3 And they received of Moses all the offering, which the children of Israel had brought for the work of the service of the sanctuary, to make it withal. And they brought yet unto him free offerings every morning.

36:4 And all the wise men, that wrought all the work of the sanctuary, came every man from his work which they made; 36:5 And they spake unto Moses, saying, The people bring much more than enough for the service of the work, which the LORD commanded to make.

36:6 And Moses gave commandment, and they caused it to be proclaimed throughout the camp, saying, Let neither man nor woman make any more work for the offering of the sanctuary. So the people were restrained from bringing.

36:7 For the stuff they had was sufficient for all the work to make it, and too much.

36:8 And every wise hearted man among them that wrought the work of the tabernacle made ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubims of cunning work made he them.

36:9 The length of one curtain was twenty and eight cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: the curtains were all of one size.

36:10 And he coupled the five curtains one unto another: and the other five curtains he coupled one unto another.

36:11 And he made loops of blue on the edge of one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling: likewise he made in the uttermost side of another curtain, in the coupling of the second.

36:12 Fifty loops made he in one curtain, and fifty loops made he in the edge of the curtain which was in the coupling of the second: the loops held one curtain to another.

36:13 And he made fifty taches of gold, and coupled the curtains one unto another with the taches: so it became one tabernacle.

36:14 And he made curtains of goats' hair for the tent over the tabernacle: eleven curtains he made them.

36:15 The length of one curtain was thirty cubits, and four cubits was the breadth of one curtain: the eleven curtains were of one size.

36:16 And he coupled five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves.

36:17 And he made fifty loops upon the uttermost edge of the curtain in the coupling, and fifty loops made he upon the edge of the curtain which coupleth the second.

36:18 And he made fifty taches of brass to couple the tent together, that it might be one.

36:19 And he made a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering of badgers' skins above that.

36:20 And he made boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood, standing up.

36:21 The length of a board was ten cubits, and the breadth of a board one cubit and a half.

36:22 One board had two tenons, equally distant one from another: thus did he make for all the boards of the tabernacle.

36:23 And he made boards for the tabernacle; twenty boards for the south side southward: 36:24 And forty sockets of silver he made under the twenty boards; two sockets under one board for his two tenons, and two sockets under another board for his two tenons.

36:25 And for the other side of the tabernacle, which is toward the north corner, he made twenty boards, 36:26 And their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board.

36:27 And for the sides of the tabernacle westward he made six boards.

36:28 And two boards made he for the corners of the tabernacle in the two sides.

36:29 And they were coupled beneath, and coupled together at the head thereof, to one ring: thus he did to both of them in both the corners.

36:30 And there were eight boards; and their sockets were sixteen sockets of silver, under every board two sockets.

36:31 And he made bars of shittim wood; five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle, 36:32 And five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the tabernacle for the sides westward.

36:33 And he made the middle bar to shoot through the boards from the one end to the other.

36:34 And he overlaid the boards with gold, and made their rings of gold to be places for the bars, and overlaid the bars with gold.

36:35 And he made a vail of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: with cherubims made he it of cunning work.

36:36 And he made thereunto four pillars of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold: their hooks were of gold; and he cast for them four sockets of silver.

36:37 And he made an hanging for the tabernacle door of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, of needlework; 36:38 And the five pillars of it with their hooks: and he overlaid their chapiters and their fillets with gold: but their five sockets were of brass.

37:1 And Bezaleel made the ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a half was the length of it, and a cubit and a half the breadth of it, and a cubit and a half the height of it: 37:2 And he overlaid it with pure gold within and without, and made a crown of gold to it round about.

37:3 And he cast for it four rings of gold, to be set by the four corners of it; even two rings upon the one side of it, and two rings upon the other side of it.

37:4 And he made staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold.

37:5 And he put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, to bear the ark.

37:6 And he made the mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half was the length thereof, and one cubit and a half the breadth thereof.

37:7 And he made two cherubims of gold, beaten out of one piece made he them, on the two ends of the mercy seat; 37:8 One cherub on the end on this side, and another cherub on the other end on that side: out of the mercy seat made he the cherubims on the two ends thereof.

37:9 And the cherubims spread out their wings on high, and covered with their wings over the mercy seat, with their faces one to another; even to the mercy seatward were the faces of the cherubims.

37:10 And he made the table of shittim wood: two cubits was the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof: 37:11 And he overlaid it with pure gold, and made thereunto a crown of gold round about.

37:12 Also he made thereunto a border of an handbreadth round about; and made a crown of gold for the border thereof round about.

37:13 And he cast for it four rings of gold, and put the rings upon the four corners that were in the four feet thereof.

37:14 Over against the border were the rings, the places for the staves to bear the table.

37:15 And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold, to bear the table.

37:16 And he made the vessels which were upon the table, his dishes, and his spoons, and his bowls, and his covers to cover withal, of pure gold.

37:17 And he made the candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work made he the candlestick; his shaft, and his branch, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, were of the same: 37:18 And six branches going out of the sides thereof; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side thereof: 37:19 Three bowls made after the fashion of almonds in one branch, a knop and a flower; and three bowls made like almonds in another branch, a knop and a flower: so throughout the six branches going out of the candlestick.

37:20 And in the candlestick were four bowls made like almonds, his knops, and his flowers: 37:21 And a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches going out of it.

37:22 Their knops and their branches were of the same: all of it was one beaten work of pure gold.

37:23 And he made his seven lamps, and his snuffers, and his snuffdishes, of pure gold.

37:24 Of a talent of pure gold made he it, and all the vessels thereof.

37:25 And he made the incense altar of shittim wood: the length of it was a cubit, and the breadth of it a cubit; it was foursquare; and two cubits was the height of it; the horns thereof were of the same.

37:26 And he overlaid it with pure gold, both the top of it, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns of it: also he made unto it a crown of gold round about.

37:27 And he made two rings of gold for it under the crown thereof, by the two corners of it, upon the two sides thereof, to be places for the staves to bear it withal.

37:28 And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold.

37:29 And he made the holy anointing oil, and the pure incense of sweet spices, according to the work of the apothecary.

38:1 And he made the altar of burnt offering of shittim wood: five cubits was the length thereof, and five cubits the breadth thereof; it was foursquare; and three cubits the height thereof.

38:2 And he made the horns thereof on the four corners of it; the horns thereof were of the same: and he overlaid it with brass.

38:3 And he made all the vessels of the altar, the pots, and the shovels, and the basons, and the fleshhooks, and the firepans: all the vessels thereof made he of brass.

38:4 And he made for the altar a brasen grate of network under the compass thereof beneath unto the midst of it.

38:5 And he cast four rings for the four ends of the grate of brass, to be places for the staves.

38:6 And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with brass.

38:7 And he put the staves into the rings on the sides of the altar, to bear it withal; he made the altar hollow with boards.

38:8 And he made the laver of brass, and the foot of it of brass, of the lookingglasses of the women assembling, which assembled at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

38:9 And he made the court: on the south side southward the hangings of the court were of fine twined linen, an hundred cubits: 38:10 Their pillars were twenty, and their brasen sockets twenty; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets were of silver.

38:11 And for the north side the hangings were an hundred cubits, their pillars were twenty, and their sockets of brass twenty; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver.

38:12 And for the west side were hangings of fifty cubits, their pillars ten, and their sockets ten; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver.

38:13 And for the east side eastward fifty cubits.

38:14 The hangings of the one side of the gate were fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and their sockets three.

38:15 And for the other side of the court gate, on this hand and that hand, were hangings of fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and their sockets three.

38:16 All the hangings of the court round about were of fine twined linen.

38:17 And the sockets for the pillars were of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver; and the overlaying of their chapiters of silver; and all the pillars of the court were filleted with silver.

38:18 And the hanging for the gate of the court was needlework, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: and twenty cubits was the length, and the height in the breadth was five cubits, answerable to the hangings of the court.

38:19 And their pillars were four, and their sockets of brass four; their hooks of silver, and the overlaying of their chapiters and their fillets of silver.

38:20 And all the pins of the tabernacle, and of the court round about, were of brass.

38:21 This is the sum of the tabernacle, even of the tabernacle of testimony, as it was counted, according to the commandment of Moses, for the service of the Levites, by the hand of Ithamar, son to Aaron the priest.

38:22 And Bezaleel the son Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that the LORD commanded Moses.

38:23 And with him was Aholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, an engraver, and a cunning workman, and an embroiderer in blue, and in purple, and in scarlet, and fine linen.

38:24 All the gold that was occupied for the work in all the work of the holy place, even the gold of the offering, was twenty and nine talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary.

38:25 And the silver of them that were numbered of the congregation was an hundred talents, and a thousand seven hundred and threescore and fifteen shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary: 38:26 A bekah for every man, that is, half a shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for every one that went to be numbered, from twenty years old and upward, for six hundred thousand and three thousand and five hundred and fifty men.

38:27 And of the hundred talents of silver were cast the sockets of the sanctuary, and the sockets of the vail; an hundred sockets of the hundred talents, a talent for a socket.

38:28 And of the thousand seven hundred seventy and five shekels he made hooks for the pillars, and overlaid their chapiters, and filleted them.

38:29 And the brass of the offering was seventy talents, and two thousand and four hundred shekels.

38:30 And therewith he made the sockets to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and the brasen altar, and the brasen grate for it, and all the vessels of the altar, 38:31 And the sockets of the court round about, and the sockets of the court gate, and all the pins of the tabernacle, and all the pins of the court round about.

39:1 And of the blue, and purple, and scarlet, they made cloths of service, to do service in the holy place, and made the holy garments for Aaron; as the LORD commanded Moses.

39:2 And he made the ephod of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.

39:3 And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires, to work it in the blue, and in the purple, and in the scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning work.

39:4 They made shoulderpieces for it, to couple it together: by the two edges was it coupled together.

39:5 And the curious girdle of his ephod, that was upon it, was of the same, according to the work thereof; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen; as the LORD commanded Moses.

39:6 And they wrought onyx stones inclosed in ouches of gold, graven, as signets are graven, with the names of the children of Israel.

39:7 And he put them on the shoulders of the ephod, that they should be stones for a memorial to the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses.

39:8 And he made the breastplate of cunning work, like the work of the ephod; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.

39:9 It was foursquare; they made the breastplate double: a span was the length thereof, and a span the breadth thereof, being doubled.

39:10 And they set in it four rows of stones: the first row was a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: this was the first row.

39:11 And the second row, an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond.

39:12 And the third row, a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst.

39:13 And the fourth row, a beryl, an onyx, and a jasper: they were inclosed in ouches of gold in their inclosings.

39:14 And the stones were according to the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names, like the engravings of a signet, every one with his name, according to the twelve tribes.

39:15 And they made upon the breastplate chains at the ends, of wreathen work of pure gold.

39:16 And they made two ouches of gold, and two gold rings; and put the two rings in the two ends of the breastplate.

39:17 And they put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings on the ends of the breastplate.

39:18 And the two ends of the two wreathen chains they fastened in the two ouches, and put them on the shoulderpieces of the ephod, before it.

39:19 And they made two rings of gold, and put them on the two ends of the breastplate, upon the border of it, which was on the side of the ephod inward.

39:20 And they made two other golden rings, and put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart of it, over against the other coupling thereof, above the curious girdle of the ephod.

39:21 And they did bind the breastplate by his rings unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it might be above the curious girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate might not be loosed from the ephod; as the LORD commanded Moses.

39:22 And he made the robe of the ephod of woven work, all of blue.

39:23 And there was an hole in the midst of the robe, as the hole of an habergeon, with a band round about the hole, that it should not rend.

39:24 And they made upon the hems of the robe pomegranates of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and twined linen.

39:25 And they made bells of pure gold, and put the bells between the pomegranates upon the hem of the robe, round about between the pomegranates; 39:26 A bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate, round about the hem of the robe to minister in; as the LORD commanded Moses.

39:27 And they made coats of fine linen of woven work for Aaron, and for his sons, 39:28 And a mitre of fine linen, and goodly bonnets of fine linen, and linen breeches of fine twined linen, 39:29 And a girdle of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, of needlework; as the LORD commanded Moses.

39:30 And they made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and wrote upon it a writing, like to the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.

39:31 And they tied unto it a lace of blue, to fasten it on high upon the mitre; as the LORD commanded Moses.

39:32 Thus was all the work of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation finished: and the children of Israel did according to all that the LORD commanded Moses, so did they.

39:33 And they brought the tabernacle unto Moses, the tent, and all his furniture, his taches, his boards, his bars, and his pillars, and his sockets, 39:34 And the covering of rams' skins dyed red, and the covering of badgers' skins, and the vail of the covering, 39:35 The ark of the testimony, and the staves thereof, and the mercy seat, 39:36 The table, and all the vessels thereof, and the shewbread, 39:37 The pure candlestick, with the lamps thereof, even with the lamps to be set in order, and all the vessels thereof, and the oil for light, 39:38 And the golden altar, and the anointing oil, and the sweet incense, and the hanging for the tabernacle door, 39:39 The brasen altar, and his grate of brass, his staves, and all his vessels, the laver and his foot, 39:40 The hangings of the court, his pillars, and his sockets, and the hanging for the court gate, his cords, and his pins, and all the vessels of the service of the tabernacle, for the tent of the congregation, 39:41 The cloths of service to do service in the holy place, and the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and his sons' garments, to minister in the priest's office.

39:42 According to all that the LORD commanded Moses, so the children of Israel made all the work.

39:43 And Moses did look upon all the work, and, behold, they had done it as the LORD had commanded, even so had they done it: and Moses blessed them.

40:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 40:2 On the first day of the first month shalt thou set up the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation.

40:3 And thou shalt put therein the ark of the testimony, and cover the ark with the vail.

40:4 And thou shalt bring in the table, and set in order the things that are to be set in order upon it; and thou shalt bring in the candlestick, and light the lamps thereof.

40:5 And thou shalt set the altar of gold for the incense before the ark of the testimony, and put the hanging of the door to the tabernacle.

40:6 And thou shalt set the altar of the burnt offering before the door of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation.

40:7 And thou shalt set the laver between the tent of the congregation and the altar, and shalt put water therein.

40:8 And thou shalt set up the court round about, and hang up the hanging at the court gate.

40:9 And thou shalt take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is therein, and shalt hallow it, and all the vessels thereof: and it shall be holy.

40:10 And thou shalt anoint the altar of the burnt offering, and all his vessels, and sanctify the altar: and it shall be an altar most holy.

40:11 And thou shalt anoint the laver and his foot, and sanctify it.

40:12 And thou shalt bring Aaron and his sons unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and wash them with water.

40:13 And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments, and anoint him, and sanctify him; that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

40:14 And thou shalt bring his sons, and clothe them with coats: 40:15 And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office: for their anointing shall surely be an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations.

40:16 Thus did Moses: according to all that the LORD commanded him, so did he.

40:17 And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the tabernacle was reared up.

40:18 And Moses reared up the tabernacle, and fastened his sockets, and set up the boards thereof, and put in the bars thereof, and reared up his pillars.

40:19 And he spread abroad the tent over the tabernacle, and put the covering of the tent above upon it; as the LORD commanded Moses.

40:20 And he took and put the testimony into the ark, and set the staves on the ark, and put the mercy seat above upon the ark: 40:21 And he brought the ark into the tabernacle, and set up the vail of the covering, and covered the ark of the testimony; as the LORD commanded Moses.

40:22 And he put the table in the tent of the congregation, upon the side of the tabernacle northward, without the vail.

40:23 And he set the bread in order upon it before the LORD; as the LORD had commanded Moses.

40:24 And he put the candlestick in the tent of the congregation, over against the table, on the side of the tabernacle southward.

40:25 And he lighted the lamps before the LORD; as the LORD commanded Moses.

40:26 And he put the golden altar in the tent of the congregation before the vail: 40:27 And he burnt sweet incense thereon; as the LORD commanded Moses.

40:28 And he set up the hanging at the door of the tabernacle.

40:29 And he put the altar of burnt offering by the door of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation, and offered upon it the burnt offering and the meat offering; as the LORD commanded Moses.

40:30 And he set the laver between the tent of the congregation and the altar, and put water there, to wash withal.

40:31 And Moses and Aaron and his sons washed their hands and their feet thereat: 40:32 When they went into the tent of the congregation, and when they came near unto the altar, they washed; as the LORD commanded Moses.

40:33 And he reared up the court round about the tabernacle and the altar, and set up the hanging of the court gate. So Moses finished the work.

40:34 Then a cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.

40:35 And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of the congregation, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.

40:36 And when the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the children of Israel went onward in all their journeys: 40:37 But if the cloud were not taken up, then they journeyed not till the day that it was taken up.

40:38 For the cloud of the LORD was upon the tabernacle by day, and fire was on it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Daqvid Alkire Smith said...

I agree with alacaujun except real names should be used.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Captin of Industry said...

1

July 2, 1991

TRANSCRIPTION (QDC)

Admiral Tool Co.
Interviews with: John Litgen, Tool Manager, Wayne Avers, Engineering Mgr.
Ken Duffy, Mfg. Manager, Ernie Levine, President Danley Co.
Interviews with: Thomas B.Schafer, Attorney, Anthony Rante,Mgr. Mech.Engrg.
Ronald J. Votava, Chief Press Engineer
(John Litgen, Tool Manager)
Electronic die protection over the last few years has really taken some gigantic leaps as everything has with the new computerization and everything. One of the biggest aids to the tool electronic die protection does is to eliminate the damage from misfeeds. There's different sensors in die protection that can be placed within the tooling to keep a tool from recycling when the stock is out of register, or in other words, eliminate the misfeeds.
I haven't done any scientific study on it but I would think that more than fifty percent of our tool wear comes from misfeeds and mis-hits. The type of maintenance that we do on a tool from day to day - a good majority of it is from misfeeds. You have shear punches, you have die blocks that are broken, strippers that are bent, parts that need welding and when you have this type of damage a repaired tool never has the integrity of a whole or a new tool that has not suffered from misfeeds. Misfeeds can cause all types of damage throughout the tool everything from the die set all the way down to the individual components including springs, perforators, bushings.

Electronic die protection used properly all but eliminates misfeeds. You still have to, during the setup operation, pay alot of close attention but there's different equipment malfunctions for which sensors can be placed to prevent misfeeds. Yes, I think over the last few years again with the new concepts and new types of sensors, we've seen a big reduction in die damage due to misfeeds.

Our tooling runs in the automotive stamping industry. We run alot of high volume progressive tooling. High volume progressive tooling is especially
2
sensitive to misfeeds in that pilots will get bent, the register will get
thrown off. When you have a misfeed alot of things in the tool you can have die breakage and as we discussed before, welding up something it's never the same as having the integrity of the whole block. Welds do not hold up well for forming, whether its forming or cutting edges. Beside the welded area, you can also have damage within the dowel pins, dowel pins shearing, dowel pins elongating holes making them oval. Dies, once you've sheared and thrown a dowel pin or bent it, never line up quite the way they did when they were new. The only solution to this is either go to new components or open up dowel pin holes, which is quite expensive when you're talking about hardened blocks.

We run both automotive and electronics. We run electronics for some of the top fifty companies, Fortune fifty companies, within the country who have very high quality standards. When you have a die smash up it not only affects the integrity of the tool but it also affects the integrity of the parts that you are producing. (start over)

When you have a problem in the tool part quality suffers dramatically. The whole idea behind quality and what our vendors are looking for is us to narrow our variation around the target. The target is secondary, but narrowing the variation, we have to reduce the variation and produce precision or be able to come up with the same part a thousand times, a hundred thousand times, a million times. What we're talking about when we talk about this type of stamping and the type of quality they are looking for now days we're not talking about whether a part is good or bad. There are parts that are good and there are parts that are better. There are parts that are best. You can go from one end of a tolerance to another, match up and we've all seen it where you have automobiles and one will last seven years and the other one will be in eight months out of the factory and not work properly. This again is a variation between parts. What we are striving to do with part quality is to produce all the parts around a given target value and reduce that variation between parts. The only way to do this is with good tooling and the die protection is a part of that tooling. As you destroy tools they lose their integrity.

3
Quick die change is again essential to tooling reliability. When we go back as we discussed before, the toughest part on a tool is to set up the tool. After it's running it runs in a mode where it's cruising along. It's the acceleration and the first few hits that are so critical to a tool. You could liken this to an aircraft taking off and landing. The aircraft that fly across country don't have near the maintenance that the aircraft from Chicago to Detroit have, landing and taking off. It's the same with tools. If you can get them up and running they cruise along and they cruise quite well. This is not where you get the wear and tear that beat up on the tool. It's the inital start up and the first few hits that are so critical, that you do them properly. Quick die change aids us in getting the first few hits off the press, like squaring off the die with the feed line, by giving us the shut height to start with. We can go ahead and take our bumper blocks or stop blocks as some people refer to them, set up (?) grooves, stay off of them with the punch holder, come down to agiven lead set where we know that the last run performed properly and start there as a benchmark and go from there with our fine adjustment and fine tuning. But we always have areference point to start with. Quick die change is good for this.

At any given point when you're talking about manufacturing a tool room is critical throughout. We like to think of it here as a team-type concept. It's not just the tool room that makes quick die change work. We've got quality issues, we deal with the quality department, we've got engineering issues in which the engineers help us and we've got production issues the production worker on the floor helps us with what we're doing. When we're talking about quick die change in the tool room and setting up the tools we get input from all these different areas. It's very useful. The man on the press knows alot about that tool and what's going on with it. I've worked with operators where they would slow down a press and stop and then call me out and say, John, something does not sound right. I'd look and I would find a little lifter sticking or something. The operator's been there for years, they know what's going on on the floor, you listen to them. In the tool room it's critical that we invest the time and we do a precision job one time and we do it right. We haven't got time to go around and try to fix what we've done already. We need to do it right one time. When you are talking about
4
quick die set change we're talking about the parallels, we're talking about the t-slots, the bolsters, it's a one-time shot - you do it right. We take our die set change and we take that quite seriously. It's not quite the precidsion that you talk about like a compound die with several perforators, building in and mounting it but yet there's is precision there involved. You can take this and use it as a very valuable training ground for apprentices. There is a degree of precision but yet when you mess up a parallel, you can toss it. You couldn't do that with a die block. It's a very good training ground for apprentices. We like to take and put in the hours to set up the dies for quick die change. We have a given goal which not unlike other goals are stretch goals, we don't quite make it but we make this goal and set it but the one important thing that we would like to see here is that there's continuous improvement and we're achieving that goal, we're working towards it. If there is a measurement that we can take that shows we're getting all of the dies set to quick die change, or moving towards that goal, I can show that I've done three today, seven last week, tomorrow I might do eighteen, two the next week as long as that doesn't stop and we progress forward the most important thing is to not let it stop. Inertia takes a bite then. Inertia will if you are stopped, you go ahead and you stay stopped and it gets comfortable to be stopped. You have to keep a program like this moving forward. You have to let upper management know that it's critical that you invest the hours it takes to do this. It's not something you can do overnight and when you are talking about a contract stamper and we may have four 600 dies on the floor, it's not gonna be done next week. Realistically it's not going to be next month, but a year down the road it ought to be far and few in between that we find a tool that's not set and ready for quick die change. The way to do this is to invest the manhours and we talk about quick die change, this is the second program that I've been involved in and it works out well. Its critical that you take and you let management know these are the number of hours I'd like to invest 60 hours, 80 hours a week towards this program. It's not a part time job. It never will be a part time job. It'll be fulltime. It'll be fulltime even in the future when you get tools finished. You have to take the time, you have to take the initiative to put somebody on it fulltime. It's not something that you necessarily have to keep the same man on all the time. But what I'm saying is when you make a
5
commitment you can say 40 hours a week is going towards die set quick change and you have to take that 40 hours and keep it going. The minute you take that forty hours and you siphon off a little bit here for a maintenance job on a press, or you siphon a little bit here for a quick sharpening it becomes easier and easier to siphon it off and again inertia factor. You'll sit there dead in the water, now it becomes comfortable and what's put behind you is easy to forget. You have to keep it moving forward.

Over the past few years being involved in QDC I've seen a lot of different methods. I appreciated when you see the big car manufacturers with their subplates and their stop blocks, I can appreciate those systems and how they work. One of the things I find though, that's pretty difficult when you're in a contract job is to come up with the standard on the die set. Even if you produce your own tools you've often got customers that ship in a tool from here or a tool from there, that maybe don't fit your standards and now you are talking about alot of subplates and a lot of extra material added on to a die. Quick change die set does not necessarily mean expense and more materials and throwing more weight on that tool. It's not required. What we are doing on our die sets is something that was worked on a few years ago. We use a centerline system. All our die sets are set off a centerline and I believe there are some distinct advantages over this over the exterior bumpers. The centerline accomplishes the same type of things plus gives you added benefits. The centerline will squareup and locate you die on proper location. The added benefits come that you can use any width die set, any width stock, and still use your centerline of the stock. When you are using a centerline you can have your press setup and ready to go before the stock even hits the floor. If you are working, take for instance a four inch stock width, now we set the die on the centerline and it's keyed into the centerline of our press. We use a key on the two end bolster...

(End Tape 1 side 1)

(Begin Tape 1 side 2)

... (start over)
6
We use a key system where we use a two end parallel and we put a key slot in it. This mates with the key slot on the bolster plate that is squared to the feed line. Now what happens by using the centerline is you can set this die set on the centerline but before the stock is even delivered to the press you can set up all your guides coming through your straightener and your stock reels. Take for instance a four-inch wide strip, whether it's four or forty inch, you've got a centerline mark now the setup man with the scale can go ahead and off of his feed line set two inches to the left and two inches to the right on all of his equipment all the way back to the reel and the throws up the material and the feedline is all set and ready to go, on line, on center and it's all lined with the die. That's why we prefer in a contract shop to use a centerline. Now you can have variable widths of die sets or material and still accomplish the same thing without a whole bunch of stock or subplates.

I think the most important thing whether you are on the floor as the die setter, in the toolroom as a tool maker, in the tooling area as a foreman, on the floor as a foreman, as a middle manager in manufacturing or the owner of a company, I think the most important thing is not to be discouraged. Not to take a measurement half hour by half hour, or day by day to see where you are. You must keep moving day by day and insure that you are adding the work to the project but the time to measure is maybe in three, six or twelve month increments. Look a year down the road, where you have gone from where you have been. You're not gonna see the change tomorrow. If you have any type of volume dies or tooling work at all, it's not going to be an overnight type thing. It's just going to be a continuous add-on. It's not something that we when we wake up in the morning.

(Wayne Avers, Engineering Manager)

It's the planning and support of the program which entails from the design of new tooling when it comes in, to see that it is adaptable to the equipment. To see that the program of standardizing the equipment so that when we have a group of presses we have the ability to ...(start over)

7
The role that engineering plays in quick die change is to engineer and plan the program which includes new tooling coming in, to see that it is adaptable into quick die change specifications that match to the equipment and also the engineering of the equipment to see that we have standardization in our various press groups so that we are flexible and to see that the program is compatible from end to end. It's a supporting function to see that the program gets implemented.

Variation in the bolsters and the standardization of the presses is not standard at this time, it's something that we are working on. It's necessary that if you have standardization in dies and setup you have standardization in the equipment. We have a couple of incidences where they are not JIT standard and it's something that we're working on. The similarities of various pieces of equipment where we have some common points we will utilize them but one of the programs will be probably to standardize more in that direction.

The program would be to probably replace some bolster plates where it is necessary in order to standardize. There may be some modifications available but those that are definitely not standard will be replaced.

Computer-Aided-Design is a real good in that you have a data base, drawings and all, records of what we are doing and there are situations where we have a couple of presses, two or three that are very similar and it gives us the ability to go back to the database and bring up a drawing, make modificaitons, kept records of what we've done, if there's a question as far as what we have done on a similar press, we've go a record of it and again when you send out a bolster plate from a machine we can pull up a good drawing, consequently eliminating potential mistakes when it's implemented.

New die construction all tools are being ordered with centerline, keyways and parallels doweled to the die sets. They are all ordered with the standard clamping lugs and we are ordering them all on (?)JIC centers consequently they willall interchange among presses that have JIC standard machines and the shut heights are virtually standard shut height and pass line, where it's appropriate, press group. The specifications do allow us to edge shims so we 8
can standardize our shut heights. Along with that the lead (?) and stop blocks are kind of a standard item so that we can qualify the tools and get them in a standard shut height arrangement.

What we've done is stacked up typical die scale heights and die sets and so forth and we allow room to shim top parallels in order to adjust and in order to standardize obviously we have to run the job to qualify it and get the parts in control and allow ourselves the ability to adda shim to it instead of taking it back to the tool room and machining something off the parallel to standardize it.

It is a process of continuous refinement. You get a tool in, there's some minor adjustments. The target obviously is to have less adjustment each time you set it going towards a target standard shut height so that eventually when the process is in control the die can be set, turned on and actually have no adjustment.

(restated)
When a die would come in we like to standardize a shut height. We leave room on the prallels so that we can shim, add shim instead of machining material off the parallel and it's a continuous improvement situation where we will set a die get the process in control and continually target to a standard shut height. But with metal variances and so forth, obviously you have to do it a few times and keep targeting to a set number. The target is obviously to set a tool and set it to its lead head and turn it on and not have to make adjustments.

The lead helps the process. It allows the set up people who know exactly where they stoppedon the last run to start up on their next run consequently you have the same potential conditions in the die and it takes the other variables out of the setup procedure. If you continually set the shut height similar with the lead consequently you continually run you've got a target
...(restate)

We use the lead hit to qualify the tool and it gives us a reference from where 9
to stop a production to where to start again. For instance, we set a die and we have to make an adjustment to shut height, the lead hit will tell us what we had to do. It's a good reference.
...(restate)

We use the lead hit actually it's a groove in the stop block to control and montior the shut height of a tool and it allows us to determine where we stop the die as a reference and to actually at the same hit when we start a new tool for a new setup. When we get a tool we want to qualify it allows us to have a reference so that if we have to let's say, set a shut height adjustment on a standard shut height we can monitor our adjustment and shim accordingly. The key to it is knowing where you've been and where you're going in trying to set a tool and use a reference.

(Ken Duffy, Manufacturing Manager)

It ties in with the scheduling responsibilities to where we have difficulty scheduling a quick die change versus one that isn't because we don't have quick die change implemented throughout the entire plant yet. So what happens is sometimes you'll have an imbalance of dies that are retrofitted for a quick die change press and there's not a quick die change press available.

Ultimately it will ease the scheduling alot because we'll be able to get the dies in the press quicker, and we'll be able to put them in any press so all the presses will have common shut heights so it won't make any difference as far as large die or small die, it'll all be the same as far as which press they will go into.

Right now we have them grouped into two sections. We have our hundred and fifty ton presses in one group and four hundred tons in the other. We're making the shut height and the feed height common in the 150 ton group and in the 400 ton group a different shut height and feed height. So the dies will interchange with any press within their group. As far as crossing from the 150 tone group to the 400 ton groups that hasn't been determined yet how we would handle a situation like that.
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The biggest benefit in quick die change I see is the repeatability from setup to setup. When you take the die out of the press and send it to the toolroom for its die maintenance the next time it goes back into the press ...

(End of Tape 1 side 2)

(Begin Tape 2 side 1)

...you have the exact same conditions as the last time it was in the press. The same shut height, all conditions are same basically. It takes the variability of the quality out of the part. I think that benefit is an even greater benefit than the reduction in setup time.

Well, we are able to reduce the first piece inspections that we do as far as which dimensions and which characteristics we check on the part as it's coming off of a quick die change press. We know that the part comes off the QDC press, that exact same shut height is set on the press that was set on it the last time it was in the press. If they are checking something that is not from a QDC press they don't know if the shut height is in the same position it was the last time it was in the press. So we have to make sure to check all the angles and all the forms to make sure that they meet the print exactly.
On a QDC press they don't have to do that.

So far it's greatly reduced it. We've found that our first piece rejection rate has gone way down on the QDC press and the ones on the non-QDC press have remained consistent or even increased slightly. There's a significant difference between the two.

Alot of the variabilities that are involved in a setup of a quick die change press, the feed height is the same every time it goes in the press. The feeder is in the same spot it was last time, the shut height is the same as the last time it was in there. The die maintenance is different. If they do a sharpening on a die and they just take a light dusting for sharpening, five thousandths or what ever off, they shim it back up five thousandths so the die is in the exact same condition it was before. On a non-QDC die they don't do 11
that and if they do some grinding or sharpening, they determine whether the die will still function with the removal of the stack and if it does it goes back out so you'll have a different shut height and that can affect the quality of the part pretty drastically.

The shut height is checked in the toolroom before and after die maintenance is done to make sure that it remains consistent. What ever the shut height is when it goes into the die, it's the same shut height when it comes back out.

Quick die Change at Admiral has brought the whole company together as far as working together as a team. The commitment for quick die change originally started at the top level of the company, with the own of the company and the president and he has driven this with support all the way down to the bottom and from the press operator, the die setters, inspectors in the toolroom everybody is involved in this program, it's made them more aware of the problems that we have on the pressroom floor and it's made everybody work together because when we first implemented the program there were alot of decisions that had to be made, problems that had to be answered and rather than having myself or one of the supervisors make those decisions, the decisions were made by the group by the people that were involved with it working with the quick die change presses anywhere from equipment to quality we determined what our shut heights would be, feed heights should be, the oeprators and the die setters and the toolroom, everybody was involved in it. It gave everybody a better understanding of where we are going and what we are trying to accomplish.

What we did with employee empowerment was that anytime a question came up as to where we should go next or what we should do to fix this problem they made the decision and whatever it was whether it ended up being right or not it was their decision and they lived with it and management supported it. There were times where there was an issue raised and no one individual had an answer and they all met together in an office and discussed it and came up with a solution. And, it's kind of escalated from there it's even gone outside of QDC into other areas of the company.

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We had other quality-type problems with contamination of parts and things like that where there is no set, fixed answer and we've gotten people together as a team to try and figure out what the cause was. Individually no one could do it but as a team together each person looking in different areas they were able to figure out the cause of the problem and come up with a solution for it and implement it. And it's worked well in a lot of areas.

Quick Die Change has kind of stressed the importance to everybody in the company as to quality and press up time. I believe before quick die change, if a press was down and not running there was a problem there wasn't a sense of need or urgency to get it up and running again. This program gave everybody a better understanding of the importance of getting a press running and keeping it running and making good quality parts and how to do it and as far as affecting the company over all it made us a better company where we are all able to work together more and interact together more.

QDC has improved the repeatability of our dies and of our setups and increased the press up time significantly. Now we have an increased capacity for running work. As a result the sales department can go out and get more work and bring it in without us having to add hours or manpower to it. It pretty much increased our capability of producing more parts in the same amount of time.

Overall I'm real excited to see the QDC program get completed through the rest of the presses in the plant and I think the way we went about doing it was the best way of doing it for our type of company. We were able to do it gradual and one press at a time and were able to select which dies would go in there first compared to quick die changing and retrfitting all the presses and all the dies at the same time. We were able to be much more selective. We started by putting the dies in the quick die change system that were the biggest problem dies the hardest running dies and it improved our reliability to produce those parts with less problems.

For us it was the first choice. Take the problem dies and the ones that had dimensional problems from setup to setup and some dies that were running good 13
at the end of the last run and when they got reset on the next run the parts were not acceptable, they were out of spec. We quick die changed those first and we got the repeatability we needed and now those problems don't exist any more.

(Ernie Levine, President of Admiral Tool & Manufacturing)

As president of course I'm overseeing all aspects of the business and have made a commitment to become a worldclass manufacturer in all the aspects of the business in the next several years. Quick Die Change is one of many necessary things to accomplish worldclass. We're not doing it only because we want to be worldclass it is going to be required by the more demanding world. It's already more demanding than I've ever seen it in my 20 some years career. Quick Die Change is necessary not just to save the time, not just to allow greater throughput and greater up time but in order to become truly worldclass and in order to survive by being a more productive producer you need to have total predictability and minimiation of variance in all the things you do. Quick die change is also no change from one setup to another. If you set something up with no variation, if what you were producing before was quality parts to the last stroke, you will produce a quality part with the first stroke. This allows you to have that predictability to go into a true just-in-time. You don't need that (?) absolutely required. You cannot think or even percieve of just-in-time if you don't have quick die change. You can study your processes beyond a certain point because once the variation in setup becomes too large in relation to the variance of all of the rest of the process you have no real ability to study that. You've got too much statistical noise to be able to improve that process. The total variation that you get from the process and the variation in the set up together is very large in terms of just a variation of what the die will do. You're adding a variation that could be larger than all the othervariations and at that point you really have no ability to see what changing the tool or changing material can do because you've just introduced more variation in the other aspects of the production process.

Electronics is another part that's another part of quick die change. Again to 14
reduce that variability that you try and electronically monitor as many things that you can that are critical parameters in how that process is going to work and you also need ....

(End of Tape 2 Side 1)

(Begin Tape 2 Side 2)

...what's the sense of having quick die change if you are going to allow a broken die from non-detection or rejection for example, to let you take advantage of that quick die change. In other words, how can you get just-in-time and reduce your inventory if you still have to keep safety stock, not because you worry whether that part's going to be any good but if you're worried about whether the die is going to break prematurely while it's in the press.

We want to be able to know that when we set a tool up it will make a product that is as good or better than the last time we made it. The only way to do that is to duplicate the setup that we did last time. The easiest way to duplicate your setup is to go through the techniques of quick die change because it's not only the speed but it's the fact that you've taken out the variablity of that setup and if you reduce the variability of the set-up then you reduce the variability of what comes out. Same way you try and reduce the variability of the raw material, the variability of what you've done to the tool, and thevariability of the way you put the tool into the machine. Consistent with that you have to have a machine that's a good machine, kept in good repair, that it does not have much variation itself. What's the good of having a quick die change that would guarantee the setup is the same if the press is not capable of giving you the minimum variation that a machine can do. Once again you've got greater variation less predictability, lead to greater safety stocks, greater requirements to make second setups instead of first setups, throw product away, sort, rework. It's total destructive of the goal of worldclass manufacturing. The strategy of worldclass manufacturing the goal is to be come a very efficient, profitable operation. Now that's something that I think is a requirement it's something that management owes to 15
the people. The people are trying to do a very good job with the tools that we allow them to have and if we are not willing to let them improve the process we are not going to survive as a company.

Making the business profitable and insuring the fact that the people who are here are responsible for success that's the essence of what the job of a president is. I don't know in fact what other real responsibilities he has and what obligations but any job that anyone has is an obligation and I guess the president has the ultimate obligation to the company, to the stock holders, and to the people who work there. It would be a shame to have the kinds of organizations that many people in this industry have built and then not ( ? ) moved forward to what the market demands.

The world that we're in is more difficult than it's ever been, certainly within my experience and it's continuing to get more difficult. To stay up we are also dealing with a global economy. People ship parts, stampings even componentry from all over the world, infact we have parts that do go all over the world. It's a global market and that means that means that one has to compete with the best in the world. But that shouldn't make us worry. That should be a commitment that we are going to compete with the best in the world. If there is no competition to be the best then one becomes mediocre. You have to strive to be as good as you can be ( ? )

When we talk about becoming worldclass, we don't intend to make a platitude it's a very overused word. I think it's origins probably came from the sports world and what it mean was that you could compete anywhere in the world. Not necessarily win but he would be at a competitive level anywher in the world. It's a tremendous goal that we set for ourselves. I know that there is perhaps not more than a handful and maybe none, no plants in this country that may be worldclass. It means I think, not only that you are as good as the best in the world overall and as good as the best in essentially every aspect of the business. But it's also how you got there. It's not stagnent. It's not a place that you get to and stop because everyone else who is worldclass or near worldclass is moving ahead. And you need to have the involvement of everyone in the organization. But if you've only imposed conditions that make 16
you statically worldclass, you are not gonna stay there. I don't think you can achieve it with having everyone. Competitors will have the entirety of their organizations who are commited and working towards that goal. If you are working with only a select few you can't compete with someone who's got theri whole organization. I don't think you are actually world class until you have everyone in your organization who is really working to the maximum. That applies to training, applies to human resources and capital resources and the backing to become worldclass. Again it's a tremendous challenge that we've given ourselves but it's not just a challenge that we say we're going to become worldclass and you come back to it in a few years and say well we didn't get there. They didn't come to a driving force with the company something we talk about at length at every monthly staff meeting throughout the organization, in the departmental meetings and we talk to with our people and again commit the resources that are required to give us a chance to get there.

Because of the training that we've given people throughout the organization and the responsibility which is ever increasing, I think the people do have a feeling that they have ownership of the product. They are part of making that a good product. We've taught everyone in the company at great length with refresher courses year after year after year to learn more about statistical analysis, statistical process control and the operators here keep their charts and they go beyond that. Many of them know how to make up the charts and they all rotate through the quality department for a few weeks at a time. It's a continuous basis of going back and doing it again. Everyone wants to feel that they have ownership of the product that they make and too often they are not given the training, not given the authority to affect the process, to even stop the process or even the tools to find out whether what they are making is good or not. It's not being fair to them and it's not utilizing what they can do. Maybe the underline or the overview of Dr. Deming's fourteen points is that it is the person's birthright to take pride in their work and too often you take it away. And, instead of having everyone in the company participating as much as they can, we've not allowed them to be a participant at all, and if you don't allow them to be a participant then we ought not to be very surprised if they aren't. There is no way they could be if they wanted to or 17
not.

I think it's really the heart. I have the Deming philosophy, the fourteen points and the other things. Too often we think of Dr. Deming only in light of quality. The book of his, he's had a few but the book that I've read most often is "Quality Productivity and Competitive Position" and it is a philosophy of fourteen points that really describes how an organization should work, and how it should become more productive and competitive and high quality at the same time. I try to read that about once a year. I try and live by it no matter what the economy is doing. I think it's part of the culture of the company, the discussions and training sessions and a fair percentage of the company has seen Dr. Deming either in person for four-day seminars or one-day seminars by satellite.

I told myself it had to start paying for itself so I put it to work.

It gets into things that we traditionally used to try and control the worst workers as opposed to trying to generate a feeling of importance in everyone else. Things like numerical standards, which are used really as a substitute for management and a substitute for involvement. I think it's as Deming says, some people have to reach up, sone people have to reach down and it does nothing to improve the process including the productivity. As long as you are making X amount of pieces in absence of any competition from the outside, twenty years later that would still be the goal. It would still be what people would be making. Instead of getting a person involved in trying to improve the process we given them every stimulation to keep it exactly where it is. Whenever there's a problem on a dye, we don't ask the operator what his opinion is. You push him aside and assign him to something else and bring in the engineering people from up front who have no concern what the operator has seen or what he's been doing the whole time he's been working there. Operators have a very good idea what's been happening. They listen, they watch, ...

(End of Tape 2 Side 2)

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(Begin Tape 3 Side 1)

...then wonder why they never step forward to offer any information. Because traditionally, historically when they have come up people have said you've gotta get back to work, I'm not interested in what you say, just go back to work. Those are things that are not destined to make people take pride in their work and it's sad. Here we've got companies that have 80% of the people who are there in the hourly workforce and instead of it being viewed as a resource it's viewed as a necessary evil. Viewed more as a raw material source. People don't train workers enough. Sometimes on the theory that why should I train them they are going to leave, and that becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. If you don't give a person any reason to want to stay and get involved with the company, why would they stay? We do a tremendous amount of training for each person each year and we have very little turnover. Our average person has been here about eleven or twelve years and it's a growing company. The people who are here stay and many people have retired with us. We've got about fourteen or fifteen people with twenty-five years and many have reached thirty-thirty five years. That's a resource that is there for a company to make use of and the people invariably want to have more involvement with their jobs. What they do is what they have chosen to do and they are waiting to be trained. We don't have any problems with people fighting training. We have people who want to do more training. I just don't ever recall someone who didn't want to learn to do their job better, because it's the pride they take. We are continuously trying to improve and we hope you come back in a few years and that we will become worldclass. And we'll be able to show exactly what's worldclass and be able to show you why we are worldclass. Thank you very much.


(DANLEY INTERVIEWS)

(Thomas B. Schafer, Attorney) I was involved in the engineering work as much as I was in charge of Engineering Services at that time. Engineering Services covered most of the 19
administrative part of the Engineering Department. As a part of that I was our liason between Danley and our patent attorneys, so I was involved in almost all of the new development work that went on.

Well Vasil Georgoff developed many things. Vasil Georgoff had quite a history in the press industry. I think he started the Toledo Press Company in Toledo. He went to USI(?) and from them he came to Danley. He came on board with Danley when Danley was first going into the press business. He was a good engineer who was instrumental in the development of many of the Danley products. He has many patents that cover various types of double and triple action presses and specialty-type cushions, locking devices and things of that nature. He was a very creative-type mechanical engineer.

Well, I think that at that time back around 1956, it was recognized that there was a need for faster methods of changing dies. I think probably our customers had been talking to our management about shortening the time it takes to change dies and in line with this Mr. Georgoff came up with a method of doing this by utilizing carriers to take one die out of the press while simultaneously putting another die into the press. Along with that at that time while I don't think it was Vasil Georgoff that got the patents on the die clamping methods I think that was Jim Danley that got the patents on that. Those two went together to accomplish the fast die change.

We called it Quick Die Change and used the acronym QDC which was registered as a trademark of Danley and has been used since the late fifties.

Well, I think that Danley was in 1954 and started working in the Engineering Department in what we called Production Engineering and I decided to improve my education by going to law school. So I enrolled in night school at DePauw University and went on for a period of five or six years and got my degree and was admitted to the bar of Illinois. At that time I started doing the patent liason work and some other types of legal work for Danley as well as my other duties in Engineering.

Well, I think the ( ? ) were the key to Quick Die Change. As you're moving 20
one out, move the other one in right behind it. You start by bringing your slide down, unclamping the automatic die clamps which was done by buttons, loosening the die, raising the ram back up enough so you could pull the die out and just taking it out on its cart. While that cart is moving one die out the other one is moving the die in. They were automatically positioned by keys in the bed of the press so that your position would be very accurate. Then wheels were dropped down and then you had double clamping, clamped the bolster and you brought the ram back down to the proper shut height, they had automatic shut height indicators on these presses and then automatic die clamping on the ram would grab the upper half of the die and you would have everything solid and ready to go. I think in a matter of 2 to 4 minutes. I would think probably in the range of 7 to 8 minutes for the first good part. Of course prior to that it was a matter of up to eight hours, to pull the dies out of the press and get the other dies in, would take a whole shift.
This type of quick die change was first evolved right around 1956-57. I'm not sure when the first one was actually built, I think it was probably in 57 The system that was used at that time was ( ? ) carrier whereby you would move the one die out simutaneously move the new die in and the clamps and the bed would automatically clamp the carrier to the bed then lower on to the bed and the clamps and the slide would automatically clamp the upper part of the die. At that point you would be ready to operate and if all other things were ready, load or unload the die if that type of stuff was ready, you'd probably be back into operaiton in seven to eight minues. As opposed to this, prior die changing taking from four to eight hours to drag the die out, the chain falls out of the press, get it out of the way and get another die in.

I think it did. Yes, it certainly did give the oportunity to pull dies out easily to work on and they could be taken off to other areas, to the die shop and things like that.

In die spotting and die tryout you would have the same situation exactly.the same amount of time becausein those operations you also have to get the die into the press and you have to get it out and probably more often because they are constantly taken out for grinding and things like that. So I think this 21
type of system was very beneficial in that type of operation.

Well I think one of the things as far as the happening of these products at that time, there was a man down at USI, his name was Johanssen, I can't think of his first name, at about the same time we applied for our patents he applied for a patent. His patent covered a method of handling the die pins, that go down through a carrier onto the cushion. We needed a method of doing that and they needed a method of carrying that so I think back at that time we entered into a licensing agreement on those two ...

(End Tape 3 Side 1)

(Begin Tape 3 Side 2)

...Yes. Almost all presses that are built today are quick die change presses one way or another and probably the biggest development today, in those days were 7-8 minutes now we're talking seconds.


(Anthony Rante, Manager of Mechanical Engineeering at Danley)

he basic concept of Quick Die Change hasn't changed over the years. Years ago it took seven minutes now days we're taking the auto diechange concept and we are applying it in a different way to speed up the process. We've go a couple of things going against us. There are alot more functions that have to be done in auto die change that didn't have to be done years ago and sometimes there are more dies to be changed. For example on a two slide transfer press now there are two carriers that have to come out and change instead of just one. Some of the things we've added tothe cycle to speed up die change we gone to a totally different lube console design. Years ago you used to use one pump that controlled all the functions now we're using separate pumping systems on the lube console. This gives us much more ability to control the time that a functions is going to take. For example, when you raise the carrier up to go into die change, years ago we used to use a few pisotns off of that pump in order to do it and it was unpredictable. You didn't know if 22
at the same time something else, the pump was going to have to supply oil someplace else. Now what we've done to control that time and speed it up is
we use a separate pumping system to raise the carrier. So, everytime we give the carrier the command to raise we know it's going to raise and it's going to take the same amount of time.

We use this philosophy for all the different functions that require hydraulics in the die change and we can actually plot it out on a chart and use that to get a real good idea of how long the die change is going to take since it's so critical in today's specs.

On the transfer press we were able to do the die change within 120 seconds and that had a number of functions other than just rolling the carriers in and out. Some of the operations that had to take place were connecting, disconnecitng the die, bringing the die clamp out, disconnecting rails, raising die guards, moving carrier out of the die area, bringing the new carrier into the die area with the new die and then reclamping everything to the point where you are ready to start feeding parts. That whole process can be done in 120 seconds and we're doing right now in Tennessee in that time frame at the Nissan Automotive Plant.

Some of the other changes that have taken place in die change over the years..we've gone to carriers that have electric drive motors and here again it gives us a much more predictable motion and it also gives us better response and better load carrying capacity. Years ago when air motors were used, depending on your die weight, you would get a different velocity in and out of the die. Electric motors were able to predict how fast the die and carrier are going to move out of the die area. Electric drive also is quieter, and italso provides a real nice feature called slowdown at the end of the travel rather than hitting a physical stop, we go into a physical slowdown mode and the carrier inches its way up to the end point .. a very nice feature we added into our die change cycle.

Another type of die change that we built in recent years is a complete t-track carrier die change and this was for a blanking press. The situation: 23
We had one carrier that was going to come in the straight front-to-back direction and another carrier that was going to have two motions; it was going to go right-to-left until it was in line with the slide then it was going to move front-to-back into the die area and this die change required other functions because of the double motion on the T-track carrier. What we needed to do when the carrier would come would be going into the die and we reached the end of the first motion, we'd have to switch on to another set of wheels and we did this by use of a hydraulic system onboard the carrier and when it went onto the other wheels it then was able to move into the die and this had to be added into our die change cycle again since we had to do this within a certain amount of time we had to be very concerned about how long it was going to take to do that cross over. On tandem lines the die change is usually less complicated than on a transfer press because you don't have to disconnect as many rails, in some cases you don't have any die guards to open. The amount of functions that you do in a tandem line die change is greatly reduced from a transfer press line.

On the tandem lines we have automatic loaders and unloaders. The tooling design helped us reduce the amount of tooling changes that are required for die change. The type of tooling with vacuum cups can sometimes be positioned so that they can handle a number of part runs. So you go into a die change you may not have to go in there are replace the tooling on the automation. You could live with the positions that the cups are now in. So that reduces the number of steps required for that type of die change.

In addition to all the changes in the hydraulic design we have also made changes in the pneumatic design of our machines to aid us in getting quicker die change. For example; the counterbalance is adjusted automatically, the pressure transducer reading inside the counterbalance tank. For example the die recipe that's called up for the new set of dies would now look up and get the correct counterbalance pressure and that adjustment would be done automatically in our pneumatic design, and that's done by reading the pressure off the pressure transducer and making the adjustments with a dump/fill valve. That goes very quickly because if you're only making a ten psi adjustment it's very quick to dump off that pressure or add that pressure into the
24
counterbalance tank. Usually a ten psi adjustmentin the counterbalance system can be made within seconds and it's usually in sequence with some other event during the die change.

In addition to the counterbalance adjustment there's also automatic shut height adjustment that takes place during die change and that's based again, on a die recipe and our adjustment is held very accurately so that you can rely on that setting next time that set of dies is run. And again this adjustment is made while other events are taking place in the die change setup.

Also in addition to counterbalance pressure and shut height adjustment, there is cushion adjustment. The different pressure settings used for different parts and that cushion adjustment is made much in the same way we make the pneumatic adustment on the counterbalance system.

(Ronald J. Votava, Chief Press Engineer for Danley)

Danley initially instituted this in the early fifties. We sold several lines to Japan as early as '59. Toyota in particular, prince Motors, Fuji, all had some of our equipment through the early '60's.



I worked with Vasil Georgoff who holds a patent I believe, on Danley Quick Die Change. He cooperated very closely with clearing another American manufacturer for the development of the QDC process.

Primarily the ability to change dies fairly quickly. Remove the die from the die space, have it accessible from overhead crane access. Primarily be able to change two sets of dies simultaneously.

Initially it was done in under ten minutes in the early sixties. That time with programmable controllers now has been decreased to under two minutes, as a matter of fact.
25
The big boom was of course in the early fifties. We sold much of the equipment to the American expansion, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler and then extended this overseas as well to Japan. In Japan the prime user was Toyota Motors although we did sell to Itsuzu, Prince Motors and Fugi as well. Machines there were primarily under drive machines because of the existing building facilities and they were tonnages ranging from five to eight, nine hundred tons, areas that were a hundred and twenty left to right by sixty to seventy-two front to back.

Yes we do have documentation with photographs. We would photograph for our records, engineering records, every machine that was built and shipped from Danley. We also had the opportunity to see some of the equipment installed in the customer's plant.

We have photographs here of machines that were built here in the fifties showing the early Danley Quick Die Change system. Danley was a pioneer in Quick Die Change concept.

QDC means quick die change. Initially the quick die change concept was used to remove the die from the die space just had access from the overhead crane and then was extended to a rapid die change, an automatic die change by using two carriers per press and running both in and out simultaneously to improve die change time.

The early carriers were air-operated and they would change dies in approximately eight to ten minutes. The new concept, for Nissan for example, we can change dies with electric operated carriers in just under two minutes.

The advent of more usage of programmable controllers has improved die change time. All of the operations that had to be done manually now are sequenced and done automatically with the programmable controller. Minimizes the number of operators required and all of the elements and other operators that are necessary.

Maintenance is a big issue. All of the equipment must be maintained properly 26
to operate within the speed and time parameters that we have designed for it. Maintenance is of the utmost importance. Unless you operate the carriers frequently and maintain their drive, some of the early problems where they didn't move as rapidly as they should would frequently get stuck in position. Maintenance is very important. Again maintenance is very important. Unless the equipment is maintained properly some people are not willing to go through all the steps and they revert back to the old die change methods. Removing with fork trucks and so on. Taking out pieces of die. Unless the equipment is maintained it's just not used.
(End Tape 3 Side 2)

(Begin Tape 4 Side 1)

Machines that were initially changed in the early fifties wer five, six and seven hundred ton double action and single action machines, a hundred and twenty left to right by 60-72 front to back.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

If you have any notion of how much this blog hurts our city and individual citizens you would pull the plug.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Do what Dave Smith did and get your own web site

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Table of contents [showhide]
1 first amendment: an overview

2 menu of sources

2.1 federal material

2.1.1 U.S. Constitution
2.1.2 Federal Judicial Decisions

2.2 State Material

2.2.1 State Judicial Decisions

2.3 International Material

2.3.1 Conventions and Treaties

2.4 Other References

2.4.1 Key Internet Sources
2.4.2 Useful Offnet (or Subscription - $) Sources

3 other topics


first amendment: an overview
The First Amendment of the United States Constitution (http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.billofrights.html#amendmenti) protects the right to freedom of religion and freedom of expression from government interference. See U.S. Const. amend. I (http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.billofrights.html#amendmenti). Freedom of expression consists of the rights to freedom of speech, press, assembly and to petition the government for a redress of grievances, and the implied rights of association and belief. The Supreme Court interprets the extent of the protection afforded to these rights. The First Amendment has been interpreted by the Court as applying to the entire federal government even though it is only expressly applicable to Congress. Furthermore, the Court has interpreted, the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment as protecting the rights in the First Amendment (http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.billofrights.html#amendmenti) from interference by state governments. See U.S. Const. amend. XIV (http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.billofrights.html#amendmentxiv).
Two clauses in the First Amendment guarantee freedom of religion. The establishment clause prohibits the government from passing legislation to establish an official religion or preferring one religion over another. It enforces the "separation of church and state." Some governmental activity related to religion has been declared constitutional by the Supreme Court. For example, providing bus transportation for parochial school students and the enforcement of "blue laws" is not prohibited. The free exercise clause prohibits the government, in most instances, from interfering with a person's practice of their religion.
The most basic component of freedom of expression is the right of freedom of speech. The right to freedom of speech allows individuals to express themselves without interference or constraint by the government. The Supreme Court requires the government to provide substantial justification for the interference with the right of free speech where it attempts to regulate the content of the speech. A less stringent test is applied for content-neutral legislation. The Supreme Court has also recognized that the government may prohibit some speech that may cause a breach of the peace or cause violence. The right to free speech includes other mediums of expression that communicate a message.
Despite popular misunderstanding the right to freedom of the press guaranteed by the first amendment is not very different from the right to freedom of speech. It allows an individual to express themselves through publication and dissemination. It is part of the constitutional protection of freedom of expression. It does not afford members of the media any special rights or privileges not afforded to citizens in general.
The right to assemble allows people to gather for peaceful and lawful purposes. Implicit within this right is the right to association and belief. The Supreme Court has expressly recognized that a right to freedom of association and belief is implicit in the First, Fifth, and Fourteenth Amendments (http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.table.html#amendments). This implicit right is limited to the right to associate for First Amendment purposes. It does not include a right of social association. The government may prohibit people from knowingly associating in groups that engage and promote illegal activities. The right to associate also prohibits the government from requiring a group to register or disclose its members or from denying government benefits on the basis of an individual's current or past membership in a particular group. There are exceptions to this rule where the Court finds that governmental interests in disclosure/registration outweigh interference with first amendment rights. The government may also, generally, not compel individuals to express themselves, hold certain beliefs, or belong to particular associations or groups.
The right to petition the government for a redress of grievances guarantees people the right to ask the government to provide relief for a wrong through the courts (litigation) or other governmental action. It works with the right of assembly by allowing people to join together and seek change from the government.
menu of sources
federal material
U.S. Constitution
First amendment (http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.billofrights.html#amendmenti)
Fourteenth amendment (http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.amendmentxiv.html)
CRS Annotated Constitution: First Amendment
Freedom of Expression: Is There a Difference Between Speech and Press? (http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/search/display.html?terms=first%20amendment&url=/anncon/html/amdt1bfrag2_user.html)
Religion and Expression (http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/search/display.html?terms=first%20amendment&url=/anncon/html/amdt1bfrag1_user.html)
Obscenity (http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/search/display.html?terms=first%20amendment&url=/anncon/html/amdt1efrag1_user.html)
Right of Association (http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/search/display.html?terms=first%20amendment&url=/anncon/html/amdt1bfrag8_user.html)
Prisoners' First Amendment Rights (http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/search/display.html?terms=first%20amendment&url=/anncon/html/amdt1cfrag10_user.html)
Federal Judicial Decisions
Supreme Court:
Historic Constitutional Law Decisions (http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/cases/conlaw.htm)
Recent First Amendment Decisions - Religion (http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/search/index.html?query=freedom+and+religion), Press (http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/search/index.html?query=free+and+press), Speech (http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/search/index.html?query=free+and+(speech+or+expression))
liibulletin Oral Argument Previews (http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/cert/search/index.html?query=free+or+freedom+and+press+or+religion+or+speech)
Recent U.S. Court of Appeals Decisions on: Religion (http://www.law.cornell.edu/usca/search/index.html?query=religion), Press (http://www.law.cornell.edu/usca/search/index.html?query=press), Speech (http://www.law.cornell.edu/usca/search/index.html?query=speech)
State Material
State Judicial Decisions
N.Y. Court of Appeals:
Recent First Amendment Decisions (http://www.law.cornell.edu/nyctap/search/index.html?query=freedom+and+(speech+or+expression+or+religion+or+press)+not+liibulletin)
Commentary from liibulletin-ny (http://www.law.cornell.edu/nyctap/search/index.html?query=liibulletin+and+(freedom+and+(speech+or+expression+or+religion+or+press))+or+(first+and+amendment))
Appellate Decisions from Other States (http://www.law.cornell.edu/states/)
International Material
Conventions and Treaties
Human Rights Treaties (http://fletcher.tufts.edu/multi/humanRights.html)
Other References
Key Internet Sources
Freedom of Expression (National Endowment for the Arts) (http://www.csulb.edu/%7Ejvancamp/freedom1.html)
Freedom Forum First Amendment Center (http://www.freedomforum.org/)
Christian Law Association (http://www.christianlaw.org/)
First Amendment Alert! (http://www.kefir.net/spray/firstamendment.htm)
LII sitewide: First Amendment (http://www.law.cornell.edu/search/index.html?query=%22first%20amendment%22)
Useful Offnet (or Subscription - $) Sources
Good Starting Point in Print: John E. Nowak, Ronald Rotunda, Constitutional Law (http://west.thomson.com/store/product.aspx?r=126626&product_id=22049662), Chapters 16 & 17, West Group, 7th ed. (2004)
LII Downloads (http://www.law.cornell.edu/disks96.html)
other topics
Category: Individual Rights Category: Constitutional Law
Retrieved from "http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/index.php/First_amendment"
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13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

The Call of the Wild

by Henry Veggian

I. Preface

The following essay offers a partial genealogy of the critical writings attendant to Jack London�s The Call of the Wild (1903). The essay is limited to the novel�s reception in modern American letters; it concludes with an extensive though by no means comprehensive bibliography of the newspaper reviews, biographical studies, scholarly articles, book-length studies, bibliographical sources, dissertations, and introductory essays relevant to the history of that novel. The Call of the Wild is one of the most widely translated and published books by an American writer, and a proper, comprehensive bibliography of The Call of the Wild would require a tremendous international research effort; the following essay is offered in the absence of such a project as a temporary surrogate for the important literary-historical, critical arguments that have engaged the novel in the one hundred years since it was first published.

William C. Frierson noted in a 1928 PMLA article that "It is well known that a heated controversy took place during the eighteen-nineties over the inclusion of fact, brutal fact, in fiction." But what are the brutal facts that might begin a proper genealogy of The Call of the Wild? For example, The Call of the Wild was published during a period of unprecedented American imperial expansion in the Western hemisphere; but the novel also appeared during a period of intense debate over the influence of French literary Naturalism on English and American fiction. Both the geo-political situation of the United States in 1903 and the literary-critical debates of the era might provide fruitful points of departure; they might even cross paths at several points. But the beginnings of any genealogy are necessarily turbulent and difficult, and we must restrict ourselves in the present introduction to the contentious literary-critical debates that have engaged The Call of the Wild with the understanding that they offer a point of departure for other more detailed inquiries into the novel and its historical milieu.

William Frierson�s aforementioned article offers the occasion to list three notable motives to undertake a study of the critical history of London�s novel. The first is that Frierson�s article is an excellent, brief introduction to the critical debates that were later repeated when Jack London�s writings first achieved success in the United States; it is notable that Frierson�s article was published in late the 1920�s during another resurgence of the Naturalist style in American fiction that was prompted in part by new editions of Jack London�s writings and a resurgence in critical interest in his works. The second reason pertains to the fact that Frierson�s article is not an article about Jack London; the serious, prospective student should not limit the study of Jack London to specialized works but should also study the literary debates and critical histories of the late 19th century and early twentieth centuries. The third reason stems from the fact that Frierson was a scholar of British Literature and his article places the debate over literary Naturalism in an international context; the article is a fine example of a careful engagement with scholarly traditions of other nations and how those have approached Jack London and the debates that are important to any understanding of his writings. The student with a reading knowledge of foreign languages should study the numerous scholarly works available in other languages and literary traditions. A careful, varied, and historically informed approach to The Call of the Wild will enrich the student�s reading of Jack London�s work; it will also provide a fuller understanding of the debates and terms that inform the literary scholarship, book reviews, and varied articles listed below.

II. 100 Years of Criticism

The Call of the Wild drew immediate critical attention from popular journalists. This was perhaps due to the fact that the novel had been serialized by The Saturday Evening Post and had therefore been read by reviewers prior to its publication in book form. The student of the book would do well to consult these early reviews of the novel as they provide both a portrait of the period and microcosms of later trends in the study of the book.

29 articles referring directly to The Call of the Wild appeared in newspapers and magazines when the text was first published in 1903. The review in the August 2nd issue of the San Francisco Chronicle, for example, states that "His books are strong meat for the anemic generation that worships at the shrine of Henry James." The comment highlights the literary conflict between "Main Street and Beacon Street" that Sinclair Lewis proposed in 1910 and which Joan Sherman later regarded as a fundamental difference between the literary styles of Jack London and Henry James (Sherman ix). Supplemental readings and comprehensive study of the literary scholarship dedicated to the period in question would amplify the debate and Lewis� remark for the student, as once-canonical works such as Van Wyck Brooks� Flowering of New England (1936) and New England: Indian Summer (1940) review the rise and later dispersal of American literary culture from its historical epicenter in New England. As always, the student should read about London�s works as well as scholarship that carefully organize the context and those debates which are fundamental to the understanding of London�s controversial and popular style.

The early articles and reviews of the novel also included important biographical information about its author. Henry Meade Bland, a scholar of Robert Louis Stevenson�s works, was one of the first noted critics of London's work during his life. Bland�s part-biographical article entitled "Jack London" in Overland Monthly (May 1904) is the first to trace the model for Buck in The Call of the Wild to London's friend Louis Bond. Bland's essay inspired a biographical industry around the interpretation of London's writings that continues to the present. These early newspaper writings are available on microfilm in some libraries. They are certainly worth the labor of their recovery, as they provide a glimpse of the newspaper publishing industry that contributed greatly to the novel�s success.

Interest in Jack London�s works was rekindled by his premature death in 1916. Two important editions to The Call of the Wild were published following London�s death and each included a critical essay. For example, Theodore C. Mitchell's introduction to the 1917 Macmillan edition discussed the economic details pertinent to "the geographical setting of the novel." Mitchell also extended a line of argument from the early newspaper reviews that compared Jack London to Rudyard Kipling by noting that London lacked Kipling's "'literary restraint" as well as his "breadth of subject and characterization." (Sherman 97).

The resurgent interest in London continued through the inter-war period with a 1926 Macmillan edition of The Call of the Wild and an omnibus edition by the same publisher that included both The Call and The Scarlet Plague (1929). The 1926 Macmillan edition is of particular import; it featured an introduction by Frank L. Mott that was published in the seven Macmillan reprints up until 1946 and which continued to appear in other subsequent editions. Mott's introduction defined London's non-canonical status in U.S. literature: "If we are to value London, we must not apply classical standards to him: it is by his romantic and unchecked flow of thought and story, by his native vigor, and by his inborn gift for sp inning a story that London achieves a place of real importance in recent American literature." Although Mott related the standard biographical information about the text, his introduction is important because it seeks to legitimize London as an American artist by offering a new standard by which his work can be judged. Mott�s engaged approach to London coincides with a period of renewal in the critical discussions of Jack London�s work in book length formats that extended the arguments of previous journalists and essayists; Mott�s own books include histories of American journalism that are indispensable to any scholar trying to understand the American newspaper industry during London�s life.

The interwar period merits extensive study for it is during that period that the criticism of London�s work took its first mature form. The criticism of The Call of the Wild became more diverse in the late 1920�s and 1930�s when it was divided between the biographers, the genteel literary critics who resented London, and the more contemporary critics who incorporated the new paradigmatic and disciplinary techniques of Marxism, American Studies, and psychoanalysis into their work.

The biographies of this period are varied in both method and style. Edward Biron Payne�s The Soul of Jack London (1933) opened an important cycle of biographies that were published in the 1930�s. The work was written by a friend of London�s and provided important biographical information; it was followed by two more works that closed the cycle of inter-war biographies. The first of these was a fictional biography by the popular historical novelist Irving Stone entitled Jack London, Sailor on Horseback (1938). Stone�s book was followed by Joan London�s politically charged Jack London and His Times (1939). All three of the works contain sections pertinent to The Call of the Wild, with Joan London�s book standing as the most rigorous of the three as well as a representative of the political trends in literary criticism during the era in which it was written. The biographical criticism continued through other works of the inter-war period. Carl and Mark Van Doren combined aestheticism with biography when they noted in American and British Literature since 1890 (1925) that London�s novel contained a "a genuine current of poetry" which was due in part to "something biographical" about the novel. This period of biographical criticism also included negative assessments of the consequences of The Call of the Wild for London�s career. Notable among these is the American literary scholar Ernest Leisy's in American Literature: An Interpretive Survey (1929), where Leisy argued that "His reputation once established (by The Call of the Wild), London poured forth with journalistic abandon tale after tale dealing with 'red-blooded' supermen, indulging in fights, and rejoicing in storms."

Critical attention to London�s work persisted in periodicals through the 1930�s with an average of one article published per year until 1939. London�s other writings such as the documentary study The Iron Heel appealed to the literary tastes of the decade, and no less a literary critic than Edmund Wilson noted in 1940 that the popularity and success of another major California author, John Steinbeck, were due in part to his "carrying on from Frank Norris, Jack London, and Upton Sinclair."

World War Two deadened the critical interest in London's work, with one important exception. Alfred Kazin's chapter on Jack London in On Native Grounds (1942) is one of the landmarks of mid-century London criticism. Kazin's narrative is grounded in a historical study of the larger cultural context in which writers such as London composed their works. In an argument which anticipates Kazin�s subsequent discussions of Steinbeck and Faulkner, Kazin noted that the violence of London's fiction was unique for its time (Kazin 87). Kazin was precise in his explanation of the book's intellectual and historical context, but it was not without controversy; his description of Buck as a "Nietzschean hound" (88) prompted subsequent critics to address the problem of race in London�s works with respect to questions of Social Darwinism (a major question in much of late 19th century U.S. fiction) and the erroneous post-WWII perception of Nietzsche as a philosopher of the Third Reich (a perception that would later be corrected by Walter Kaufmann�s renowned studies of the German philosopher).

The relative quiet surrounding London and The Call of the Wild continued through the early years of the Cold War as a new generation of critics worked to renew the study of London's works. This new generation was distinct from the earlier, more politically informed critical studies of the 1930�s and 1940�s. Articles on The Call of the Wild appeared at the rate of one every two years in the 1950's. Working perhaps under the pressure of McCarthyism, the London scholars of the 1950�s developed new critical approaches that were antithetical to the proletarian legend of Jack London generated by many previous journalists and biographers.

Philip Foner's Jack London: American Rebel (1947) inaugurated the post-World War Two era of political studies of Jack London. It was a study that appeared against many of the current trends in London criticism. Foner, a prolific scholar of American labor and social history, dedicated two pages to The Call of the Wild in the book. Foner�s analysis exemplifies the rare socio-political reading of the text during this troubled political period in U.S. literary history (contemporary reprints of Kazin�s earlier book do not mention London among the authors on the back cover, for example). Foner�s cursory analysis of London�s novel book is written with a clear understanding of the debates that inform its critical history. For example, Foner briefly replies to the question of race in London�s novel by noting that "it is interesting in light of his phobia about mixed breeds that London's brave and dignified dog-hero should be a mongrel."(54). Foner�s reading of the novel rejects biography and the study of aesthetic influences, embracing rather the economic context of the book's publishing history. In doing so, Foner laments the book�s commercial success and concludes that The Call of the Wild was something of a "freak" text among London's works; the conclusion is supported by its publishing history (London received only two thousand dollars in exchange for he publishing rights) which confirms for Foner its status as a "animal story" of little importance to Foner�s pressing political arguments.

Foner�s book stands in sharp contrast to the psychoanalytic interpretations of London�s works that influenced much of the study of The Call of the Wild in the 1950�s. Van Wyck Brooks' The Confident Years (1952) features a chapter entitled "Frank Norris and Jack London" which claims that "The Call of the Wild was written directly from London's unconscious" (Sherman 164). In direct contrast to Foner's under-emphasizing of the role of race in London's work, Maxwell Geismar's Rebels and Ancestors: The American Novel 1890-1915 (1953) discusses the novel�s alleged racist sub-text and invokes the theories Freud�s former disciple, Carl Jung (Geismar 150-151). Geismar's review of the novel is as critically unkind to the text as it is dynamic, and represents the incorporation of new ideas from the study of mythology and psychology into the interpretation of the novel. Nonetheless, critical acceptance of London�s work still proved difficult during the 1950�s, and Earle Labor later noted the complete absence of Jack London from the popular Sculley, Bradley, Beatty, and Long textbook American Tradition in Literature (1957).

The slight critical renewal of London Studies during the 1950�s anticipated what Earle Labor described as "the renaissance, or, more precisely, the nascence" of London studies in the 1960's and 1970's. Sherman's bibliography lists a total of 38 articles on The Call of the Wild during between 1960-1974, a quantity of criticism only three articles short of matching the entire critical output between 1904 and 1959.

London�s presence proliferated in the 1960's, and 1960 was a watershed year for The Call of the Wild as many of London�s works were reprinted. These included the American Century Series' Jack London: Short Stories (with introduction by Maxwell Geismar), The Call of the Wild school edition by the Macmillan Literary Heritage Series, and the Dodd Publishing Company�s edition of The Call of the Wild. The Heritage Press edition of The Call of the Wild appeared in 1961. In all, seven new editions of The Call of the Wild were published in the years 1960-1964, including a Bodley head edition of London�s works in Great Britain. These publications were enhanced by a growing professionalism in London studies, the landmark of which was Woodbridge, London, and Tweney�s Jack London: A Bibliography (1966). The growing professionalism in London studies was accompanied by a popular interest in the author�s life and work, and a 1964 biography of Jack London written by the novelist and essayist Richard O�Connor attested to London�s resurgent popularity.

The new editions of The Call of the Wild also prompted critical revaluations of the novel. Abraham Rothenberg interpreted London as both a "revolutionary" and a "perverse" nihilist in his introduction to the 1963 Bantam edition of the text , and Mordechai Richler denounced London in "Dogs and Wolves" (The Spectator July 1963) as having a "muddled ideology" but at the same time praised the novel. Both critics discussed London�s socialist politics: the latter suggested that London was too extreme and the former argued that London had misinterpreted socialism.

Interest in the atavism of London�s works also continued through the 1960�s. Peter Schmitt's Back To Nature: Arcadian Myths in Urban America claimed that novel is the only work of London's that succeeds in "raising the wilderness theme to serious art." Roderick Nash's The Call of the Wild: 1900-1916 argued that the novel succeeded as a work of escapist literature that appealed to an allegory summons to over-civilized, confused Americans who wished to return to Buck's simple, vigorous, unrestrained life in the North." The most important work of this critical movement was Earle Labor's Jack London (1974), which developed his earlier mythological reading of The Call of the Wild.

The boom years of London studies in the 1960�s also prompted revaluations of the archival methods of research. Franklin's Walker's study Jack London and the Klondike (1966) served to debunk the myths about London�s Yukon ventures and replace them with fact, thus adding an important historiographic corrective to earlier interpretive studies. Dale Walker and James Sisson's The Fiction of Jack London: A Chronological Bibliography (1972) was added to the earlier work by Woodbridge et al. Both works provide important information on original editions of the text as well as secondary materials, and each contributed to the critical excitement over London in the late 1960's to early 1970's. These important bibliographical works were only surpassed by Jack London: A Reference Guide (1977) by Joan Sherman. Sherman, who is a scholar of African-American literature, includes a introductory overview of London�s work in her annotated bibliography, which remains a landmark in studies of the author�s work.

The increase in book-length publications books that included chapters dedicated to Jack London also stimulated the publication of articles on the author�s work. The most important source of scholarly articles on The Call of the Wild from 1967 until recently was the Jack London Newsletter. Edited by London scholar Hensley Woodbridge (who was also a noted scholar of Latin American literature), the JLN was a forum for professional readers of London�s work where new critical approaches to the text were explored by contemporary critics. The first issue featured Earle Labor's "Jack London's Mondo Cane: The Call of the Wild and White Fang," which interpreted the novel as a "projection of the reader's essential mythic self" and as "a redemptive human allegory." Other articles addressed the influence of French literary Naturalism, as well as the folkloric, autobiographical, and psychological dimensions of the novel. Though no longer published, the JLN remains a vital archival source of information for all readers of The Call of the Wild.

The 1980�s witnessed the publication of a series of important comparative studies of London�s novel. Charles N. Watson's The Novels of Jack London: A Reappraisal traced the tale to the influence of the "sentimental animal story" exemplified by Anna Sewell's Black Beauty (1877). Carolyn Johnston's Jack London: An American Radical identified many of London's intellectual influences, and Stoddard Martin's California Writers: Jack London and John Steinbeck - The Tough Guys, outlines the history of many of London's characters. Finally, David M. Hamilton's The Tools of My Trade: Annotated Books in Jack London's Library correlates the reading of certain texts by London with the writing of The Call of the Wild. These studies were accompanied by renewed biographical interest in London�s life and family. Clarice Stasz's American Dreamers: Charmian and Jack London provided biographical information on the connection between the "initiation experiences of London's own life" and The Call of the Wild. As well as important feminist readings of London�s work and life; these readings were elaborated in Stasz�s more recent Jack London�s Women (2001). These critical and biographical works added important inter-disciplinary methods to the field of London studies and the exegesis of The Call of the Wild that continue to the present.

The last two decades of the twentieth century witnessed several important new critical editions of London�s works and letters. The 1981 edition of The Call of the Wild that was edited by London scholar Earl Wilcox features critical essays (most of which were published in the Jack London Newsletter in the 1970's), early reviews, an introduction by Earle Labor, and some of London's letters that relate to the text. Wilcox�s critical efforts extended in this period to a review of the 1981 Penguin edition of The Call of the Wild, White Fang, and other Stories (edited by London biographer Andrew Sinclair), where Wilcox takes particular issue with the fact that The Call of the Wild should be considered a novel and not a "story." The most important publication of event of the 1980�s was the issue of the three-volume Letters of Jack London by Stanford University Press in 1988. The letters are of particular interest to readers of The Call of the Wild, as they include important accounts of the book�s composition, publication, and reception.

Several important critical editions of The Call of the Wild have been published over the past decade. Daniel Dyer's 1995 illustrated edition of The Call of the Wild set a new standard in London studies and can be recommended now as the best version of the novel due to its incorporation of maps, photographs, and historical annotations. Since much of the lifestyle and technology of the novel�s era is unfamiliar to today's reader, Dyer's extensive commentary greatly increases comprehension of the novel�s content. Dyer�s work is amplified by the more recent Understanding The Call of the Wild: a student casebook to issues, sources, and historical documents (2000) and Elizabeth and Earl Wilcox�s edition of The Call of the Wild: Complete text with introduction, historical contexts, critical essays (2004).

The demise of the Jack London Newsletter also prompted the publication of the new Jack London Journal, which often featured reviews and articles addressed to contemporary readings and editions of The Call of the Wild (consult the main page of this website for more information on the JLJ). The increased digitization of the profession of literary scholarship has also made certain unpublished, archival, and visual resources more readily available. In the 100 years since it was published, The Call of the Wild has been discussed in many non-academic texts as well as in the doctoral dissertations of young scholars. These sources are often unique and original sources of information. The peak years of dissertation writing on Jack London were 1966-1982, during which time thirty doctoral dissertations were written on his works. Ten more dissertations were written in the years 1983-1992. Although many dissertations are eventually published in some form, some are not, and these may provide excellent resources for London researchers. For more information, check under "Jack London" in the Humanities Volumes of the Comprehensive Dissertation Index. More recent doctoral dissertations may be available on-line in electronic form.

It is a practical rule that the publication of articles on The Call of the Wild in newspapers and scholarly journals has been a reliable indicator of the health of London studies in America since the book was published. The peak years of the study of The Call of the Wild are often reflected by the quantity of articles published in a particular time-frame; quantity should never, however, be confused with quality. For practical purposes, however, some intense resurgence in the published debate over the particular novel is a generally reliable indicator of shifts in critical trends and a more acute engagement or retreat from previous discussions of the novel (articles written about the novel during the 1960�s exemplify all three of the previous points). The prospective student would do well to begin a study of The Call of the Wild with the bibliographies of London�s works, but the bibliographies are never comprehensive. For example, Joan Sherman's bibliography Jack London: A Reference Guide (1977) lists a total of 107 articles or books that mention The Call of the Wild in their titles, the majority of those being articles. Woodbridge, London, and Tweney�s Jack London: A Bibliography (1966) cites only half as many as pertinent to that novel. Dozens of important works about London have been published since Sherman�s bibliography appeared and more may appear and go unnoticed by the researcher who depends to often on bibliographical writings (such as this one) that are infrequently updated, if at all. The prospective student should consult the indices and works cited sections of the most recent publications listed below in order to construct a careful and comprehensive bibliography of writings pertinent to The Call of the Wild.

Henry Veggian University of Pittsburgh














III. A Bibliography of Writings on The Call of the Wild

#= recommended basic references

Anon. Novel Notes. Bookman. 24 Sept 1903, 220.

Anon. "Views and Reviews" Comrade. 2 Sept. 1903, 280-281.

Anon. "Recent Fiction" The Nation. 77 (3 Oct.) 1903, 287.

Anon. "Jack London" The Nation. 103 (30 Nov.) 1916, 502.

Anon. "Jack London the Socialist- a Character Study. The New York Times. Jan. 28, 1906, 6.

Anon. "Story of a Dog: Jack London's Newest Book, 'The Call of the Wild.'" New York Times. 25 July 1903, 512.

Abbott, Leonard D. " Jack London's One Great Contribution to American Literature." Current Opinion. 62 (January) 1916, 46-47.

Auerbach, Jonathan. Male Call: Becoming Jack London. Durham, N.C.: Duke UP, 1996.

Belton, George "'The Call of the Wild,' A Plagiarism?" Reedy's Mirror. 16 March 1907, 182-183.

Bland, Henry M. "Jack London" Overland Monthly. 43 (May) 1904, 370-375.

Boynton, H.W. "Books New and Old:2" Atlantic Monthly. 92 (November) 1903, 695-697.

Brooke, Mary C. "The Call of the Wild" San Francisco Bulletin, Sunday Magazine. 23 Aug. 1903, 6.

Brooks, Van Wyck. Frank Norris and Jack London: The Confident Years, 1885-1915. New York: Dutton 227-37.

Clayton, Lawrence "The Ghost Dog, a Motif in The Call of the Wild." Jack London Newsletter. 5:1, 158.

Cooper, James G. "The Womb of Time: Archetypal Patterns in the Novels of Jack London." Jack London Newsletter. 12:1 (1979) 12-19.

Dodson, Mary K. "Naturalism in the Works of Jack London." Jack London Newsletter. 4:1, 130-139.

#Dyer, Daniel. See London below.

Fitch, George H. "New Books: Best Work of Jack London. The California Writer Produces a Great Book in 'The Call of the Wild.'" San Francisco Chronicle. 2 Aug. 1904, 32.

Fitch, George H. "Noteworthy New Novels." San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday Supplement. 13 Nov. 1904, 8.

Flink, Andrew. "'Call of the Wild'-Parental Metaphor" Jack London Newsletter 7:2 (1974) 58-61.

Frey, Charles. "Contradiction in �The Call of the Wild." Jack London Newsletter. 12:1 (1979) 35-38.

Foner, Philip S. Jack London: American Rebel. New York: Citadel Press, 1947.

Geismar, Maxwell. Rebels and Ancestors: The American Novel 1890-1915. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1953.

Giles, James. "Thematic Significance of the Jim Hall episode in White Fang." Jack London Newsletter. 2:2 49-50.

Grattan, C. Hartley. "Jack London." Bookman. 68 (Feb.) 1929, 667-71.

Hervey, John L. "Jack London and O.Henry: A Parallel." Reedy's Mirror. 2 March 1917, 134-136.

Johnson, Claudia Durst. Understanding The Call of the Wild : a student casebook to issues, sources, and historical documents. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Johnston, Carolyn. Jack London: An American Radical? Greenwood Press, 1984.

Kazin, Alfred. On Native Grounds. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Co., 1942.

Kennnedy, Annebelle. "Maxim Gorky and Jack London: A Comparative Study." Life and Letters. 2:4 (Nov.) 1923 3-6.

Kumin, Michael. "The Call of the Wild: London's Seven Stages of Allegory." Jack London Newsletter. 21:1 (1988) 86-91.

Labor, Earle. "Jack London's Mondo Cane: The Call of the Wild and White Fang." Jack London Newsletter. 1:2 (1967) 2-13.

�. Jack London. New York: Twayne, 1974.

�. "The Call of the Wild: A Review." Jack London Newsletter. 14:3 (1981) 119-121.

�. "Afterword." Rereading Jack London. Ed. Leonard Cassuto and Jeanne Campbell Reesman. Stanford, Ca.: Stanford UP, 1996.

Leisy, Ernest. American Literature: An Interpretive Survey. New York: Thomas Crowell Company, 1929.

Loggins, Vernon. I Hear America: Literature in the United States Since 1900. New York: Thomas Crowell Company, 1937, 253-263.

# London, Jack. The Call of the Wild with an Illustrated Reader's Companion. Ed. Daniel Dyer. University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.

�. The Call of the Wild : Complete text with introduction, historical contexts, critical essays. Ed. Wilcox, Elizabeth and Earl. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004.

Malcomsen, Scott L. "The Inevitable White Man: Jack London's Endless Journey." The Village Voice Literary Supplement. Feb. 1994: 10-12.

Martin, Stoddard. California Writers: Jack London and John Steinbeck. New York: Macmillan, 1983.

Mitchell, Theodore C. "Introduction." The Call of the Wild. New York: Macmillan, 1917.

Mott, Frank L. Introduction. The Call of the Wild and other stories by Jack London.,New York: Macmillan, 1926.

Mott, Frank L. Golden Multitudes. New York: Macmillan 1947, 234-35.

Nash, Roderick. �The Call of the Wild (1900-1916).� American Culture Series. Braziller 1-2.

Naso, Anthony. "Jack London and Herbert Spencer." Jack London Newsletter. 14:1 (1981) 13-20.

O'Brien, Edward. The Advance of the American Short Story. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1931: 187-197, 302.

O�Connor, Richard. Jack London: A Biography. Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1964.

Pattee, Fred L. The Development of the American Short Story: A Historical Survey. New York: Harper, London, and Brothers, 1923: 316-373.

Pattee, Fred L. "The Prophet of the Last Frontier." Sidelights on American Literature. New York: Century, 98-160.

Reed, A. Paul. "Running with the Pack: Jack London's The Call of the Wild and Jesse Stuart's Mongrel Mettle." Jack London Newsletter. 18:3 (1985) 96-98.

Richler, Mordechai. "Dogs and Wolves." Spectator. 211 (July) 1963, 28.

Schmitt, Peter J. Back to Nature: The Arcadian Myth in Urban America. New York: Oxford UP, 1970, 127-37.

Scoville, Samuel. "Boys and Books." Saturday Review. 4 (12 Nov.) 1928, 304.

# Sherman, Joan. Jack London: A Reference Guide. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1977.

Shivers, Alfred S. "The Romantic in Jack London:Far Away Frozen Wilderness." Alaska Review. 1:1 1964, 38-47.

Simpson, Claude M. "Jack London: Proletarian or Plutocrat." Stanford Today. 1:13 1965, 2-6.

Sinclair, Upton. "The Call of the Wild. Jack London Put an "If" on the Condemned Constitution." New York Times. 15 Feb. 1907, 8.

Spinner, Jonathan H. "A Syllabus for the Twentieth Century." Jack London Newsletter. 7:2 (1974) 73-78.

Stasz, Clarice American Dreamers: Charmian and Jack London. New York: St.Martin's Press, 1988; Lexikos, 1996.

�. Jack London�s Women. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.

#Travernier-Courbin, Jacqueline. The Call of the Wild: A Naturalistic Romance. Twayne, 1994.

Van Doren, Carl and Mark. American and British Literature Since 1890. New York: Century, 1926.

Walcutt, Charles C. "Naturalism and the Superman in the Novels of Jack London." Papers of Michigan Academy of Arts, Science, and Letters. 24 1938, 89- 107.

Walcutt, Charles C. Jack London. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press 1966, 48.

Walker, Dale and Sisson, James. The Fiction of Jack London: A Chronological Bibliography. El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1972.

#Walker, Franklin. Jack London and the Klondike: The Genesis of an American Writer. London, U.K.: The Bodley Head Ltd., 1966.

Watson Jr., Charles N. The Novels of Jack London. Madison,Wi.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.

Whittemore, Reed. Six Literary Lives: the shared impiety of Adams, London, Sinclair, Williams, Dos Passos, and Tate. Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press, 1993.

Wilcox, Earl "Le Milieau, Le moment, La race: Literary Naturalism in Jack London's White Fang." Jack London Newsletter. 3:2 (1970) 42-55.

�. "Jack London's Naturalism: The Example of The Call of the Wild." Jack London Newsletter. 2:3 (1970) 91-101.

�. "The Call of the Wild, White Fang, and other stories" Jack London Newsletter 15:1 (1982) 41.

#Woodbridge, Hensley C., John London, and George Tweney. Jack London: A Bibliography. Kraus Reprint, 1973.

Woodbridge, Hensley "London in Library of America." Jack London Newsletter. 16:1 (1983) 45.




Notes

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Dave Smith should stay on his website and off of this one.

Pretty obvious the guys mind is toast!

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Observer: stop the filth

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

CHAPTER 1265

SPECIAL LAND USES


1265.01 Special Land Uses.

In addition to permitted compatible uses specified in each zoning district, there are certain other uses which may be necessary or desirable to allow in certain locations in certain districts. However, due to their impacts on neighboring uses or public facilities, there is a need to carefully regulate them with respect to their location for the protection of the community. These uses may have to be established in a district where they cannot be reasonable allowed as a permitted use without meeting certain specified conditions. It is the intent of this Section to provide the necessary regulations to address such uses, to be referred to as "special uses." It is further the intent to provide the Citizens Planning Commission with a set of standards upon which to make decisions with respect to special uses.

(a) Authority. The Citizens Planning Commission shall have the power to approve, approve with conditions, or disapprove, all special land uses.

(b) Application. A request for special land use approval shall be made to the Citizens Planning Commission upon an application form provided by the Development Services Department. Said application for the approval of a special land use shall be made by an owner, lessee or other person with a legal interest in the property and who has the owner's consent, in writing, to file the application. Such application shall include the following (incomplete submittals shall not be accepted):

(1) Necessary fees, as determined by the City Council, made payable to the City of Monroe.

(2) The name and address of the applicant and proof of ownership or interest in the subject parcel.

(3) A site plan, in accordance with Section _____.

(4) A description of the proposed use of land.

(5) Any other studies or information which the City Staff or the Citizens Planning Commission determines is necessary to evaluate compliance with the standards set forth in this Section.

(6) The City Staff or the Citizens Planning Commission may require submittal of an impact assessment, in accordance with Section _____ or a traffic impact study, in accordance with Section _____.

(c) Procedures. An application for a special land use shall be processed as follows (see the flow chart following this Section):

(1) The applicant may request a pre-application conference with the City Staff.

(2) The applicant submits material described in Section _____.

(3) The Zoning Administrator reviews the proposed application to determine if all required information has been supplied, and then distributes the submitted material to appropriate departments for review.

(4) The submitted City Staff reports are distributed to the Citizens Planning Commission.

(5) The Clerk/Treasurer shall provide notice of a public hearing as described hereafter.

A notice of the public hearing shall be published in at least one (1) newspaper of general circulation and sent by mail or personal delivery to all persons to whom real property is assessed within three hundred (300) feet of the boundary of the property in question, and to the occupants of all structures within three hundred (300) feet. If the name of the occupant is not known, the term “occupant” may be used in making notification. Notification need not be given to more than one (1) occupant of a structure, except that if a structure contains more than one (1) dwelling unit or spatial area owned or leased by different individuals, partnerships, businesses, or organizations, one (1) occupant of each unit or spatial area shall receive notice. In the case of a single structure containing more than four (4) dwelling units or other distinct spatial areas owned or leased by different individuals, partnerships, businesses, or organizations, notice may be given to the manager or owner of the structure who shall be requested to post the notice at the primary entrance to the structure.

The notice shall be given not less than five (5) days or more than fifteen (15) days before the date the application will be considered. The notice shall describe the property in question and the nature of the special use permit request; state the time, date, and location of the public hearing; and, indicate when and where written comments will be received concerning the request.

(6) The Citizens Planning Commission shall conduct a public hearing.

(7) The Citizens Planning Commission shall review the special land use request in consideration of the general standards listed in Section _____.


(8) The Citizens Planning Commission, in its sole discretion, shall take one of the following actions:

A. Table the request and direct the applicant to provide any additional information necessary to make a decision, or direct the City Staff to conduct an additional analysis.

B. Approve the special land use.

C. Approve the special land use with conditions. Such conditions shall be reasonable and related to the impacts of the proposed use, considered necessary to insure compliance with the standards of this Zoning Ordinance and the Basis of Determination, and are hereby determined to be a valid exercise of the police power to protect the health, safety and welfare of adjacent property owners and the City overall.

D. Deny the special land use request if the Citizens Planning Commission determines that the special land use request does not meet the standards of this Zoning Ordinance or Basis of Determination, or will tend to be injurious to the public health, safety and welfare or to the orderly development of the City.

(9) The decision of the Citizens Planning Commission shall be incorporated in a statement of conclusions relative to the special land use under consideration. Any decision which denies a request or imposes conditions upon its approval shall specify the basis for the denial or the conditions imposed.

(10) If the special land use is approved, the Citizens Planning Commission shall take action on the site plan.

(d) Basis of Determination. The Citizens Planning Commission shall review each case individually and shall permit a special land use which is in compliance with this Zoning Code and is found to be:

(1) Compatible with adjacent uses of land in terms of location, size and character and will have no negative impact on adjacent property or the surrounding neighborhood;

A. Will be designed, constructed, operated, and maintained so as to be harmonious and appropriate in appearance with the existing or intended character of the general vicinity and will not change the essential character of the area.

B. Will not be hazardous or disturbing to existing uses or uses reasonably anticipated in the future.

C. Will be an improvement in relation to property in the immediate vicinity and to the City as a whole.

(2) Consistent with and promotes the intent and purpose of this Zoning Code and other applicable codes.

(3) Consistent with the natural environment;

(4) Compatible with the capacities of public services and facilities affected by the proposed use;

A. Will be served adequately by essential public services and facilities or that the persons responsible for the establishment of the proposed use will provide adequately any such service or facility.

B. Will not create excessive additional public costs and will not be detrimental to the economic welfare of the City.

(5) Consistent with vehicular turning patterns, traffic flow, intersections, view obstructions, ingresses and egresses, off-street parking and other existing conditions in the district;

(6) Designed, located and planned, and to be operated, so that the public health, safety and welfare will be protected; and

(7) Consistent with the goals, objectives and future land use plan described in the City of Monroe Master Plan.

















TABLE _____
SPECIAL USE PROCESS

(e) Conditions and Safeguards. The Citizens Planning Commission may impose such additional conditions and safeguards deemed necessary for the general welfare, for the protection of individual property rights, and for insuring that the purposes of this Ordinance and the general spirit and purpose of the district in which the special use is proposed will be observed. Such conditions shall conform to the standards found in Section 4a of Act 207 of 1921, as the same may be amended or superseded from time to time. The Citizens Planning Commission may summarize the conditions of approval on a form issued by the Zoning Administrator which shall be signed by the Chairperson of the Citizens Planning Commission and the applicant.

(f) Voiding and Extensions of Permit. Unless otherwise specified by the Citizens Planning Commission, any special use permit granted under this Section shall be null and void unless the property owner shall have made application for a building permit within one (1) year from the date of the granting of the permit. The Zoning Administrator shall give notice by certified mail to the holder of a permit that is liable for voiding action before voidance is actually declared. Said notice shall be mailed to the permit holder at the address indicated in said permit. Within thirty (30) days of receipt of notice of voiding of the permit, the applicant shall have the right to request an extension of the permit from the Citizens Planning Commission. The Citizens Planning Commission may grant an extension thereof for good cause for a period not to exceed six (6) months.

The Zoning Administrator may suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this Ordinance whenever the permit is issued erroneously on the basis of incorrect information supplied by the applicant or his agent and is in violation of any of the provisions of this Ordinance or of any other ordinances or regulations of the City.
(g) Reapplication. No application for a special use permit which has been denied wholly or in part shall be resubmitted until the expiration of one (1) year or more from the date of such denial, except on grounds of newly discovered evidence or change of conditions found to be sufficient to justify reconsideration by the Citizens Planning Commission.

(h) Appeals. Any person aggrieved by a decision of the Citizens Planning Commission may appeal to the Zoning Board of Appeals on the following basis:

(1) That the Citizens Planning Commission has violated a rule of its procedure;
(2) That notice, as required by this Zoning Code, was not given; and
(3) That the findings of fact of the Citizens Planning Commission as established after review of standards or the Basis of Determination were against the greater weight of evidence.

(h) Appeal Process. The process for appeal shall be according to Chapter 1273 Zoning Board of Appeals. The Citizens Planning Commission shall be given sufficient notice of all such appeals and the decisions thereon.


1265.02 Adult Use Regulations.

(a) Intent. In the development and execution of these zoning regulations, it is recognized that there are some uses that, because of their very nature, are recognized as having serious objectionable operational characteristics, particularly when several of them are concentrated under certain circumstances, thereby causing a deleterious effect upon adjacent areas. The proximity of adult uses to certain uses considered particularly susceptible to the negative impacts or the concentration of adult uses tends to erode the quality of life, adversely affect property values, disrupt business investment, encourage residents and businesses to move from or to avoid the community, increase crime and contribute a blighting effect on the surrounding area. This section describes the uses regulated and the specific standards needed to insure that the adverse effects of these uses will not contribute to the deterioration of the surrounding neighborhood, to prevent undesirable concentration of these uses and to require sufficient spacing from uses considered most susceptible to negative impacts.

(b) Applicability. The uses defined in Section 1260.09(8) as "adult regulated uses" and any other uses determined to be similar, based on the standards of Section 1294.34, shall be permitted by special use permit, subject to the provisions and procedures set forth in Chapters 1284 and 1291 and subject to the following location requirements and specific design standards:

(1) Required Spacing. Adult regulated uses shall be spaced at least five hundred (500) feet from the following uses: any other adult regulated use; child day care homes; residential zoning districts and all residential uses; nurseries; primary or secondary schools; churches, convents, temples and similar religious institutions; and public parks, community centers, movie theaters, ice or roller skating rinks and other places of public assembly frequented by children and teenagers. The distance shall be measured horizontally between the nearest point of each property line.

Upon denial of any application for a special use permit under this section, the applicant may appeal for a reduction of the above location requirements to the Zoning Board of Appeals. The Zoning Board of Appeals may reduce the location requirements set forth in this section following a public hearing, upon a finding that the proposed use will not be contrary to any other provision of this Zoning Code or injurious to nearby properties and will not enlarge or encourage the development of a "skid row" or "strip."

(2) Special Site Design Standards.

A. The building and site shall be designed, constructed and maintained so that material such as a display, decoration or sign depicting, describing or relating to specified sexual activities or specified anatomical areas (as defined in this Zoning Code) cannot be observed by pedestrians and motorists on a public right of way or from an adjacent land use.

B. Adult regulated uses shall be located within a freestanding building. A shared or common wall structure or shopping center is not considered to be a freestanding building. The maximum size of the building shall be three thousand (3,000) square feet.

C. The site shall have access only onto an arterial street.

D. The color of the building materials shall be subject to approval by the Planning Commission.

E. No person shall reside in or permit any person to reside in the premises of an adult regulated use.

F. Adult regulated uses shall comply with all applicable federal, state and local licensing regulations. Initial and annual proof of such compliance shall be a condition of Special Use approval and the continuance thereof and shall be in accordance with Section ____ of this Ordinance.

(3) Conditions of Approval. The applicant must be in full compliance with and have obtained a license under Chapter 805 of these Codified Ordinances.

(4) Minors on Premises. No person operating, assisting in the operation of, or an employee of, an adult regulated use, shall permit any person under the age of 18 years of age to be on the premises of said business, either as an employee or customer.

(c) Procedure for Processing Applications. All applications to establish an adult regulated use shall be processed as a special use in accordance with the provisions and procedures set forth in Chapter 1284.


1265.03 Bed and Breakfast Establishments.

(a) In General. Bed and breakfast inns may be approved, by special use permit, in the districts indicated in Chapter 1263 Zoning District Regulations.

(b) Location. Bed and breakfast inns shall have direct access only to a major street, as designated on the Act 51 map.

(c) Architectural Compatibility. Bed and breakfast operations shall be architecturally compatible with other homes in the immediate area and shall not adversely impact on the current residential character of the area.

(d) Number of Sleeping Rooms. Bed and breakfast establishments shall be limited to eight (8) sleeping rooms, as established by the State Construction Code, Act 112 of the Public Acts of 1987, as amended.

(e) Location of Sleeping Rooms. No bed and breakfast sleeping room shall be located in the basement or above the second story of the dwelling.

(f) Length of Stay. The maximum length of stay for guests of a bed and breakfast shall be seven (7) consecutive days.

(g) Occupancy Limitation. No more than four (4) occupants shall be permitted to use a sleeping room.

(h) Cooking Facilities. Cooking facilities in guest sleeping rooms shall be prohibited.

(i) Parking.

(1) Location. In the R-1A and RM Districts, parking shall be permitted in the side or rear yard only. In the RM District, parking may be permitted in the front yard if an appropriate landscape buffer is proposed, as determined by the Citizens Planning Commission. In other districts, parking shall be permitted in any yard when meeting the standards of Section 1290.03.

(2) Number of spaces. One parking space shall be provided for each sleeping room, plus two spaces for the owner. The Citizens Planning Commission may consider a reduction of this parking requirement if appropriate on-street parking is available or if Municipal parking is available within three hundred (300) feet.

(j) Signs. Signs shall only be permitted if they are mounted on and parallel to the building, or freestanding if they are located within two (2) feet of the dwelling. In the R-1A District, sign size shall not exceed six (6) square feet.

(k) Inspections. Building, fire and health inspections shall be required before a permit is issued for a bed and breakfast inn.

(l) Management. A resident manager shall be required if the owner of the bed and breakfast inn does not reside within the bed and breakfast dwelling.

(m) Guest Registry. An official registry shall be required for all guests.


1265.04 Drive-in or Drive-through Restaurants.

(a) The main building, in addition to all accessory buildings, shall be setback fifty (50) feet from any adjacent public right-of-way line or property line.

(b) Such restaurants constructed adjacent to other commercial developments shall have a direct vehicular access connection where possible.

(c) A six (6) foot high obscuring wall, fence or landscaping shall be provided along any property line adjacent to a residential zoning district.


1265.05 Sidewalk Café Service.

A sidewalk cafe service operated by a restaurant or other food establishment which sells food for immediate consumption may be permitted subject to the following conditions:

(a) An application depicting the location and layout of the cafe facility shall be submitted to the Citizens Planning Commission. Site plan approval shall be required. A permit shall remain in effect, unless there is a change in ownership or the operation of the cafe fails to meet the standards contained herein.

(b) A sidewalk cafe may be located in front of or adjacent to the establishment. A sidewalk cafe that extends beyond the property lines of the applicant shall require the written permission of the affected property owners.

(c) A sidewalk cafe shall be allowed only during normal operating hours of the establishment.

(d) The exterior of the premises shall be kept clean, orderly and maintained or the permit may be revoked. All food preparation shall be inside the premises.

(e) The City shall not be held liable or responsible for any type of damage, theft or personal injury which may occur as a result of a sidewalk cafe operation.

(f) All sidewalk cafes shall comply with applicable Health Department regulations.


1265.06 Automobile Service Stations/Automobile Convenience Marts, Auto Repairs, Paint and Body Shops.

(a) The curb cuts for ingress and egress to a service station shall not be permitted at such locations that tend to create traffic hazards on the streets immediately adjacent thereto.

(b) Entrances shall be no less than twenty-five (25) feet from a street intersection (measured from the road right-of-way) or from adjacent residential property line.

(c) All driveways providing ingress to or egress from a filling or service station shall be not more than thirty (30) feet wide at the property line. No more than one curb opening shall be permitted for each seventy-five (75) feet of frontage or major fraction thereof along any street.

(d) The minimum lot area shall be twenty-five thousand (25,000) square feet, with a minimum frontage along the principal street of one hundred-fifty (150) feet. The property shall be so arranged that ample space is available for motor vehicles which are required to wait for services.

(e) Automobile service stations shall not be located within five hundred (500) feet of any school.

(f) Pump islands shall be a minimum of twenty-five (25) feet from any public right-of-way or lot line and shall be arranged so that motor vehicles do not park upon or overhang any public sidewalk, street or right-of-way while waiting for or receiving fuel service. Overhead canopies shall be setback at least fifteen (15) feet from the public right-of-way.

(g) Retail sale items such as soda pop, windshield solvent, landscape mulch or other merchandise shall not be displayed or sold outside.

(h) Outdoor storage or parking of vehicles, except for two (2) private automobiles per indoor stall or service area of the facility, shall be prohibited between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m. Vehicles which are awaiting service shall remain on-site for not more than seventy-two (72) hours. No outside storage of tires and other parts and accessories and partly dissembled or junked vehicles shall be allowed.

(i) Any work including repairs, servicing, greasing and/or washing motor vehicles shall be conducted within an enclosed building located not less than forty (40) feet from any street lot line, and not less than ten (10) feet from any side lot line.

(j) All outdoor areas used for the storage of motor vehicles waiting for service shall be effectively screened from view from abutting properties and public streets. Such screening shall consist of a solid masonry screening device except for gates, and such screening device shall not be less than six (6) feet in height. Parking areas for employees and customers shall be separate and apart from the storage area.

(k) Tow trucks or other commercial vehicles that are on the premises for reasons other than typical customer activity shall be parked in non-required parking spaces and should not be parked in such a manner to be used as an advertisement.

(l) The exterior of the main building shall be harmonious with its surroundings and shall include some brick, stone, wood, or other masonry finished building materials other than glass and metal. The canopies shall be designed within a minimum height of twelve (12) feet, and a maximum height of fifteen (15) feet, and the building design, including finished construction shall be related to or directly match the finish building materials and architectural style of the main building.

(m) The outdoor use of any electronic or enhanced sound or public announcement system shall be limited to the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. Such a system shall not be directed toward adjacent residentially zoned or used property, and shall generally not present an unreasonable disturbance to the neighborhood in which it is located.

(n) The installation and use of an oil-water separator with monitoring capabilities in the facility’s stormwater management system shall be required, as well as the use of best management practices for pollution prevention for automobile filling / service operations, in order to protect surface water and groundwater quality.

(o) Separation shall be made between the pedestrian sidewalk and vehicular parking and maneuvering areas with the use of curbs, greenbelts and/or traffic islands.

(p) Vehicle sales shall not be permitted on the premises.


1265.07 Automobile Washes.

(a) All buildings shall have a front yard setback of not less than forty (40) feet.

(b) All washing facilities shall be within a completely enclosed building.

(c) Vacuuming and drying areas may be located outside the building but shall not be in the required front yard and shall not be closer than one hundred (100) feet from any residential district. Noise from vacuuming or blow drying equipment shall be controlled by appropriate enclosures or sound barrier walls. All noise from such equipment shall comply with the City’s Noise Ordinance.

(d) All cars required to wait for access to the facilities shall be provided space off the street right-of-way and parking shall be provided in accordance with Section 32-136.

(e) Ingress and egress points shall be located at least sixty (60) feet from the intersection of any two (2) streets.

(f) All off-street parking and waiting areas shall be paved and dust free.

(g) A four (4) foot high completely obscuring wall shall be provided where abutting to a residential District.


1265.08 Outdoor Display and Sales.
Outdoor display and sales of manufactured products, garden supplies and similar uses, including new and used automobiles, boats, lawn care, construction machinery and other vehicles, shall be subject to the following requirements:
(a) The storage or display areas shall not be permitted in the front yard setback and shall meet all other yard setback requirements applicable to any building in the District.

(b) All outdoor sales and display areas shall be paved and include an approved stormwater drainage system.

(c) All loading activities and parking areas shall be provided on the same premises off-street.

(d) The site shall have a minimum frontage of no less than one hundred and fifty (150) feet and area of thirty-five thousand (35,000) square feet.

(e) Ingress and egress to the outdoor sales area shall be at least sixty (60) feet from the intersection of any two (2) streets.

(f) The storage of any soil, fertilizer, or similar loosely package materials shall be sufficiently contained to prevent any adverse effect upon adjacent properties.

(g) No outside storage of discarded or salvaged materials shall be permitted on the premises.

(h) All equipment or materials stored outdoors shall be enclosed by a fence or wall with a height at least equal to the tallest item stored.

(i) All repair work, collision repair, bumping, painting or similar automobile body work must be maintained as an accessory use and conducted within a completely enclosed building and all outside vehicles waiting for repair shall be screened with no less than a six (6) foot high masonry wall.

(j) There shall be no broadcast of continuous music or announcements over any loudspeaker or public address system.

(k) There shall be no strings of flags, pennants or bare light bulbs permitted.

(l) The site shall include a building of at least five hundred (500) feet of gross floor area for office use in conjunction with the approved use.


1265.09 State Licensed Day-Care Facilities.

All day care facilities indicated as special uses in Section 1263 as defined in Section 1261 (under “State Licensed Day Care Facilities”) shall meet the following standards:

(a) Child Care and Adult Day-Care Centers. Child care centers and adult day care facilities shall be subject to the following minimum standards:

(1) A site plan, prepared in accordance with Section ___ shall be required to be submitted.

(2) Outdoor play areas shall be required as follows:

A. For each person cared for, there shall be provided and maintained a minimum of one hundred fifty (150) square feet of outdoor recreation area.

B. The required outdoor play area shall have a total minimum area of not less than three thousand (3,000) square feet.

C. The outdoor play area shall be located in the side or rear yard, shall be fenced and shall be made and kept safe by the care-givers.

(3) The facilities shall not exceed sixteen (16) hours of operation during a twenty-four (24) hour period. Unless good cause is otherwise provided to the Citizens Planning Commission, a day care facility’s hours of operation shall be limited to between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.

(4) Operator must be licensed by the Michigan Department of Social Services.

(5) A compliance permit must be obtained from the Development Services Department before operation commences, compliance must be continuous.

(6) A child care and adult day-care center shall comply with all fire and traffic safety standards set by the Michigan Department of Social Services and the City of Monroe as determined by the Monroe Chief of Police and Fire Chief.

(7) Care-givers shall maintain control of noise to protect the surrounding neighborhood.

(8) All day care centers shall be currently registered with the 911 Dispatch Center on forms provided by said Center.

(9) License holder and all employees shall be subject to a background check and approval by the Monroe Chief of Police.

(b) Adult and Child Group Day Care Homes. Adult and child group day care homes are subject to the following minimum standards:

(1) A site plan, prepared in accordance with Section ___ shall be required to be submitted.

(2) A group day care home shall not be located closer than one thousand five hundred (1,500) feet to any of the following:

A. Another licensed group day care home.

B. An adult foster care small group home or large group home licensed by the State of Michigan.

C. A facility offering substance abuse treatment and rehabilitation service to seven (7) or more people licensed by the State of Michigan.

D. A community correction center, resident home, halfway home or other similar facility that houses an inmate population under the jurisdiction of the Department of Corrections.

(3) Outdoor play areas of at least three thousand (3,000) shall be securely fenced and screened, located in the side or rear-yard, and shall be made and kept safe by the care-givers. This requirement may be waived by the Citizens Planning Commission if a public open space is within five hundred (500) feet of the subject parcel.

(4) Maintenance of the property must be consistent with the visible characteristics of the neighborhood.

(5) Signage shall be allowed in accordance with home occupation standards of Section 1272.03.

(6) Drop-offs and loading shall be arranged to allow maneuvers without affecting traffic flow on the public street.

(7) Care-givers shall maintain control of noise to protect the surrounding neighborhood.

(8) The facilities shall not exceed sixteen (16) hours of operation during a twenty-four (24) hour period. Unless good cause is otherwise provided to the Citizens Planning Commission, a group day care’s hours of operation shall be limited to between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.


1265.10 State Licensed Foster Care Facilities.

(a) Adult Foster Care Group Homes. Adult foster family small and large group homes are subject to the following minimum standards:

(1) A site plan, prepared in accordance with Section ___ shall be required to be submitted.

(2) A minimum outdoor area of five hundred (3,000) square feet shall be provided on the same premises as the facility shall be provided. This open space shall be securely fenced and screened, located in the side or rear-yard, and shall be made and kept safe by the care-givers.

(3) The property shall be maintained in a manner that is consistent with the character of the neighborhood.

(4) One (1) parking space per employee and/or caregiver at the peak shift shall be provided.

(5) Appropriate licenses with the State of Michigan shall be maintained.

(6) The property and facilities shall be so constructed, arranged, and maintained as to provide adequately for the health and safety and welfare of all occupants.

(7) A group foster care home shall be inspected and approved for fire safety prior to the issuance of an occupancy permit and shall be inspected at least annually.

(8) Signage shall be allowed in accordance with home occupation standards of Section 1272.03.

(c) Adult Foster Care Congregate Facilities. Adult foster care congregate facilities are subject to the following minimum standards:

(1) A site plan, prepared in accordance with Section ___ shall be required to be submitted.

(3) Parking requirements as required for convalescent homes and similar facilities, set forth in Section _____ shall be met.

(4) All landscape requirements set forth in Section 32-162 shall be met.

(5) Appropriate licenses with the State of Michigan shall be maintained.


1265.11 Dog Kennels (Commercial).

(a) The building wherein dogs are kept, dog runs and/or exercise areas shall not be located nearer than one hundred (100) feet from the property line and shall not be located in any required front, rear or side yard setback area.

(b) Such facilities shall be subject to other conditions and requirements necessary to prevent possible nuisances (i.e. fencing, soundproofing and sanitary requirements).

(c) An operations/management plan shall be submitted to the City for approval.

(d) Any veterinary clinic building or structure which is used for the treatment or holding of animals and which is adjacent to a Residential District shall have walls which are soundproofed to allow a maximum transmission of 65 dB measured at any point on the outside of the exterior wall. All doors must be solid core, and ventilation shall be by forced air only.


1265.12 Golf Courses.

(a) Any accessory driving range shall be at least two hundred (200) feet from any residential building.

(b) Any maintenance, cart storage buildings or outdoor storage area shall be set back at least two hundred (200) feet from the property line of any abutting residential lot.

(c) The site plan shall illustrate expected trajectory or ball dispersion patterns along fairways and for driving ranges where adjacent to residential uses, buildings, parking lots or public streets to demonstrate the design will comply with accepted design practices and ensure public safety to a reasonable degree.

(d) Site size shall be sufficient to retain errant balls within the site. Netting shall be prohibited unless the Citizens Planning Commission determines the netting would be compatible with surrounding uses. The maximum height of any approved netting shall be thirty (30) feet, set back at least sixty (60) feet from a property line.

(e) The Citizens Planning Commission may restrict lighting and hours of operation for a driving range in consideration of surrounding land uses and zoning. A lighted driving range is prohibited if the site abuts land used, or expected to be used, for residential development.

(f) Tee areas for a driving range shall be clearly distinguished either by separated walls or the ground elevated between one and one-half (1/2) inches to six (6) inches.

(h) Any net used for the course shall be screened from public view by trees.


1265.13 Self-Storage / Mini-Storage Facilities.

(a) No activity other than rental of storage units shall be allowed. No commercial, wholesale, retail, industrial or other business activity shall be conducted from the facility.

(b) The storage of any toxic, explosive, corrosive, flammable or hazardous materials is prohibited. Fuel tanks on any motor vehicle, boat, lawn mower or similar property will be drained or removed prior to storage. Batteries shall be removed from vehicles before storage.

(c) All storage including vehicles of any kind shall be contained within a completely enclosed building.

(d) All storage units must be accessible by paved circular drives clearly marked to distinguish traffic flow. A minimum of twenty-four (24) foot drives shall be provided between buildings. Site circulation shall be designed to accommodate fire trucks, as well as trucks that will customarily access the site.

(e) Adequate means of security and management shall be provided and including lighting, fencing, or other methods of site security.

(f) Exterior walls of the ends of all storage units shall be of masonry or face-brick construction.


1265.14 Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities.

(a) All facilities must be at least one hundred (100) feet from a residential district.

(b) Access for facilities must be from arterial streets only.

1265.15 Veterinary Clinics.

(a) All clinics must be operated by a licensed or registered veterinarian.

(b) The principal and all accessory buildings or structures used for the treatment or holding of animals shall be set back at least one hundred (100) from abutting Residential Districts, churches or restaurants on the same side of the street, at least fifty (50) feet from the front property line, and at least fifty (50) feet from all other property lines.

(c) Outdoor pet enclosures or runs are not permitted.

(d) Outdoor exercising shall be allowed only when the pet is accompanied by an employee, provided that no animals shall be permitted outside of the buildings between 8:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. of the following day.

(e) All indoor boarding shall be limited to that incidental to treatment or surgery.

(f) Any veterinary clinic building or structure which is used for the treatment or holding of animals and which is adjacent to a Residential District shall have walls which are soundproofed to allow a maximum transmission of 65 dB measured at any point on the outside of the exterior wall. All doors must be solid core, and ventilation shall be by forced air only.


1265.16 Large Scale Retail Establishments.

(a) Minimum Area and Width. Large scale retail stores developed individually or in combination shall have a minimum area of ten (10) acres. Sites of less than ten (10) acres may be approved, at the sole discretion of the Planning Commission, when it is demonstrated by the applicant that the following conditions are met:

(1) The site will be developed and shall meet the requirements for maximum lot cover, maximum floor area cover, maximum height, and minimum yard (setback) requirements of the districts in which the site is located.

(2) Sufficient area is available to meet all landscaping and buffering standards set forth in Section _____, all parking requirements of Section____, and any other applicable standards.

(b) Design Standards. The applicant shall demonstrate in the submission of a site plan and supportive material that the following design standards are met:

(1) Aesthetic Character.

A. Facades and Exterior Walls:

1. Facades greater than one hundred (100) feet in length, measured horizontally, shall incorporate projections or recesses, neither of which shall exceed one hundred (100) horizontal feet.

2. Ground floor facades that face public streets shall have arcades, display windows, entry areas, awnings or other such features along no less than fifty (50) percent of their horizontal length.

3. Building facades must include repeating patterns of color, texture, and architectural or structural bays of twelve (12) inches in width (i.e. offsets, reveals or projecting ribs).

(2) Roofs.

A. Flat Roofs.

1. Incorporate parapets to conceal rooftop equipment from public view. The height of the parapets shall not exceed one third (1/3) of the height of the supporting wall.

B. Pitched Roof.

1. Provide overhanging eaves that extend no less than three (3) feet past the supporting walls.

2. The average slope shall be one (1) foot of vertical rise for three (3) feet of horizontal run.

(3) Materials and Colors.

A. Predominant exterior building materials shall be high quality material, including, but not limited to, brick, stone, and integrally tinted/textured concrete masonry units.

B. Facade colors shall be low reflectance, subtle, neutral or earth tone colors. The use of high intensity colors, metallic colors, black or fluorescent colors shall be prohibited.

C. Building trim and accent areas may feature brighter colors, including primary colors, but neon tubing shall not be an acceptable feature for building trim or accent areas.

D. Exterior building materials shall provide texture on at least fifty (50) percent of the facade, but shall not completely consist of smooth faced concrete block, tilt up concrete panels or prefabricated steel panels.

(4) Entryways. Each principal building shall have clearly defined, highly visible customer entrance consisting of a variety of architectural features such as the following:

A. Canopies, porticos or overhangs;
B. Recesses/projections;
C. Raised corniced parapets over the door;
D. Peaked roof form;
E. Display windows;
F. Integrated tile work and moldings;
G. Integral planters;
H. Pavement/material changes for pedestrian cross walks.

(c) Site Design.

(1) Parking Lot Location. No more than fifty (50) percent of the off street parking area devoted to the large scale retail establishment may be located between the front facade of the principal building and the abutting streets.

(2) Connectivity. The site design must provide direct connections and safe street crossings to adjacent land uses. Pavement/material changes at driveway crossings shall be installed to better define pedestrian cross walks.

(3) Pedestrian Circulation.

A. Circulation within and to the site is to be enhanced. Internal sidewalks shall be provided on site, and shall be connected to perimeter sidewalks.

B. Sidewalks, no less than eight (8) feet in width, shall be provided along the full length of the building along any facade featuring a customer entrance, and along any facade abutting public parking areas. No less than ten (10) feet shall exist between the building façade and the planting bed for foundation planting.

C. All internal sidewalks that cross or are incorporated into maneuvering lanes shall incorporate materials such as pavers, bricks or scored concrete to enhance pedestrian safety and comfort as well as the attractiveness of the walkways.

(4) Central Features and Community Space. Each large scale retail establishment shall contribute to the enhancement of the community by providing at least two (2) of the following: patio/seating area, pedestrian plaza with benches, window shopping walkway, outdoor playground area, kiosk area, water feature, clock tower or other such focal features or amenities. All such areas shall have direct access to the internal sidewalk network and constructed of materials that are compatible with the principal materials of the building and landscaping.

(5) Loading, Trash Containers, Outdoor Storage. Each of these functions shall be incorporated into the overall design of the building and landscaping to be visually compatible and fully screened from the view of adjacent properties and public streets. These features shall also be setback a minimum of fifty (50) feet from adjacent residentially zoned properties.

(d) Traffic Impact. The applicant shall submit a detailed traffic study in accordance with Section _____. Based on the results of the traffic impact study, the applicant shall propose methods of mitigating any adverse effects to the transportation network and show to what degree the proposed methods maintain or improve the operating levels of the impacted streets and intersections.


1265.17 Neighborhood Commercial Uses.

A feature of traditional residential neighborhoods is the ability to walk to nearby businesses that are small and convenience-oriented. These businesses, which can include such uses as small grocery/convenience stores and barber shops, encourage pedestrian circulation and reduce the need for using automobiles for quick trips.

(a) Purpose. Neighborhood Commercial Uses may be permitted by special use permit in all R-1C, R-2 and RM zoning districts.

(b) Permitted Uses. Neighborhood Commercial Uses shall be limited to the following:

(1) Convenience retail uses, limited to convenience/grocery stores not selling alcohol.

(2) Personal service establishments performing on-site services, limited to barbershops, beauty shops and health salons.

(c) Location Standards. Neighborhood Center Uses shall be limited to the following locations:

(1) Existing businesses and commercial buildings meeting the standards of this Section as of January 1, 2005, shall be permitted to continue operating in their present location.

(d) Accordance with other Ordinance Standards. All Neighborhood Commercial Uses shall be subject to the standards of the entire Zoning Ordinance to the fullest extent possible. Consideration shall be given by the Citizens Planning Commission to permit reduction in the standards of screening, landscaping and parking requirements. However:
A. Signage shall be limited to one wall sign with a maximum area of thirty-six (36) square feet.
B. Neon signage shall be prohibited.
C. Parking shall be available by either on-street parking or off-street parking located in the rear-yard of the lot. Off-street parking shall meet all screening requirements of Section _____.

(e) Architectural Compatibility. All Neighborhood Commercial Uses shall not adversely impact on the current residential character of area. Building elevations shall consist of wood, brick or stone.


1265.18 Nursing Homes, Convalescent Homes, Senior Housing and Children’s Institution.

(a) Lot Area. The minimum size for such facilities shall be three (3) acres.

(b) Frontage and Access. Such uses shall front onto a paved major thoroughfare.

(c) Setbacks. The principal building and all accessory buildings shall be set back a minimum distance of seventy-five (75) from all property lines.

(d) State and Federal Regulations. All of such facilities shall be constructed, maintained and operated in conformance with applicable state and federal laws.


1265.19 Salvage Yards.

All salvage yards shall conform to the following requirements:

(a) All materials stored outside shall be enclosed within a solid, unpierced fence or wall at least eight (8) feet in height, and not less in height than the materials. All gates, doors, and access ways through said fence or wall shall be of solid, unpierced materials. In no event shall any stored materials be in the area between the lines of said lot and the solid, unpierced fence or wall.

(b) All ingress or egress shall be limited to one (1) entrance to a paved road.

(c) On the lot on which a salvage yard is to be operated, all roads, driveways, parking lots, and loading and unloading areas shall be paved, so as to limit the nuisance caused by wind-borne dust on adjoining lots and public roads.




1265.20 Funeral Homes.

Funeral Homes shall be permitted as a special use provided that the plan shall provide for adequate off-street assembly area for vehicles to be used in funeral processions. A caretaker's residence may be provided within the building of a mortuary establishment.


1265.21 Wireless Telecommunications Towers and Antennas.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to establish general guidelines for the siting of wireless communications towers and antennas. The goals of this section are to:

(1) Protect residential areas and land uses from potential adverse impacts of towers and antennas.

(2) Encourage the location of towers in nonresidential areas.

(3) Minimize the total number of towers throughout the community.

(4) Strongly encourage the joint use of new and existing tower sites as a primary option rather than construction of additional single-use towers.

(5) Encourage users of towers and antennas to locate them, to the extent possible, in areas where the adverse impact on the community is minimal.

(6) Encourage users of towers and antennas to configure them in a way that minimizes the adverse visual impact of the towers and antennas through careful design, siting, landscape screening, and innovative camouflaging techniques.

(7) Enhance the ability of the providers of telecommunications services to provide such services to the community quickly, effectively, and efficiently.

(8) Consider the public health and safety of communication towers.

(9) Avoid potential damage to adjacent properties from tower failure through engineering and careful siting of tower structures.

In furtherance of these goals, the City of Monroe shall give due consideration to the City of Monroe's Master Plan, Official Zoning Map, existing land uses, and environmentally sensitive areas in approving sites for the location of towers and antennas.

(b) Applicability.

(1) New towers and antennas. All new towers or antennas in the City of Monroe shall be subject to these regulations, except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2) through (4) hereof.

(2) Amateur radio station operators; receive-only antennas. This section shall not govern any tower, or the installation of any antenna, that is under one hundred (100) feet in height and is owned and operated by a Federally-licensed amateur radio station operator or is used exclusively for receive-only antennas.

(3) Pre-existing towers or antennas. Pre-existing towers and pre-existing antennas shall not be required to meet the requirements of this section, other than the requirements of paragraphs (c)(6) and (7) hereof.

(4) AM array. For purposes of implementing this section, an AM array, consisting of one or more tower units and a supporting ground system, which functions as one AM broadcasting antenna, shall be considered one tower. Measurements for setbacks and separation distances shall be measured from the outer perimeter of the towers included in the AM array. Additional tower units may be added within the perimeter of the AM array by right.

(c) General Requirements.

(1) Principal or accessory uses. Antennas and towers may be considered either principal or accessory uses. A different existing use of an existing structure on the same lot shall not preclude the installation of an antenna or tower on such lot.

(2) Lot size. For purposes of determining whether the installation of a tower or antenna complies with district development regulations, including, but not limited, to setback requirements, lot coverage requirements, and other such requirements, the dimensions of the entire lot shall control, even though the antennas or towers may be located on leased parcels within such lot.

(3) Inventory of existing sites. Each applicant for an antenna and/or tower shall provide to the Zoning Administrator an inventory of its existing towers, antennas, or sites approved for towers or antennas, that are either within the jurisdiction of the City of Monroe or within two miles of the municipal boundary thereof, including specific information about the location, height, and design of each tower. The Zoning Administrator may share such information with other applicants applying for administrative approvals or special use permits under this section or other organizations seeking to locate antennas and/or towers within the jurisdiction of the City of Monroe, provided, however that the Zoning Administrator is not, by sharing such information, in any way representing or warranting that such sites are available or suitable.

(4) Aesthetics. Towers and antennas shall meet the following requirements:

A. Towers shall either maintain a galvanized steel finish or, subject to any applicable standards of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), be painted a neutral color so as to reduce visual obtrusiveness.

B. At a tower site, the design of the buildings and related structures shall, to the extent possible, use materials, colors, textures, screening, and landscaping that will blend them into the natural setting and surrounding buildings.

C. If an antenna is installed on a structure other than a tower, the antenna and supporting electrical and mechanical equipment must be of a neutral color that is identical to, or closely compatible with the color of the supporting structure so as to make the antenna and related equipment as visually unobtrusive as possible.

(5) Lighting. Towers shall not be artificially lighted, unless required by the FAA or other applicable authority. If lighting is required, the lighting alternatives and design chosen must cause the least disturbance to the surrounding views.

(6) State or Federal requirements. All towers must meet or exceed current standards and regulations of the FAA, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and any other agency of the State or Federal government with the authority to regulate towers and antennas. If such standards and regulations are changed, then the owners of the towers and antennas governed by this section shall bring such towers and antennas into compliance with such revised standards and regulations within six (6) months of the effective date of such standards and regulations, unless a different compliance schedule is mandated by the controlling State or Federal agency. Failure to bring towers and antennas into compliance with such revised standards and regulations shall constitute grounds for the removal of the tower or antenna at the owner's expense.

(7) Building Codes and Safety Standards. To ensure the structural integrity of towers, the owner of a tower shall ensure that it is maintained in compliance with standards contained in applicable State or local building codes and the applicable standards for towers that are published by the Electronic Industries Association, as amended from time to time. If, upon inspection, the City of Monroe concludes that a tower fails to comply with such codes and standards and constitutes a danger to persons or property, then upon notice being provided to the owner of the tower, the owner shall have thirty (30) days to bring such tower into compliance with such standards. Failure to bring such tower into compliance within said thirty days shall constitute grounds for the removal of the tower or antenna at the owner’s expense.

(8) Measurement. For purposes of measurement, tower setbacks and separation distances shall be calculated and applied to facilities located in the City of Monroe irrespective of municipal and county jurisdictional boundaries.

(9) Not Essential Services. Towers and antennas shall be regulated and permitted pursuant to this section and shall not be regulated or permitted as essential services, public utilities, or private utilities.

(10) Franchises. Owners and/or operators of towers or antennas shall certify that all franchises required by law for the construction and/or operation of a wireless communication system in the City of Monroe have been obtained and shall file a copy of all required franchises with the Zoning Administrator.

(11) Signs. No signs shall be allowed on an antenna or tower.

(12) Buildings and Support Equipment. Buildings and support equipment associated with antennas or towers shall comply with the requirements of subsection (f) hereof.

(13) Multiple Antenna/Tower Plans. The City of Monroe encourages the users of towers and antennas to submit a single application for approval of multiple towers and/or antenna sites. Applications for approval of multiple sites shall be given priority in the review process.

(d) Standards for Administrative Approval.

(1) General. The following provisions shall govern the issuance of administrative approvals for towers and antennas:

A. The Zoning Administrator, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, may administratively approve the uses listed in this section.

B. Each applicant for administrative approval shall apply to the Zoning Administrator, providing the information set forth in paragraphs (e)(2)A. and C. hereof and a nonrefundable fee as established by resolution of the Monroe City Council to reimburse the City of Monroe for the costs of reviewing the application.

C. The Zoning Administrator and the Site Plan Review Committee shall review the application for administrative approval and determine if the proposed use complies with subsection (c) and paragraphs (e)(2)D. and E. hereof.

D. The Zoning Administrator shall respond to each such application within sixty (60) days after receiving it by either approving or denying the application. If the Zoning Administrator fails to respond to the applicant within said sixty (60) days, then the application shall be deemed to be not approved.

E. In connection with any such administrative approval, the Zoning Administrator may, in order to encourage shared use, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, administratively waive any zoning district setback requirements in paragraph (e)(2)D. or separation distances between towers in paragraph (e)(2)E. by up to fifty (50) percent.

F. In connection with any such administrative approval, the Zoning Administrator may, in order to encourage the use of monopoles, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, administratively allow the reconstruction of an existing tower to monopole construction.

G. If an administrative approval is denied, the applicant shall file an application for a special use permit pursuant to subsection (e) hereof prior to filing any appeal that may be available under this Zoning Code.

H. The Zoning Administrator and/or Site Plan Review Committee may request Cable Committee review of an application for administrative approval pursuant to this section.

(2) List of Administratively Approved Uses. The following uses may be approved by the Zoning Administrator after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee:

A. Locating antennas on existing structures or towers consistent with the terms of paragraphs (d)(2)A.1. and 2. as follows:

1. Antennas on existing structures. Any antenna which is not attached to a tower may be approved by the Zoning Administrator, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, as an accessory use to any commercial, industrial, professional, institutional, or multi-family structure of eight or more dwelling units, provided that:

a. The antenna does not extend more than thirty (30) feet above the highest point of the structure;

b. The antenna complies with all applicable FCC and FAA regulations; and

c. The antenna complies with all applicable building codes.

2. Antennas on existing towers. An antenna which is attached to an existing tower may be approved by the Zoning Administrator, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, and, to minimize adverse visual impacts associated with the proliferation and clustering of towers, collocation of antennas by more than one (1) carrier on existing towers shall take precedence over the construction of new towers, provided that such collocation is accomplished in a manner consistent with the following:

a. Type of tower. A tower which is modified or reconstructed to accommodate the collocation of an additional antenna shall be of the same tower type as the existing tower, unless the Zoning Administrator allows reconstruction as a monopole.

b. Height.
(i) An existing tower may be modified or rebuilt to a taller height, not to exceed thirty (30) feet over the tower’s existing height, to accommodate the collocation of an additional antenna.

(ii) The height change referred to in paragraph (d)(2)A.2.b.(i) hereof may only occur one time per communication tower.

(iii) The additional height referred to in paragraph (d)(2)A.2.b.(i) hereof shall not require an additional distance separation as set forth in subsection (e) hereof. The tower’s premodification height shall be used to calculate such distance separations.

c. On-Site Location.

(i) A tower which is being rebuilt to accommodate the collocation of an additional antenna may be moved on-site within fifty (50) feet of its existing location.

(ii) After the tower is rebuilt to accommodate collocation, only one (1) tower may remain on the site.

(iii) A relocated on-site tower shall continue to be measured from the original tower location for purposes of calculating separation distances between towers pursuant to paragraph (e)(2)E. hereof. The relocation of a tower hereunder shall in no way be deemed to cause a violation of paragraph (e)(2)E. hereof.

(iv) The on-site relocation of a tower which comes within the separation distances to residential units or residentially zoned lands as established in paragraph (e)(2)E. hereof shall only be permitted when approved by the Zoning Administrator, after review and approval of the Site Plan Review Committee.

B. Locating any alternative tower structure in a zoning district other than I-1 Light Industrial or I-2 General Industrial that, in the judgment of the Zoning Administrator, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, is in conformity with the goals set forth in subsection (a) hereof.

C. Installing a cable microcell network through the use of multiple low-powered transmitters/receivers attached to existing wireline systems, such as conventional cable or telephone wires, or similar technology that does not require the use of towers.

(e) Standards for Special Use Approval.

(1) Criteria for Approval. The following provisions shall govern the issuance of special use permits for towers or antennas by the Citizens Planning Commission:

A. In granting a special use permit, the Citizens Planning Commission may impose conditions to the extent that the Citizens Planning Commission concludes such conditions are necessary to minimize any adverse effect of the proposed tower on adjoining properties.

B. Any information of an engineering nature that the applicant submits, whether civil, mechanical, or electrical, shall be certified by a licensed professional engineer.

C. The Citizens Planning Commission may request Cable Committee review of an application for special use approval pursuant to this section.

(2) Requirements for Approval.

A. Information required. In addition to any information required for applications for special use approval pursuant to Chapter 1284, applicants for a special use permit for a tower shall submit the following information:

1. A scaled site plan clearly indicating the location, type and height of the proposed tower, on-site land uses and zoning, adjacent land uses and zoning (including when adjacent to other municipalities), Master Plan classification of the site and all properties within the applicable separation distances set forth in paragraph (e)(2)E. hereof, adjacent roadways, proposed means of access, setbacks from property lines, elevation drawings of the proposed tower and any other structures, topography, parking, and other information deemed by the Zoning Administrator and/or the Site Plan Review Committee to be necessary to assess compliance with this section.

2. A legal description of the parent tract and leased parcel (if applicable).

3. The setback distance between the proposed tower and the nearest residential unit, platted residentially zoned properties, and unplatted residentially zoned properties.

4. The separation distance from other towers described in the inventory of existing sites submitted pursuant to paragraph (c)(3) hereof shall be shown on an updated site plan or map. The applicant shall also identify the type of construction of the existing tower(s) and the owner/operator of the existing tower(s), if known.

5. A landscape plan showing specific landscape materials.

6. Method of fencing and finished color and, if applicable, the method of camouflage and illumination.

7. A description of compliance with paragraphs (c)(3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (12) and (13), (e)(2)D. and E. and all applicable Federal, State or local laws.

8. A notarized statement by the applicant as to whether construction of the tower will accommodate collocation of additional antennas for future users.

9. Identification of the entities providing the backhaul network for the tower(s) described in the application and other cellular sites owned or operated by the applicant in the Municipality.

10. A description of the suitability of the use of existing towers, other structures or alternative technology not requiring the use of towers or structures to provide the services to be provided through the use of the proposed new tower.

11. A description of the feasible location(s) of future towers or antennas within the City based upon existing physical, engineering, technological or geographical limitations in the event the proposed tower is erected.

B. Factors considered in granting special use permits for towers. In addition to any standards for consideration of special use permit applications pursuant to Chapter 1284, the Citizens Planning Commission shall consider the following factors in determining whether to issue a special use permit, although the Citizens Planning Commission may waive or reduce the burden on the applicant of one or more of these criteria if the Citizens Planning Commission concludes that the goals of this ordinance are better served thereby:

1. The height of the proposed tower;

2. The proximity of the tower to residential structures and residential district boundaries;

3. The nature of uses on adjacent and nearby properties;

4. The surrounding topography;

5. The surrounding tree coverage and foliage;

6. The design of the tower, with particular reference to design characteristics that have the effect of reducing or eliminating visual obtrusiveness;

7. Proposed ingress and egress; and

8. The availability of suitable existing towers, other structures, or alternative technologies not requiring the use of towers or structures, as discussed in paragraph (e)(2)C. hereof.

C. Availability of suitable existing towers, other structures, or alternative technology. No new tower shall be permitted unless the applicant demonstrates to the reasonable satisfaction of the Citizens Planning Commission that no existing tower, structure or alternative technology that does not require the use of towers or structures can accommodate the applicant's proposed antenna. An applicant shall submit information requested by the Citizens Planning Commission related to the availability of suitable existing towers, other structures or alternative technology. Evidence submitted to demonstrate that no existing tower, structure or alternative technology can accommodate the applicant's proposed antenna may consist of any of the following:

1. No existing towers or structures are located within the geographic areas which meet the applicant's engineering requirements.

2. Existing towers or structures are not of sufficient height to meet applicant's engineering requirements.

3. Existing towers or structures do not have sufficient structural strength to support the applicant's proposed antenna and related equipment.

4. The applicant's proposed antenna would cause electromagnetic interference with antennas on the existing towers or structures, or the antennas on the existing towers or structures would cause interference with the applicant's proposed antenna.

5. The fees, costs, or contractual provisions required by the owner in order to share an existing tower or structure or to adapt an existing tower or structure for sharing are unreasonable. Costs exceeding new tower development costs are presumed to be unreasonable.

6. The applicant demonstrates that there are other limiting factors that render existing towers and structures unsuitable.

7. The applicant demonstrates that an alternative technology that does not require the use of towers or structures, such as a cable microcell network using multiple low-powered transmitters/receivers attached to a wireline system, is unsuitable. Costs of alternative technology that exceed new tower or antenna development costs shall not be presumed to render the technology unsuitable.

D. Setbacks. The following setback requirements shall apply to all towers for which a special use permit is required; provided, however, that the Citizens Planning Commission may reduce the standard setback requirements if the goals of this section would be better served thereby:

1. Towers must be set back a distance equal to at least one hundred (100) percent of the height of the tower from any adjoining lot line.

2. Guys and accessory buildings must satisfy the minimum zoning district setback requirements.

E. Height. Towers may be constructed up to the following heights:

1. For a single user, up to ninety (90) feet in height;

2. For two (2) users, up to one hundred twenty (120) feet in height; and

3. For three (3) or more users, up to one hundred fifty (150) feet in height.

F. Separation. The following separation requirements shall apply to all towers and antennas for which a special use permit is required; provided, however, that the Citizens Planning Commission may reduce the standard separation requirements if the goals of this section would be better served thereby:

1. Separation from off-site uses/designated areas.

a. Tower separation shall be measured from the base of the tower to the lot line of the off-site uses and/or designated areas as specified in Table ____, except as otherwise provided in Table ____.

b. Separation requirements for towers shall comply with the
minimum standards established in Table ___.

TABLE _____
TOWER SEPARATION BETWEEN USES/AREAS

Off-Site Use/Designated Area
Separation Distance
Single-family or duplex residential units1 200 feet or 300% height of tower2
Vacant single-family or duplex residentially zoned land which is either platted or has preliminary subdivision plan approval which is not expired 200 feet or 300% height of tower2, 3
Vacant unplatted residentially zoned lands4 100 feet or 100% height of tower2
Existing multi-family residential units greater than duplex units 200 feet or 300% height of tower2
Non-residentially zoned lands or non-residential uses 100 feet or 100% height of tower2
National Register Historic Overlay District (Section 1269.29) or Local Historic District (Chapter 1466) 200 feet or 300% height of tower2
1Includes modular homes and mobile homes used for living purposes.
2Minimum distance shall be the greater of the two figures.
3Separation measured from base of tower to closest building setback line.
4Includes any unplatted residential properties without a valid preliminary subdivision plan or valid development plan approval and any RM multiple residential zone.
2. Separation distances between towers.
a. Separation distances between towers shall be applicable for and measured between the proposed tower and preexisting towers. The separation distances shall be measured by drawing or following a straight line between the base of the existing tower and the proposed base, pursuant to a site plan, of the proposed tower. The separation distances (listed in linear feet) shall be as shown in Table 2.

TABLE _____
TOWER SEPARATION BETWEEN TOWERS
Type Lattice Guyed Monopole 75 ft. in Height or Greater Monopole Less Than 75 ft. in Height
Lattice 5,000 5,000 1,500 750
Guyed 5,000 5.000 1,500 750
Monopole
75 ft. in
Height or Greater 1,500 1,500 1,500 750
Monopole Less Than 75 ft. in Height 750 750 750 750

G. Security fencing. Towers shall be enclosed by security fencing not less than six (6) feet in height and shall also be equipped with an appropriate anti-climbing device; provided however, that the Citizens Planning Commission may waive such requirements, as it deems appropriate.

H. Landscaping. The following requirements shall govern the landscaping surrounding towers for which a special use permit is required:

1. Tower facilities shall be landscaped according to the standards of Chapter 1290, except that the standard buffer shall consist of a landscaped strip at least four (4) feet wide outside the perimeter of the compound.

2. In locations where the visual impact of the tower would be minimal, the landscaping requirement may be reduced or waived.

3. Existing mature tree growth and natural land forms on the site shall be preserved to the maximum extent possible. In some cases, such as towers sited on large, wooded lots, natural growth around the property perimeter may be sufficient buffer.

(f) Buildings or Other Equipment Storage.

(1) Antennas mounted on structures or rooftops. The equipment cabinet or structure used in association with antennas shall comply with the following:

A. The cabinet or structure shall not contain more than two (200) square feet of gross floor area or be more than ten (10) feet in height. In addition, for buildings and structures which are less than sixty-five (65) feet in height, the related unmanned equipment structure, if over four hundred (400) square feet of gross floor area or six (6) feet in height, shall be located on the ground and shall not be located on the roof of the structure.

B. If the equipment structure is located on the roof of a building, the area of the equipment structure and other equipment and structures shall not occupy more than thirty (30) percent of the roof area.

C. Equipment storage buildings or cabinets shall comply with all applicable building codes.

(2) Antennas mounted on utility poles or light poles. The equipment cabinet or structure used in association with antennas shall be located in accordance with the following:

A. In residential districts, the equipment cabinet or structure may be located:

1. In a front or side yard, provided that the cabinet or structure is no greater than six (6) feet in height or two (200) square feet of gross floor area and the cabinet or structure is located a minimum of twenty-five (25) feet from all lot lines. The cabinet or structure shall be screened by an evergreen hedge with an ultimate height of at least forty-two (42) to forty-eight (48) inches and a planted height of at least thirty-six (36) inches.

2. In a rear yard, provided the cabinet or structure is no greater than six (6) feet in height or two hundred (200) square feet in gross floor area. The cabinet or structure shall be screened by an evergreen hedge with an ultimate height of eight (8) feet and a planted height of at least thirty-six (36) inches.

B. In Commercial or Industrial Districts, the equipment cabinet or structure shall be no greater than ten (10) feet in height or two hundred (200) square feet in gross floor area. The structure or cabinet shall be screened by an evergreen hedge with an ultimate height of eight (8) feet and a planted height of at least thirty-six (36) inches. In all other instances, structures or cabinets shall be screened from view of all residential properties which abut or are directly across the street from the structure or cabinet by a solid fence six (6) feet in height or an evergreen hedge with an ultimate height of eight (8) feet and a planted height of at least thirty-six (36) inches.

(3) Antennas located on towers. The related unmanned equipment structure shall not contain more than two hundred (200) square feet of gross floor area or be more than ten (10) feet in height, and shall be located in accordance with the minimum yard requirements of the zoning district in which located.

(4) Modification of building size requirements. The requirements of paragraphs (f)(1) to (3) hereof may be modified by the Zoning Administrator, with review and approval of the Site Plan Review Committee in the case of administratively approved uses or by the Citizens Planning Commission in the case of uses permitted by special use to encourage collocation.

(g) Abandoned Antennas and Towers. Any antenna or tower that is not operated for a continuous period of twelve (12) months shall be considered abandoned, and the owner of such antenna or tower shall remove the same within ninety (90) days of receipt of notice from the City notifying the owner of such abandonment. Failure to remove an abandoned antenna or tower within said ninety (90) days shall be grounds for the City to remove the tower or antenna at the owner's expense. If there are two (2) or more users of a single tower, then this provision shall not become effective until all users cease using the tower.

(h) Nonconforming Uses.

(1) Nonexpansion of nonconforming use. Towers that are constructed, and antennas that are installed, in accordance with the provisions of this section shall not be deemed to constitute the expansion of a nonconforming use or structure.

(2) Pre-existing towers. Pre-existing towers shall be allowed to continue their usage as they presently exist. Routine maintenance (including replacement with a new tower of like construction and height) shall be permitted on such pre-existing towers. New construction other than routine maintenance on a pre-existing tower shall comply with the requirements of this section.

(3) Damaged or destroyed nonconforming towers or antennas. Notwithstanding subsection (g) hereof, bonafide nonconforming towers or antennas that are damaged or destroyed may be rebuilt without having to first obtain administrative approval or a special use permit and without having to meet the separation requirements specified in paragraphs (e)(2)D. and E. hereof. The type, height and location of the tower on-site shall be of the same type and intensity as the original facility approval. Building permits to rebuild the facility shall comply with the then-applicable building codes and shall be obtained within one hundred eighty (180) days from the date the facility is damaged or destroyed. If no permit is obtained or if said permit expires, the tower or antenna shall be deemed

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

CHAPTER 1265

SPECIAL LAND USES


1265.01 Special Land Uses.

In addition to permitted compatible uses specified in each zoning district, there are certain other uses which may be necessary or desirable to allow in certain locations in certain districts. However, due to their impacts on neighboring uses or public facilities, there is a need to carefully regulate them with respect to their location for the protection of the community. These uses may have to be established in a district where they cannot be reasonable allowed as a permitted use without meeting certain specified conditions. It is the intent of this Section to provide the necessary regulations to address such uses, to be referred to as "special uses." It is further the intent to provide the Citizens Planning Commission with a set of standards upon which to make decisions with respect to special uses.

(a) Authority. The Citizens Planning Commission shall have the power to approve, approve with conditions, or disapprove, all special land uses.

(b) Application. A request for special land use approval shall be made to the Citizens Planning Commission upon an application form provided by the Development Services Department. Said application for the approval of a special land use shall be made by an owner, lessee or other person with a legal interest in the property and who has the owner's consent, in writing, to file the application. Such application shall include the following (incomplete submittals shall not be accepted):

(1) Necessary fees, as determined by the City Council, made payable to the City of Monroe.

(2) The name and address of the applicant and proof of ownership or interest in the subject parcel.

(3) A site plan, in accordance with Section _____.

(4) A description of the proposed use of land.

(5) Any other studies or information which the City Staff or the Citizens Planning Commission determines is necessary to evaluate compliance with the standards set forth in this Section.

(6) The City Staff or the Citizens Planning Commission may require submittal of an impact assessment, in accordance with Section _____ or a traffic impact study, in accordance with Section _____.

(c) Procedures. An application for a special land use shall be processed as follows (see the flow chart following this Section):

(1) The applicant may request a pre-application conference with the City Staff.

(2) The applicant submits material described in Section _____.

(3) The Zoning Administrator reviews the proposed application to determine if all required information has been supplied, and then distributes the submitted material to appropriate departments for review.

(4) The submitted City Staff reports are distributed to the Citizens Planning Commission.

(5) The Clerk/Treasurer shall provide notice of a public hearing as described hereafter.

A notice of the public hearing shall be published in at least one (1) newspaper of general circulation and sent by mail or personal delivery to all persons to whom real property is assessed within three hundred (300) feet of the boundary of the property in question, and to the occupants of all structures within three hundred (300) feet. If the name of the occupant is not known, the term “occupant” may be used in making notification. Notification need not be given to more than one (1) occupant of a structure, except that if a structure contains more than one (1) dwelling unit or spatial area owned or leased by different individuals, partnerships, businesses, or organizations, one (1) occupant of each unit or spatial area shall receive notice. In the case of a single structure containing more than four (4) dwelling units or other distinct spatial areas owned or leased by different individuals, partnerships, businesses, or organizations, notice may be given to the manager or owner of the structure who shall be requested to post the notice at the primary entrance to the structure.

The notice shall be given not less than five (5) days or more than fifteen (15) days before the date the application will be considered. The notice shall describe the property in question and the nature of the special use permit request; state the time, date, and location of the public hearing; and, indicate when and where written comments will be received concerning the request.

(6) The Citizens Planning Commission shall conduct a public hearing.

(7) The Citizens Planning Commission shall review the special land use request in consideration of the general standards listed in Section _____.


(8) The Citizens Planning Commission, in its sole discretion, shall take one of the following actions:

A. Table the request and direct the applicant to provide any additional information necessary to make a decision, or direct the City Staff to conduct an additional analysis.

B. Approve the special land use.

C. Approve the special land use with conditions. Such conditions shall be reasonable and related to the impacts of the proposed use, considered necessary to insure compliance with the standards of this Zoning Ordinance and the Basis of Determination, and are hereby determined to be a valid exercise of the police power to protect the health, safety and welfare of adjacent property owners and the City overall.

D. Deny the special land use request if the Citizens Planning Commission determines that the special land use request does not meet the standards of this Zoning Ordinance or Basis of Determination, or will tend to be injurious to the public health, safety and welfare or to the orderly development of the City.

(9) The decision of the Citizens Planning Commission shall be incorporated in a statement of conclusions relative to the special land use under consideration. Any decision which denies a request or imposes conditions upon its approval shall specify the basis for the denial or the conditions imposed.

(10) If the special land use is approved, the Citizens Planning Commission shall take action on the site plan.

(d) Basis of Determination. The Citizens Planning Commission shall review each case individually and shall permit a special land use which is in compliance with this Zoning Code and is found to be:

(1) Compatible with adjacent uses of land in terms of location, size and character and will have no negative impact on adjacent property or the surrounding neighborhood;

A. Will be designed, constructed, operated, and maintained so as to be harmonious and appropriate in appearance with the existing or intended character of the general vicinity and will not change the essential character of the area.

B. Will not be hazardous or disturbing to existing uses or uses reasonably anticipated in the future.

C. Will be an improvement in relation to property in the immediate vicinity and to the City as a whole.

(2) Consistent with and promotes the intent and purpose of this Zoning Code and other applicable codes.

(3) Consistent with the natural environment;

(4) Compatible with the capacities of public services and facilities affected by the proposed use;

A. Will be served adequately by essential public services and facilities or that the persons responsible for the establishment of the proposed use will provide adequately any such service or facility.

B. Will not create excessive additional public costs and will not be detrimental to the economic welfare of the City.

(5) Consistent with vehicular turning patterns, traffic flow, intersections, view obstructions, ingresses and egresses, off-street parking and other existing conditions in the district;

(6) Designed, located and planned, and to be operated, so that the public health, safety and welfare will be protected; and

(7) Consistent with the goals, objectives and future land use plan described in the City of Monroe Master Plan.

















TABLE _____
SPECIAL USE PROCESS

(e) Conditions and Safeguards. The Citizens Planning Commission may impose such additional conditions and safeguards deemed necessary for the general welfare, for the protection of individual property rights, and for insuring that the purposes of this Ordinance and the general spirit and purpose of the district in which the special use is proposed will be observed. Such conditions shall conform to the standards found in Section 4a of Act 207 of 1921, as the same may be amended or superseded from time to time. The Citizens Planning Commission may summarize the conditions of approval on a form issued by the Zoning Administrator which shall be signed by the Chairperson of the Citizens Planning Commission and the applicant.

(f) Voiding and Extensions of Permit. Unless otherwise specified by the Citizens Planning Commission, any special use permit granted under this Section shall be null and void unless the property owner shall have made application for a building permit within one (1) year from the date of the granting of the permit. The Zoning Administrator shall give notice by certified mail to the holder of a permit that is liable for voiding action before voidance is actually declared. Said notice shall be mailed to the permit holder at the address indicated in said permit. Within thirty (30) days of receipt of notice of voiding of the permit, the applicant shall have the right to request an extension of the permit from the Citizens Planning Commission. The Citizens Planning Commission may grant an extension thereof for good cause for a period not to exceed six (6) months.

The Zoning Administrator may suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this Ordinance whenever the permit is issued erroneously on the basis of incorrect information supplied by the applicant or his agent and is in violation of any of the provisions of this Ordinance or of any other ordinances or regulations of the City.
(g) Reapplication. No application for a special use permit which has been denied wholly or in part shall be resubmitted until the expiration of one (1) year or more from the date of such denial, except on grounds of newly discovered evidence or change of conditions found to be sufficient to justify reconsideration by the Citizens Planning Commission.

(h) Appeals. Any person aggrieved by a decision of the Citizens Planning Commission may appeal to the Zoning Board of Appeals on the following basis:

(1) That the Citizens Planning Commission has violated a rule of its procedure;
(2) That notice, as required by this Zoning Code, was not given; and
(3) That the findings of fact of the Citizens Planning Commission as established after review of standards or the Basis of Determination were against the greater weight of evidence.

(h) Appeal Process. The process for appeal shall be according to Chapter 1273 Zoning Board of Appeals. The Citizens Planning Commission shall be given sufficient notice of all such appeals and the decisions thereon.


1265.02 Adult Use Regulations.

(a) Intent. In the development and execution of these zoning regulations, it is recognized that there are some uses that, because of their very nature, are recognized as having serious objectionable operational characteristics, particularly when several of them are concentrated under certain circumstances, thereby causing a deleterious effect upon adjacent areas. The proximity of adult uses to certain uses considered particularly susceptible to the negative impacts or the concentration of adult uses tends to erode the quality of life, adversely affect property values, disrupt business investment, encourage residents and businesses to move from or to avoid the community, increase crime and contribute a blighting effect on the surrounding area. This section describes the uses regulated and the specific standards needed to insure that the adverse effects of these uses will not contribute to the deterioration of the surrounding neighborhood, to prevent undesirable concentration of these uses and to require sufficient spacing from uses considered most susceptible to negative impacts.

(b) Applicability. The uses defined in Section 1260.09(8) as "adult regulated uses" and any other uses determined to be similar, based on the standards of Section 1294.34, shall be permitted by special use permit, subject to the provisions and procedures set forth in Chapters 1284 and 1291 and subject to the following location requirements and specific design standards:

(1) Required Spacing. Adult regulated uses shall be spaced at least five hundred (500) feet from the following uses: any other adult regulated use; child day care homes; residential zoning districts and all residential uses; nurseries; primary or secondary schools; churches, convents, temples and similar religious institutions; and public parks, community centers, movie theaters, ice or roller skating rinks and other places of public assembly frequented by children and teenagers. The distance shall be measured horizontally between the nearest point of each property line.

Upon denial of any application for a special use permit under this section, the applicant may appeal for a reduction of the above location requirements to the Zoning Board of Appeals. The Zoning Board of Appeals may reduce the location requirements set forth in this section following a public hearing, upon a finding that the proposed use will not be contrary to any other provision of this Zoning Code or injurious to nearby properties and will not enlarge or encourage the development of a "skid row" or "strip."

(2) Special Site Design Standards.

A. The building and site shall be designed, constructed and maintained so that material such as a display, decoration or sign depicting, describing or relating to specified sexual activities or specified anatomical areas (as defined in this Zoning Code) cannot be observed by pedestrians and motorists on a public right of way or from an adjacent land use.

B. Adult regulated uses shall be located within a freestanding building. A shared or common wall structure or shopping center is not considered to be a freestanding building. The maximum size of the building shall be three thousand (3,000) square feet.

C. The site shall have access only onto an arterial street.

D. The color of the building materials shall be subject to approval by the Planning Commission.

E. No person shall reside in or permit any person to reside in the premises of an adult regulated use.

F. Adult regulated uses shall comply with all applicable federal, state and local licensing regulations. Initial and annual proof of such compliance shall be a condition of Special Use approval and the continuance thereof and shall be in accordance with Section ____ of this Ordinance.

(3) Conditions of Approval. The applicant must be in full compliance with and have obtained a license under Chapter 805 of these Codified Ordinances.

(4) Minors on Premises. No person operating, assisting in the operation of, or an employee of, an adult regulated use, shall permit any person under the age of 18 years of age to be on the premises of said business, either as an employee or customer.

(c) Procedure for Processing Applications. All applications to establish an adult regulated use shall be processed as a special use in accordance with the provisions and procedures set forth in Chapter 1284.


1265.03 Bed and Breakfast Establishments.

(a) In General. Bed and breakfast inns may be approved, by special use permit, in the districts indicated in Chapter 1263 Zoning District Regulations.

(b) Location. Bed and breakfast inns shall have direct access only to a major street, as designated on the Act 51 map.

(c) Architectural Compatibility. Bed and breakfast operations shall be architecturally compatible with other homes in the immediate area and shall not adversely impact on the current residential character of the area.

(d) Number of Sleeping Rooms. Bed and breakfast establishments shall be limited to eight (8) sleeping rooms, as established by the State Construction Code, Act 112 of the Public Acts of 1987, as amended.

(e) Location of Sleeping Rooms. No bed and breakfast sleeping room shall be located in the basement or above the second story of the dwelling.

(f) Length of Stay. The maximum length of stay for guests of a bed and breakfast shall be seven (7) consecutive days.

(g) Occupancy Limitation. No more than four (4) occupants shall be permitted to use a sleeping room.

(h) Cooking Facilities. Cooking facilities in guest sleeping rooms shall be prohibited.

(i) Parking.

(1) Location. In the R-1A and RM Districts, parking shall be permitted in the side or rear yard only. In the RM District, parking may be permitted in the front yard if an appropriate landscape buffer is proposed, as determined by the Citizens Planning Commission. In other districts, parking shall be permitted in any yard when meeting the standards of Section 1290.03.

(2) Number of spaces. One parking space shall be provided for each sleeping room, plus two spaces for the owner. The Citizens Planning Commission may consider a reduction of this parking requirement if appropriate on-street parking is available or if Municipal parking is available within three hundred (300) feet.

(j) Signs. Signs shall only be permitted if they are mounted on and parallel to the building, or freestanding if they are located within two (2) feet of the dwelling. In the R-1A District, sign size shall not exceed six (6) square feet.

(k) Inspections. Building, fire and health inspections shall be required before a permit is issued for a bed and breakfast inn.

(l) Management. A resident manager shall be required if the owner of the bed and breakfast inn does not reside within the bed and breakfast dwelling.

(m) Guest Registry. An official registry shall be required for all guests.


1265.04 Drive-in or Drive-through Restaurants.

(a) The main building, in addition to all accessory buildings, shall be setback fifty (50) feet from any adjacent public right-of-way line or property line.

(b) Such restaurants constructed adjacent to other commercial developments shall have a direct vehicular access connection where possible.

(c) A six (6) foot high obscuring wall, fence or landscaping shall be provided along any property line adjacent to a residential zoning district.


1265.05 Sidewalk Café Service.

A sidewalk cafe service operated by a restaurant or other food establishment which sells food for immediate consumption may be permitted subject to the following conditions:

(a) An application depicting the location and layout of the cafe facility shall be submitted to the Citizens Planning Commission. Site plan approval shall be required. A permit shall remain in effect, unless there is a change in ownership or the operation of the cafe fails to meet the standards contained herein.

(b) A sidewalk cafe may be located in front of or adjacent to the establishment. A sidewalk cafe that extends beyond the property lines of the applicant shall require the written permission of the affected property owners.

(c) A sidewalk cafe shall be allowed only during normal operating hours of the establishment.

(d) The exterior of the premises shall be kept clean, orderly and maintained or the permit may be revoked. All food preparation shall be inside the premises.

(e) The City shall not be held liable or responsible for any type of damage, theft or personal injury which may occur as a result of a sidewalk cafe operation.

(f) All sidewalk cafes shall comply with applicable Health Department regulations.


1265.06 Automobile Service Stations/Automobile Convenience Marts, Auto Repairs, Paint and Body Shops.

(a) The curb cuts for ingress and egress to a service station shall not be permitted at such locations that tend to create traffic hazards on the streets immediately adjacent thereto.

(b) Entrances shall be no less than twenty-five (25) feet from a street intersection (measured from the road right-of-way) or from adjacent residential property line.

(c) All driveways providing ingress to or egress from a filling or service station shall be not more than thirty (30) feet wide at the property line. No more than one curb opening shall be permitted for each seventy-five (75) feet of frontage or major fraction thereof along any street.

(d) The minimum lot area shall be twenty-five thousand (25,000) square feet, with a minimum frontage along the principal street of one hundred-fifty (150) feet. The property shall be so arranged that ample space is available for motor vehicles which are required to wait for services.

(e) Automobile service stations shall not be located within five hundred (500) feet of any school.

(f) Pump islands shall be a minimum of twenty-five (25) feet from any public right-of-way or lot line and shall be arranged so that motor vehicles do not park upon or overhang any public sidewalk, street or right-of-way while waiting for or receiving fuel service. Overhead canopies shall be setback at least fifteen (15) feet from the public right-of-way.

(g) Retail sale items such as soda pop, windshield solvent, landscape mulch or other merchandise shall not be displayed or sold outside.

(h) Outdoor storage or parking of vehicles, except for two (2) private automobiles per indoor stall or service area of the facility, shall be prohibited between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m. Vehicles which are awaiting service shall remain on-site for not more than seventy-two (72) hours. No outside storage of tires and other parts and accessories and partly dissembled or junked vehicles shall be allowed.

(i) Any work including repairs, servicing, greasing and/or washing motor vehicles shall be conducted within an enclosed building located not less than forty (40) feet from any street lot line, and not less than ten (10) feet from any side lot line.

(j) All outdoor areas used for the storage of motor vehicles waiting for service shall be effectively screened from view from abutting properties and public streets. Such screening shall consist of a solid masonry screening device except for gates, and such screening device shall not be less than six (6) feet in height. Parking areas for employees and customers shall be separate and apart from the storage area.

(k) Tow trucks or other commercial vehicles that are on the premises for reasons other than typical customer activity shall be parked in non-required parking spaces and should not be parked in such a manner to be used as an advertisement.

(l) The exterior of the main building shall be harmonious with its surroundings and shall include some brick, stone, wood, or other masonry finished building materials other than glass and metal. The canopies shall be designed within a minimum height of twelve (12) feet, and a maximum height of fifteen (15) feet, and the building design, including finished construction shall be related to or directly match the finish building materials and architectural style of the main building.

(m) The outdoor use of any electronic or enhanced sound or public announcement system shall be limited to the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. Such a system shall not be directed toward adjacent residentially zoned or used property, and shall generally not present an unreasonable disturbance to the neighborhood in which it is located.

(n) The installation and use of an oil-water separator with monitoring capabilities in the facility’s stormwater management system shall be required, as well as the use of best management practices for pollution prevention for automobile filling / service operations, in order to protect surface water and groundwater quality.

(o) Separation shall be made between the pedestrian sidewalk and vehicular parking and maneuvering areas with the use of curbs, greenbelts and/or traffic islands.

(p) Vehicle sales shall not be permitted on the premises.


1265.07 Automobile Washes.

(a) All buildings shall have a front yard setback of not less than forty (40) feet.

(b) All washing facilities shall be within a completely enclosed building.

(c) Vacuuming and drying areas may be located outside the building but shall not be in the required front yard and shall not be closer than one hundred (100) feet from any residential district. Noise from vacuuming or blow drying equipment shall be controlled by appropriate enclosures or sound barrier walls. All noise from such equipment shall comply with the City’s Noise Ordinance.

(d) All cars required to wait for access to the facilities shall be provided space off the street right-of-way and parking shall be provided in accordance with Section 32-136.

(e) Ingress and egress points shall be located at least sixty (60) feet from the intersection of any two (2) streets.

(f) All off-street parking and waiting areas shall be paved and dust free.

(g) A four (4) foot high completely obscuring wall shall be provided where abutting to a residential District.


1265.08 Outdoor Display and Sales.
Outdoor display and sales of manufactured products, garden supplies and similar uses, including new and used automobiles, boats, lawn care, construction machinery and other vehicles, shall be subject to the following requirements:
(a) The storage or display areas shall not be permitted in the front yard setback and shall meet all other yard setback requirements applicable to any building in the District.

(b) All outdoor sales and display areas shall be paved and include an approved stormwater drainage system.

(c) All loading activities and parking areas shall be provided on the same premises off-street.

(d) The site shall have a minimum frontage of no less than one hundred and fifty (150) feet and area of thirty-five thousand (35,000) square feet.

(e) Ingress and egress to the outdoor sales area shall be at least sixty (60) feet from the intersection of any two (2) streets.

(f) The storage of any soil, fertilizer, or similar loosely package materials shall be sufficiently contained to prevent any adverse effect upon adjacent properties.

(g) No outside storage of discarded or salvaged materials shall be permitted on the premises.

(h) All equipment or materials stored outdoors shall be enclosed by a fence or wall with a height at least equal to the tallest item stored.

(i) All repair work, collision repair, bumping, painting or similar automobile body work must be maintained as an accessory use and conducted within a completely enclosed building and all outside vehicles waiting for repair shall be screened with no less than a six (6) foot high masonry wall.

(j) There shall be no broadcast of continuous music or announcements over any loudspeaker or public address system.

(k) There shall be no strings of flags, pennants or bare light bulbs permitted.

(l) The site shall include a building of at least five hundred (500) feet of gross floor area for office use in conjunction with the approved use.


1265.09 State Licensed Day-Care Facilities.

All day care facilities indicated as special uses in Section 1263 as defined in Section 1261 (under “State Licensed Day Care Facilities”) shall meet the following standards:

(a) Child Care and Adult Day-Care Centers. Child care centers and adult day care facilities shall be subject to the following minimum standards:

(1) A site plan, prepared in accordance with Section ___ shall be required to be submitted.

(2) Outdoor play areas shall be required as follows:

A. For each person cared for, there shall be provided and maintained a minimum of one hundred fifty (150) square feet of outdoor recreation area.

B. The required outdoor play area shall have a total minimum area of not less than three thousand (3,000) square feet.

C. The outdoor play area shall be located in the side or rear yard, shall be fenced and shall be made and kept safe by the care-givers.

(3) The facilities shall not exceed sixteen (16) hours of operation during a twenty-four (24) hour period. Unless good cause is otherwise provided to the Citizens Planning Commission, a day care facility’s hours of operation shall be limited to between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.

(4) Operator must be licensed by the Michigan Department of Social Services.

(5) A compliance permit must be obtained from the Development Services Department before operation commences, compliance must be continuous.

(6) A child care and adult day-care center shall comply with all fire and traffic safety standards set by the Michigan Department of Social Services and the City of Monroe as determined by the Monroe Chief of Police and Fire Chief.

(7) Care-givers shall maintain control of noise to protect the surrounding neighborhood.

(8) All day care centers shall be currently registered with the 911 Dispatch Center on forms provided by said Center.

(9) License holder and all employees shall be subject to a background check and approval by the Monroe Chief of Police.

(b) Adult and Child Group Day Care Homes. Adult and child group day care homes are subject to the following minimum standards:

(1) A site plan, prepared in accordance with Section ___ shall be required to be submitted.

(2) A group day care home shall not be located closer than one thousand five hundred (1,500) feet to any of the following:

A. Another licensed group day care home.

B. An adult foster care small group home or large group home licensed by the State of Michigan.

C. A facility offering substance abuse treatment and rehabilitation service to seven (7) or more people licensed by the State of Michigan.

D. A community correction center, resident home, halfway home or other similar facility that houses an inmate population under the jurisdiction of the Department of Corrections.

(3) Outdoor play areas of at least three thousand (3,000) shall be securely fenced and screened, located in the side or rear-yard, and shall be made and kept safe by the care-givers. This requirement may be waived by the Citizens Planning Commission if a public open space is within five hundred (500) feet of the subject parcel.

(4) Maintenance of the property must be consistent with the visible characteristics of the neighborhood.

(5) Signage shall be allowed in accordance with home occupation standards of Section 1272.03.

(6) Drop-offs and loading shall be arranged to allow maneuvers without affecting traffic flow on the public street.

(7) Care-givers shall maintain control of noise to protect the surrounding neighborhood.

(8) The facilities shall not exceed sixteen (16) hours of operation during a twenty-four (24) hour period. Unless good cause is otherwise provided to the Citizens Planning Commission, a group day care’s hours of operation shall be limited to between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.


1265.10 State Licensed Foster Care Facilities.

(a) Adult Foster Care Group Homes. Adult foster family small and large group homes are subject to the following minimum standards:

(1) A site plan, prepared in accordance with Section ___ shall be required to be submitted.

(2) A minimum outdoor area of five hundred (3,000) square feet shall be provided on the same premises as the facility shall be provided. This open space shall be securely fenced and screened, located in the side or rear-yard, and shall be made and kept safe by the care-givers.

(3) The property shall be maintained in a manner that is consistent with the character of the neighborhood.

(4) One (1) parking space per employee and/or caregiver at the peak shift shall be provided.

(5) Appropriate licenses with the State of Michigan shall be maintained.

(6) The property and facilities shall be so constructed, arranged, and maintained as to provide adequately for the health and safety and welfare of all occupants.

(7) A group foster care home shall be inspected and approved for fire safety prior to the issuance of an occupancy permit and shall be inspected at least annually.

(8) Signage shall be allowed in accordance with home occupation standards of Section 1272.03.

(c) Adult Foster Care Congregate Facilities. Adult foster care congregate facilities are subject to the following minimum standards:

(1) A site plan, prepared in accordance with Section ___ shall be required to be submitted.

(3) Parking requirements as required for convalescent homes and similar facilities, set forth in Section _____ shall be met.

(4) All landscape requirements set forth in Section 32-162 shall be met.

(5) Appropriate licenses with the State of Michigan shall be maintained.


1265.11 Dog Kennels (Commercial).

(a) The building wherein dogs are kept, dog runs and/or exercise areas shall not be located nearer than one hundred (100) feet from the property line and shall not be located in any required front, rear or side yard setback area.

(b) Such facilities shall be subject to other conditions and requirements necessary to prevent possible nuisances (i.e. fencing, soundproofing and sanitary requirements).

(c) An operations/management plan shall be submitted to the City for approval.

(d) Any veterinary clinic building or structure which is used for the treatment or holding of animals and which is adjacent to a Residential District shall have walls which are soundproofed to allow a maximum transmission of 65 dB measured at any point on the outside of the exterior wall. All doors must be solid core, and ventilation shall be by forced air only.


1265.12 Golf Courses.

(a) Any accessory driving range shall be at least two hundred (200) feet from any residential building.

(b) Any maintenance, cart storage buildings or outdoor storage area shall be set back at least two hundred (200) feet from the property line of any abutting residential lot.

(c) The site plan shall illustrate expected trajectory or ball dispersion patterns along fairways and for driving ranges where adjacent to residential uses, buildings, parking lots or public streets to demonstrate the design will comply with accepted design practices and ensure public safety to a reasonable degree.

(d) Site size shall be sufficient to retain errant balls within the site. Netting shall be prohibited unless the Citizens Planning Commission determines the netting would be compatible with surrounding uses. The maximum height of any approved netting shall be thirty (30) feet, set back at least sixty (60) feet from a property line.

(e) The Citizens Planning Commission may restrict lighting and hours of operation for a driving range in consideration of surrounding land uses and zoning. A lighted driving range is prohibited if the site abuts land used, or expected to be used, for residential development.

(f) Tee areas for a driving range shall be clearly distinguished either by separated walls or the ground elevated between one and one-half (1/2) inches to six (6) inches.

(h) Any net used for the course shall be screened from public view by trees.


1265.13 Self-Storage / Mini-Storage Facilities.

(a) No activity other than rental of storage units shall be allowed. No commercial, wholesale, retail, industrial or other business activity shall be conducted from the facility.

(b) The storage of any toxic, explosive, corrosive, flammable or hazardous materials is prohibited. Fuel tanks on any motor vehicle, boat, lawn mower or similar property will be drained or removed prior to storage. Batteries shall be removed from vehicles before storage.

(c) All storage including vehicles of any kind shall be contained within a completely enclosed building.

(d) All storage units must be accessible by paved circular drives clearly marked to distinguish traffic flow. A minimum of twenty-four (24) foot drives shall be provided between buildings. Site circulation shall be designed to accommodate fire trucks, as well as trucks that will customarily access the site.

(e) Adequate means of security and management shall be provided and including lighting, fencing, or other methods of site security.

(f) Exterior walls of the ends of all storage units shall be of masonry or face-brick construction.


1265.14 Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities.

(a) All facilities must be at least one hundred (100) feet from a residential district.

(b) Access for facilities must be from arterial streets only.

1265.15 Veterinary Clinics.

(a) All clinics must be operated by a licensed or registered veterinarian.

(b) The principal and all accessory buildings or structures used for the treatment or holding of animals shall be set back at least one hundred (100) from abutting Residential Districts, churches or restaurants on the same side of the street, at least fifty (50) feet from the front property line, and at least fifty (50) feet from all other property lines.

(c) Outdoor pet enclosures or runs are not permitted.

(d) Outdoor exercising shall be allowed only when the pet is accompanied by an employee, provided that no animals shall be permitted outside of the buildings between 8:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. of the following day.

(e) All indoor boarding shall be limited to that incidental to treatment or surgery.

(f) Any veterinary clinic building or structure which is used for the treatment or holding of animals and which is adjacent to a Residential District shall have walls which are soundproofed to allow a maximum transmission of 65 dB measured at any point on the outside of the exterior wall. All doors must be solid core, and ventilation shall be by forced air only.


1265.16 Large Scale Retail Establishments.

(a) Minimum Area and Width. Large scale retail stores developed individually or in combination shall have a minimum area of ten (10) acres. Sites of less than ten (10) acres may be approved, at the sole discretion of the Planning Commission, when it is demonstrated by the applicant that the following conditions are met:

(1) The site will be developed and shall meet the requirements for maximum lot cover, maximum floor area cover, maximum height, and minimum yard (setback) requirements of the districts in which the site is located.

(2) Sufficient area is available to meet all landscaping and buffering standards set forth in Section _____, all parking requirements of Section____, and any other applicable standards.

(b) Design Standards. The applicant shall demonstrate in the submission of a site plan and supportive material that the following design standards are met:

(1) Aesthetic Character.

A. Facades and Exterior Walls:

1. Facades greater than one hundred (100) feet in length, measured horizontally, shall incorporate projections or recesses, neither of which shall exceed one hundred (100) horizontal feet.

2. Ground floor facades that face public streets shall have arcades, display windows, entry areas, awnings or other such features along no less than fifty (50) percent of their horizontal length.

3. Building facades must include repeating patterns of color, texture, and architectural or structural bays of twelve (12) inches in width (i.e. offsets, reveals or projecting ribs).

(2) Roofs.

A. Flat Roofs.

1. Incorporate parapets to conceal rooftop equipment from public view. The height of the parapets shall not exceed one third (1/3) of the height of the supporting wall.

B. Pitched Roof.

1. Provide overhanging eaves that extend no less than three (3) feet past the supporting walls.

2. The average slope shall be one (1) foot of vertical rise for three (3) feet of horizontal run.

(3) Materials and Colors.

A. Predominant exterior building materials shall be high quality material, including, but not limited to, brick, stone, and integrally tinted/textured concrete masonry units.

B. Facade colors shall be low reflectance, subtle, neutral or earth tone colors. The use of high intensity colors, metallic colors, black or fluorescent colors shall be prohibited.

C. Building trim and accent areas may feature brighter colors, including primary colors, but neon tubing shall not be an acceptable feature for building trim or accent areas.

D. Exterior building materials shall provide texture on at least fifty (50) percent of the facade, but shall not completely consist of smooth faced concrete block, tilt up concrete panels or prefabricated steel panels.

(4) Entryways. Each principal building shall have clearly defined, highly visible customer entrance consisting of a variety of architectural features such as the following:

A. Canopies, porticos or overhangs;
B. Recesses/projections;
C. Raised corniced parapets over the door;
D. Peaked roof form;
E. Display windows;
F. Integrated tile work and moldings;
G. Integral planters;
H. Pavement/material changes for pedestrian cross walks.

(c) Site Design.

(1) Parking Lot Location. No more than fifty (50) percent of the off street parking area devoted to the large scale retail establishment may be located between the front facade of the principal building and the abutting streets.

(2) Connectivity. The site design must provide direct connections and safe street crossings to adjacent land uses. Pavement/material changes at driveway crossings shall be installed to better define pedestrian cross walks.

(3) Pedestrian Circulation.

A. Circulation within and to the site is to be enhanced. Internal sidewalks shall be provided on site, and shall be connected to perimeter sidewalks.

B. Sidewalks, no less than eight (8) feet in width, shall be provided along the full length of the building along any facade featuring a customer entrance, and along any facade abutting public parking areas. No less than ten (10) feet shall exist between the building façade and the planting bed for foundation planting.

C. All internal sidewalks that cross or are incorporated into maneuvering lanes shall incorporate materials such as pavers, bricks or scored concrete to enhance pedestrian safety and comfort as well as the attractiveness of the walkways.

(4) Central Features and Community Space. Each large scale retail establishment shall contribute to the enhancement of the community by providing at least two (2) of the following: patio/seating area, pedestrian plaza with benches, window shopping walkway, outdoor playground area, kiosk area, water feature, clock tower or other such focal features or amenities. All such areas shall have direct access to the internal sidewalk network and constructed of materials that are compatible with the principal materials of the building and landscaping.

(5) Loading, Trash Containers, Outdoor Storage. Each of these functions shall be incorporated into the overall design of the building and landscaping to be visually compatible and fully screened from the view of adjacent properties and public streets. These features shall also be setback a minimum of fifty (50) feet from adjacent residentially zoned properties.

(d) Traffic Impact. The applicant shall submit a detailed traffic study in accordance with Section _____. Based on the results of the traffic impact study, the applicant shall propose methods of mitigating any adverse effects to the transportation network and show to what degree the proposed methods maintain or improve the operating levels of the impacted streets and intersections.


1265.17 Neighborhood Commercial Uses.

A feature of traditional residential neighborhoods is the ability to walk to nearby businesses that are small and convenience-oriented. These businesses, which can include such uses as small grocery/convenience stores and barber shops, encourage pedestrian circulation and reduce the need for using automobiles for quick trips.

(a) Purpose. Neighborhood Commercial Uses may be permitted by special use permit in all R-1C, R-2 and RM zoning districts.

(b) Permitted Uses. Neighborhood Commercial Uses shall be limited to the following:

(1) Convenience retail uses, limited to convenience/grocery stores not selling alcohol.

(2) Personal service establishments performing on-site services, limited to barbershops, beauty shops and health salons.

(c) Location Standards. Neighborhood Center Uses shall be limited to the following locations:

(1) Existing businesses and commercial buildings meeting the standards of this Section as of January 1, 2005, shall be permitted to continue operating in their present location.

(d) Accordance with other Ordinance Standards. All Neighborhood Commercial Uses shall be subject to the standards of the entire Zoning Ordinance to the fullest extent possible. Consideration shall be given by the Citizens Planning Commission to permit reduction in the standards of screening, landscaping and parking requirements. However:
A. Signage shall be limited to one wall sign with a maximum area of thirty-six (36) square feet.
B. Neon signage shall be prohibited.
C. Parking shall be available by either on-street parking or off-street parking located in the rear-yard of the lot. Off-street parking shall meet all screening requirements of Section _____.

(e) Architectural Compatibility. All Neighborhood Commercial Uses shall not adversely impact on the current residential character of area. Building elevations shall consist of wood, brick or stone.


1265.18 Nursing Homes, Convalescent Homes, Senior Housing and Children’s Institution.

(a) Lot Area. The minimum size for such facilities shall be three (3) acres.

(b) Frontage and Access. Such uses shall front onto a paved major thoroughfare.

(c) Setbacks. The principal building and all accessory buildings shall be set back a minimum distance of seventy-five (75) from all property lines.

(d) State and Federal Regulations. All of such facilities shall be constructed, maintained and operated in conformance with applicable state and federal laws.


1265.19 Salvage Yards.

All salvage yards shall conform to the following requirements:

(a) All materials stored outside shall be enclosed within a solid, unpierced fence or wall at least eight (8) feet in height, and not less in height than the materials. All gates, doors, and access ways through said fence or wall shall be of solid, unpierced materials. In no event shall any stored materials be in the area between the lines of said lot and the solid, unpierced fence or wall.

(b) All ingress or egress shall be limited to one (1) entrance to a paved road.

(c) On the lot on which a salvage yard is to be operated, all roads, driveways, parking lots, and loading and unloading areas shall be paved, so as to limit the nuisance caused by wind-borne dust on adjoining lots and public roads.




1265.20 Funeral Homes.

Funeral Homes shall be permitted as a special use provided that the plan shall provide for adequate off-street assembly area for vehicles to be used in funeral processions. A caretaker's residence may be provided within the building of a mortuary establishment.


1265.21 Wireless Telecommunications Towers and Antennas.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to establish general guidelines for the siting of wireless communications towers and antennas. The goals of this section are to:

(1) Protect residential areas and land uses from potential adverse impacts of towers and antennas.

(2) Encourage the location of towers in nonresidential areas.

(3) Minimize the total number of towers throughout the community.

(4) Strongly encourage the joint use of new and existing tower sites as a primary option rather than construction of additional single-use towers.

(5) Encourage users of towers and antennas to locate them, to the extent possible, in areas where the adverse impact on the community is minimal.

(6) Encourage users of towers and antennas to configure them in a way that minimizes the adverse visual impact of the towers and antennas through careful design, siting, landscape screening, and innovative camouflaging techniques.

(7) Enhance the ability of the providers of telecommunications services to provide such services to the community quickly, effectively, and efficiently.

(8) Consider the public health and safety of communication towers.

(9) Avoid potential damage to adjacent properties from tower failure through engineering and careful siting of tower structures.

In furtherance of these goals, the City of Monroe shall give due consideration to the City of Monroe's Master Plan, Official Zoning Map, existing land uses, and environmentally sensitive areas in approving sites for the location of towers and antennas.

(b) Applicability.

(1) New towers and antennas. All new towers or antennas in the City of Monroe shall be subject to these regulations, except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2) through (4) hereof.

(2) Amateur radio station operators; receive-only antennas. This section shall not govern any tower, or the installation of any antenna, that is under one hundred (100) feet in height and is owned and operated by a Federally-licensed amateur radio station operator or is used exclusively for receive-only antennas.

(3) Pre-existing towers or antennas. Pre-existing towers and pre-existing antennas shall not be required to meet the requirements of this section, other than the requirements of paragraphs (c)(6) and (7) hereof.

(4) AM array. For purposes of implementing this section, an AM array, consisting of one or more tower units and a supporting ground system, which functions as one AM broadcasting antenna, shall be considered one tower. Measurements for setbacks and separation distances shall be measured from the outer perimeter of the towers included in the AM array. Additional tower units may be added within the perimeter of the AM array by right.

(c) General Requirements.

(1) Principal or accessory uses. Antennas and towers may be considered either principal or accessory uses. A different existing use of an existing structure on the same lot shall not preclude the installation of an antenna or tower on such lot.

(2) Lot size. For purposes of determining whether the installation of a tower or antenna complies with district development regulations, including, but not limited, to setback requirements, lot coverage requirements, and other such requirements, the dimensions of the entire lot shall control, even though the antennas or towers may be located on leased parcels within such lot.

(3) Inventory of existing sites. Each applicant for an antenna and/or tower shall provide to the Zoning Administrator an inventory of its existing towers, antennas, or sites approved for towers or antennas, that are either within the jurisdiction of the City of Monroe or within two miles of the municipal boundary thereof, including specific information about the location, height, and design of each tower. The Zoning Administrator may share such information with other applicants applying for administrative approvals or special use permits under this section or other organizations seeking to locate antennas and/or towers within the jurisdiction of the City of Monroe, provided, however that the Zoning Administrator is not, by sharing such information, in any way representing or warranting that such sites are available or suitable.

(4) Aesthetics. Towers and antennas shall meet the following requirements:

A. Towers shall either maintain a galvanized steel finish or, subject to any applicable standards of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), be painted a neutral color so as to reduce visual obtrusiveness.

B. At a tower site, the design of the buildings and related structures shall, to the extent possible, use materials, colors, textures, screening, and landscaping that will blend them into the natural setting and surrounding buildings.

C. If an antenna is installed on a structure other than a tower, the antenna and supporting electrical and mechanical equipment must be of a neutral color that is identical to, or closely compatible with the color of the supporting structure so as to make the antenna and related equipment as visually unobtrusive as possible.

(5) Lighting. Towers shall not be artificially lighted, unless required by the FAA or other applicable authority. If lighting is required, the lighting alternatives and design chosen must cause the least disturbance to the surrounding views.

(6) State or Federal requirements. All towers must meet or exceed current standards and regulations of the FAA, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and any other agency of the State or Federal government with the authority to regulate towers and antennas. If such standards and regulations are changed, then the owners of the towers and antennas governed by this section shall bring such towers and antennas into compliance with such revised standards and regulations within six (6) months of the effective date of such standards and regulations, unless a different compliance schedule is mandated by the controlling State or Federal agency. Failure to bring towers and antennas into compliance with such revised standards and regulations shall constitute grounds for the removal of the tower or antenna at the owner's expense.

(7) Building Codes and Safety Standards. To ensure the structural integrity of towers, the owner of a tower shall ensure that it is maintained in compliance with standards contained in applicable State or local building codes and the applicable standards for towers that are published by the Electronic Industries Association, as amended from time to time. If, upon inspection, the City of Monroe concludes that a tower fails to comply with such codes and standards and constitutes a danger to persons or property, then upon notice being provided to the owner of the tower, the owner shall have thirty (30) days to bring such tower into compliance with such standards. Failure to bring such tower into compliance within said thirty days shall constitute grounds for the removal of the tower or antenna at the owner’s expense.

(8) Measurement. For purposes of measurement, tower setbacks and separation distances shall be calculated and applied to facilities located in the City of Monroe irrespective of municipal and county jurisdictional boundaries.

(9) Not Essential Services. Towers and antennas shall be regulated and permitted pursuant to this section and shall not be regulated or permitted as essential services, public utilities, or private utilities.

(10) Franchises. Owners and/or operators of towers or antennas shall certify that all franchises required by law for the construction and/or operation of a wireless communication system in the City of Monroe have been obtained and shall file a copy of all required franchises with the Zoning Administrator.

(11) Signs. No signs shall be allowed on an antenna or tower.

(12) Buildings and Support Equipment. Buildings and support equipment associated with antennas or towers shall comply with the requirements of subsection (f) hereof.

(13) Multiple Antenna/Tower Plans. The City of Monroe encourages the users of towers and antennas to submit a single application for approval of multiple towers and/or antenna sites. Applications for approval of multiple sites shall be given priority in the review process.

(d) Standards for Administrative Approval.

(1) General. The following provisions shall govern the issuance of administrative approvals for towers and antennas:

A. The Zoning Administrator, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, may administratively approve the uses listed in this section.

B. Each applicant for administrative approval shall apply to the Zoning Administrator, providing the information set forth in paragraphs (e)(2)A. and C. hereof and a nonrefundable fee as established by resolution of the Monroe City Council to reimburse the City of Monroe for the costs of reviewing the application.

C. The Zoning Administrator and the Site Plan Review Committee shall review the application for administrative approval and determine if the proposed use complies with subsection (c) and paragraphs (e)(2)D. and E. hereof.

D. The Zoning Administrator shall respond to each such application within sixty (60) days after receiving it by either approving or denying the application. If the Zoning Administrator fails to respond to the applicant within said sixty (60) days, then the application shall be deemed to be not approved.

E. In connection with any such administrative approval, the Zoning Administrator may, in order to encourage shared use, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, administratively waive any zoning district setback requirements in paragraph (e)(2)D. or separation distances between towers in paragraph (e)(2)E. by up to fifty (50) percent.

F. In connection with any such administrative approval, the Zoning Administrator may, in order to encourage the use of monopoles, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, administratively allow the reconstruction of an existing tower to monopole construction.

G. If an administrative approval is denied, the applicant shall file an application for a special use permit pursuant to subsection (e) hereof prior to filing any appeal that may be available under this Zoning Code.

H. The Zoning Administrator and/or Site Plan Review Committee may request Cable Committee review of an application for administrative approval pursuant to this section.

(2) List of Administratively Approved Uses. The following uses may be approved by the Zoning Administrator after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee:

A. Locating antennas on existing structures or towers consistent with the terms of paragraphs (d)(2)A.1. and 2. as follows:

1. Antennas on existing structures. Any antenna which is not attached to a tower may be approved by the Zoning Administrator, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, as an accessory use to any commercial, industrial, professional, institutional, or multi-family structure of eight or more dwelling units, provided that:

a. The antenna does not extend more than thirty (30) feet above the highest point of the structure;

b. The antenna complies with all applicable FCC and FAA regulations; and

c. The antenna complies with all applicable building codes.

2. Antennas on existing towers. An antenna which is attached to an existing tower may be approved by the Zoning Administrator, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, and, to minimize adverse visual impacts associated with the proliferation and clustering of towers, collocation of antennas by more than one (1) carrier on existing towers shall take precedence over the construction of new towers, provided that such collocation is accomplished in a manner consistent with the following:

a. Type of tower. A tower which is modified or reconstructed to accommodate the collocation of an additional antenna shall be of the same tower type as the existing tower, unless the Zoning Administrator allows reconstruction as a monopole.

b. Height.
(i) An existing tower may be modified or rebuilt to a taller height, not to exceed thirty (30) feet over the tower’s existing height, to accommodate the collocation of an additional antenna.

(ii) The height change referred to in paragraph (d)(2)A.2.b.(i) hereof may only occur one time per communication tower.

(iii) The additional height referred to in paragraph (d)(2)A.2.b.(i) hereof shall not require an additional distance separation as set forth in subsection (e) hereof. The tower’s premodification height shall be used to calculate such distance separations.

c. On-Site Location.

(i) A tower which is being rebuilt to accommodate the collocation of an additional antenna may be moved on-site within fifty (50) feet of its existing location.

(ii) After the tower is rebuilt to accommodate collocation, only one (1) tower may remain on the site.

(iii) A relocated on-site tower shall continue to be measured from the original tower location for purposes of calculating separation distances between towers pursuant to paragraph (e)(2)E. hereof. The relocation of a tower hereunder shall in no way be deemed to cause a violation of paragraph (e)(2)E. hereof.

(iv) The on-site relocation of a tower which comes within the separation distances to residential units or residentially zoned lands as established in paragraph (e)(2)E. hereof shall only be permitted when approved by the Zoning Administrator, after review and approval of the Site Plan Review Committee.

B. Locating any alternative tower structure in a zoning district other than I-1 Light Industrial or I-2 General Industrial that, in the judgment of the Zoning Administrator, after review and approval by the Site Plan Review Committee, is in conformity with the goals set forth in subsection (a) hereof.

C. Installing a cable microcell network through the use of multiple low-powered transmitters/receivers attached to existing wireline systems, such as conventional cable or telephone wires, or similar technology that does not require the use of towers.

(e) Standards for Special Use Approval.

(1) Criteria for Approval. The following provisions shall govern the issuance of special use permits for towers or antennas by the Citizens Planning Commission:

A. In granting a special use permit, the Citizens Planning Commission may impose conditions to the extent that the Citizens Planning Commission concludes such conditions are necessary to minimize any adverse effect of the proposed tower on adjoining properties.

B. Any information of an engineering nature that the applicant submits, whether civil, mechanical, or electrical, shall be certified by a licensed professional engineer.

C. The Citizens Planning Commission may request Cable Committee review of an application for special use approval pursuant to this section.

(2) Requirements for Approval.

A. Information required. In addition to any information required for applications for special use approval pursuant to Chapter 1284, applicants for a special use permit for a tower shall submit the following information:

1. A scaled site plan clearly indicating the location, type and height of the proposed tower, on-site land uses and zoning, adjacent land uses and zoning (including when adjacent to other municipalities), Master Plan classification of the site and all properties within the applicable separation distances set forth in paragraph (e)(2)E. hereof, adjacent roadways, proposed means of access, setbacks from property lines, elevation drawings of the proposed tower and any other structures, topography, parking, and other information deemed by the Zoning Administrator and/or the Site Plan Review Committee to be necessary to assess compliance with this section.

2. A legal description of the parent tract and leased parcel (if applicable).

3. The setback distance between the proposed tower and the nearest residential unit, platted residentially zoned properties, and unplatted residentially zoned properties.

4. The separation distance from other towers described in the inventory of existing sites submitted pursuant to paragraph (c)(3) hereof shall be shown on an updated site plan or map. The applicant shall also identify the type of construction of the existing tower(s) and the owner/operator of the existing tower(s), if known.

5. A landscape plan showing specific landscape materials.

6. Method of fencing and finished color and, if applicable, the method of camouflage and illumination.

7. A description of compliance with paragraphs (c)(3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (12) and (13), (e)(2)D. and E. and all applicable Federal, State or local laws.

8. A notarized statement by the applicant as to whether construction of the tower will accommodate collocation of additional antennas for future users.

9. Identification of the entities providing the backhaul network for the tower(s) described in the application and other cellular sites owned or operated by the applicant in the Municipality.

10. A description of the suitability of the use of existing towers, other structures or alternative technology not requiring the use of towers or structures to provide the services to be provided through the use of the proposed new tower.

11. A description of the feasible location(s) of future towers or antennas within the City based upon existing physical, engineering, technological or geographical limitations in the event the proposed tower is erected.

B. Factors considered in granting special use permits for towers. In addition to any standards for consideration of special use permit applications pursuant to Chapter 1284, the Citizens Planning Commission shall consider the following factors in determining whether to issue a special use permit, although the Citizens Planning Commission may waive or reduce the burden on the applicant of one or more of these criteria if the Citizens Planning Commission concludes that the goals of this ordinance are better served thereby:

1. The height of the proposed tower;

2. The proximity of the tower to residential structures and residential district boundaries;

3. The nature of uses on adjacent and nearby properties;

4. The surrounding topography;

5. The surrounding tree coverage and foliage;

6. The design of the tower, with particular reference to design characteristics that have the effect of reducing or eliminating visual obtrusiveness;

7. Proposed ingress and egress; and

8. The availability of suitable existing towers, other structures, or alternative technologies not requiring the use of towers or structures, as discussed in paragraph (e)(2)C. hereof.

C. Availability of suitable existing towers, other structures, or alternative technology. No new tower shall be permitted unless the applicant demonstrates to the reasonable satisfaction of the Citizens Planning Commission that no existing tower, structure or alternative technology that does not require the use of towers or structures can accommodate the applicant's proposed antenna. An applicant shall submit information requested by the Citizens Planning Commission related to the availability of suitable existing towers, other structures or alternative technology. Evidence submitted to demonstrate that no existing tower, structure or alternative technology can accommodate the applicant's proposed antenna may consist of any of the following:

1. No existing towers or structures are located within the geographic areas which meet the applicant's engineering requirements.

2. Existing towers or structures are not of sufficient height to meet applicant's engineering requirements.

3. Existing towers or structures do not have sufficient structural strength to support the applicant's proposed antenna and related equipment.

4. The applicant's proposed antenna would cause electromagnetic interference with antennas on the existing towers or structures, or the antennas on the existing towers or structures would cause interference with the applicant's proposed antenna.

5. The fees, costs, or contractual provisions required by the owner in order to share an existing tower or structure or to adapt an existing tower or structure for sharing are unreasonable. Costs exceeding new tower development costs are presumed to be unreasonable.

6. The applicant demonstrates that there are other limiting factors that render existing towers and structures unsuitable.

7. The applicant demonstrates that an alternative technology that does not require the use of towers or structures, such as a cable microcell network using multiple low-powered transmitters/receivers attached to a wireline system, is unsuitable. Costs of alternative technology that exceed new tower or antenna development costs shall not be presumed to render the technology unsuitable.

D. Setbacks. The following setback requirements shall apply to all towers for which a special use permit is required; provided, however, that the Citizens Planning Commission may reduce the standard setback requirements if the goals of this section would be better served thereby:

1. Towers must be set back a distance equal to at least one hundred (100) percent of the height of the tower from any adjoining lot line.

2. Guys and accessory buildings must satisfy the minimum zoning district setback requirements.

E. Height. Towers may be constructed up to the following heights:

1. For a single user, up to ninety (90) feet in height;

2. For two (2) users, up to one hundred twenty (120) feet in height; and

3. For three (3) or more users, up to one hundred fifty (150) feet in height.

F. Separation. The following separation requirements shall apply to all towers and antennas for which a special use permit is required; provided, however, that the Citizens Planning Commission may reduce the standard separation requirements if the goals of this section would be better served thereby:

1. Separation from off-site uses/designated areas.

a. Tower separation shall be measured from the base of the tower to the lot line of the off-site uses and/or designated areas as specified in Table ____, except as otherwise provided in Table ____.

b. Separation requirements for towers shall comply with the
minimum standards established in Table ___.

TABLE _____
TOWER SEPARATION BETWEEN USES/AREAS

Off-Site Use/Designated Area
Separation Distance
Single-family or duplex residential units1 200 feet or 300% height of tower2
Vacant single-family or duplex residentially zoned land which is either platted or has preliminary subdivision plan approval which is not expired 200 feet or 300% height of tower2, 3
Vacant unplatted residentially zoned lands4 100 feet or 100% height of tower2
Existing multi-family residential units greater than duplex units 200 feet or 300% height of tower2
Non-residentially zoned lands or non-residential uses 100 feet or 100% height of tower2
National Register Historic Overlay District (Section 1269.29) or Local Historic District (Chapter 1466) 200 feet or 300% height of tower2
1Includes modular homes and mobile homes used for living purposes.
2Minimum distance shall be the greater of the two figures.
3Separation measured from base of tower to closest building setback line.
4Includes any unplatted residential properties without a valid preliminary subdivision plan or valid development plan approval and any RM multiple residential zone.
2. Separation distances between towers.
a. Separation distances between towers shall be applicable for and measured between the proposed tower and preexisting towers. The separation distances shall be measured by drawing or following a straight line between the base of the existing tower and the proposed base, pursuant to a site plan, of the proposed tower. The separation distances (listed in linear feet) shall be as shown in Table 2.

TABLE _____
TOWER SEPARATION BETWEEN TOWERS
Type Lattice Guyed Monopole 75 ft. in Height or Greater Monopole Less Than 75 ft. in Height
Lattice 5,000 5,000 1,500 750
Guyed 5,000 5.000 1,500 750
Monopole
75 ft. in
Height or Greater 1,500 1,500 1,500 750
Monopole Less Than 75 ft. in Height 750 750 750 750

G. Security fencing. Towers shall be enclosed by security fencing not less than six (6) feet in height and shall also be equipped with an appropriate anti-climbing device; provided however, that the Citizens Planning Commission may waive such requirements, as it deems appropriate.

H. Landscaping. The following requirements shall govern the landscaping surrounding towers for which a special use permit is required:

1. Tower facilities shall be landscaped according to the standards of Chapter 1290, except that the standard buffer shall consist of a landscaped strip at least four (4) feet wide outside the perimeter of the compound.

2. In locations where the visual impact of the tower would be minimal, the landscaping requirement may be reduced or waived.

3. Existing mature tree growth and natural land forms on the site shall be preserved to the maximum extent possible. In some cases, such as towers sited on large, wooded lots, natural growth around the property perimeter may be sufficient buffer.

(f) Buildings or Other Equipment Storage.

(1) Antennas mounted on structures or rooftops. The equipment cabinet or structure used in association with antennas shall comply with the following:

A. The cabinet or structure shall not contain more than two (200) square feet of gross floor area or be more than ten (10) feet in height. In addition, for buildings and structures which are less than sixty-five (65) feet in height, the related unmanned equipment structure, if over four hundred (400) square feet of gross floor area or six (6) feet in height, shall be located on the ground and shall not be located on the roof of the structure.

B. If the equipment structure is located on the roof of a building, the area of the equipment structure and other equipment and structures shall not occupy more than thirty (30) percent of the roof area.

C. Equipment storage buildings or cabinets shall comply with all applicable building codes.

(2) Antennas mounted on utility poles or light poles. The equipment cabinet or structure used in association with antennas shall be located in accordance with the following:

A. In residential districts, the equipment cabinet or structure may be located:

1. In a front or side yard, provided that the cabinet or structure is no greater than six (6) feet in height or two (200) square feet of gross floor area and the cabinet or structure is located a minimum of twenty-five (25) feet from all lot lines. The cabinet or structure shall be screened by an evergreen hedge with an ultimate height of at least forty-two (42) to forty-eight (48) inches and a planted height of at least thirty-six (36) inches.

2. In a rear yard, provided the cabinet or structure is no greater than six (6) feet in height or two hundred (200) square feet in gross floor area. The cabinet or structure shall be screened by an evergreen hedge with an ultimate height of eight (8) feet and a planted height of at least thirty-six (36) inches.

B. In Commercial or Industrial Districts, the equipment cabinet or structure shall be no greater than ten (10) feet in height or two hundred (200) square feet in gross floor area. The structure or cabinet shall be screened by an evergreen hedge with an ultimate height of eight (8) feet and a planted height of at least thirty-six (36) inches. In all other instances, structures or cabinets shall be screened from view of all residential properties which abut or are directly across the street from the structure or cabinet by a solid fence six (6) feet in height or an evergreen hedge with an ultimate height of eight (8) feet and a planted height of at least thirty-six (36) inches.

(3) Antennas located on towers. The related unmanned equipment structure shall not contain more than two hundred (200) square feet of gross floor area or be more than ten (10) feet in height, and shall be located in accordance with the minimum yard requirements of the zoning district in which located.

(4) Modification of building size requirements. The requirements of paragraphs (f)(1) to (3) hereof may be modified by the Zoning Administrator, with review and approval of the Site Plan Review Committee in the case of administratively approved uses or by the Citizens Planning Commission in the case of uses permitted by special use to encourage collocation.

(g) Abandoned Antennas and Towers. Any antenna or tower that is not operated for a continuous period of twelve (12) months shall be considered abandoned, and the owner of such antenna or tower shall remove the same within ninety (90) days of receipt of notice from the City notifying the owner of such abandonment. Failure to remove an abandoned antenna or tower within said ninety (90) days shall be grounds for the City to remove the tower or antenna at the owner's expense. If there are two (2) or more users of a single tower, then this provision shall not become effective until all users cease using the tower.

(h) Nonconforming Uses.

(1) Nonexpansion of nonconforming use. Towers that are constructed, and antennas that are installed, in accordance with the provisions of this section shall not be deemed to constitute the expansion of a nonconforming use or structure.

(2) Pre-existing towers. Pre-existing towers shall be allowed to continue their usage as they presently exist. Routine maintenance (including replacement with a new tower of like construction and height) shall be permitted on such pre-existing towers. New construction other than routine maintenance on a pre-existing tower shall comply with the requirements of this section.

(3) Damaged or destroyed nonconforming towers or antennas. Notwithstanding subsection (g) hereof, bonafide nonconforming towers or antennas that are damaged or destroyed may be rebuilt without having to first obtain administrative approval or a special use permit and without having to meet the separation requirements specified in paragraphs (e)(2)D. and E. hereof. The type, height and location of the tower on-site shall be of the same type and intensity as the original facility approval. Building permits to rebuild the facility shall comply with the then-applicable building codes and shall be obtained within one hundred eighty (180) days from the date the facility is damaged or destroyed. If no permit is obtained or if said permit expires, the tower or antenna shall be deemed

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous King John said...

Magna Carta
The Great Charter of English liberty granted (under considerable duress) by King John at Runnymede on June 15, 1215


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John, by the grace of God King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou, to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, foresters, sheriffs, stewards, servants, and to all his officials and loyal subjects, greeting.
Know that before God, for the health of our soul and those of our ancestors and heirs, to the honour of God, the exaltation of the holy Church, and the better ordering of our kingdom, at the advice of our reverend fathers Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, and cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Henry archbishop of Dublin, William bishop of London, Peter bishop of Winchester, Jocelin bishop of Bath and Glastonbury, Hugh bishop of Lincoln, Walter Bishop of Worcester, William bishop of Coventry, Benedict bishop of Rochester, Master Pandulf subdeacon and member of the papal household, Brother Aymeric master of the Knights of the Temple in England, William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, William earl of Salisbury, William earl of Warren, William earl of Arundel, Alan de Galloway constable of Scotland, Warin Fitz Gerald, Peter Fitz Herbert, Hubert de Burgh seneschal of Poitou, Hugh de Neville, Matthew Fitz Herbert, Thomas Basset, Alan Basset, Philip Daubeny, Robert de Roppeley, John Marshal, John Fitz Hugh, and other loyal subjects:

1. First, that we have granted to God, and by this present charter have confirmed for us and our heirs in perpetuity, that the English Church shall be free, and shall have its rights undiminished, and its liberties unimpaired. That we wish this so to be observed, appears from the fact that of our own free will, before the outbreak of the present dispute between us and our barons, we granted and confirmed by charter the freedom of the Church's elections - a right reckoned to be of the greatest necessity and importance to it - and caused this to be confirmed by Pope Innocent III. This freedom we shall observe ourselves, and desire to be observed in good faith by our heirs in perpetuity. We have also granted to all free men of our realm, for us and our heirs for ever, all the liberties written out below, to have and to keep for them and their heirs, of us and our heirs:

2. If any earl, baron, or other person that holds lands directly of the Crown, for military service, shall die, and at his death his heir shall be of full age and owe a `relief', the heir shall have his inheritance on payment of the ancient scale of `relief'. That is to say, the heir or heirs of an earl shall pay for the entire earl's barony, the heir or heirs of a knight l00s. at most for the entire knight's `fee', and any man that owes less shall pay less, in accordance with the ancient usage of `fees'

3. But if the heir of such a person is under age and a ward, when he comes of age he shall have his inheritance without `relief' or fine.

4. The guardian of the land of an heir who is under age shall take from it only reasonable revenues, customary dues, and feudal services. He shall do this without destruction or damage to men or property. If we have given the guardianship of the land to a sheriff, or to any person answerable to us for the revenues, and he commits destruction or damage, we will exact compensation from him, and the land shall be entrusted to two worthy and prudent men of the same `fee', who shall be answerable to us for the revenues, or to the person to whom we have assigned them. If we have given or sold to anyone the guardianship of such land, and he causes destruction or damage, he shall lose the guardianship of it, and it shall be handed over to two worthy and prudent men of the same `fee', who shall be similarly answerable to us.

5. For so long as a guardian has guardianship of such land, he shall maintain the houses, parks, fish preserves, ponds, mills, and everything else pertaining to it, from the revenues of the land itself. When the heir comes of age, he shall restore the whole land to him, stocked with plough teams and such implements of husbandry as the season demands and the revenues from the land can reasonably bear.

6. Heirs may be given in marriage, but not to someone of lower social standing. Before a marriage takes place, it shall be' made known to the heir's next-of-kin.

7. At her husband's death, a widow may have her marriage portion and inheritance at once and without trouble. She shall pay nothing for her dower, marriage portion, or any inheritance that she and her husband held jointly on the day of his death. She may remain in her husband's house for forty days after his death, and within this period her dower shall be assigned to her.


8. No widow shall be compelled to marry, so long as she wishes to remain without a husband. But she must give security that she will not marry without royal consent, if she holds her lands of the Crown, or without the consent of whatever other lord she may hold them of.

9. Neither we nor our officials will seize any land or rent in payment of a debt, so long as the debtor has movable goods sufficient to discharge the debt. A debtor's sureties shall not be distrained upon so long as the debtor himself can discharge his debt. If, for lack of means, the debtor is unable to discharge his debt, his sureties shall be answerable for it. If they so desire, they may have the debtor's lands and rents until they have received satisfaction for the debt that they paid for him, unless the debtor can show that he has settled his obligations to them.

10. If anyone who has borrowed a sum of money from Jews dies before the debt has been repaid, his heir shall pay no interest on the debt for so long as he remains under age, irrespective of whom he holds his lands. If such a debt falls into the hands of the Crown, it will take nothing except the principal sum specified in the bond.

11. If a man dies owing money to Jews, his wife may have her dower and pay nothing towards the debt from it. If he leaves children that are under age, their needs may also be provided for on a scale appropriate to the size of his holding of lands. The debt is to be paid out of the residue, reserving the service due to his feudal lords. Debts owed to persons other than Jews are to be dealt with similarly.

12. No `scutage' or `aid' may be levied in our kingdom without its general consent, unless it is for the ransom of our person, to make our eldest son a knight, and (once) to marry our eldest daughter. For these purposes ouly a reasonable `aid' may be levied. `Aids' from the city of London are to be treated similarly.

13. The city of London shall enjoy all its ancient liberties and free customs, both by land and by water. We also will and grant that all other cities, boroughs, towns, and ports shall enjoy all their liberties and free customs.

14. To obtain the general consent of the realm for the assessment of an `aid' - except in the three cases specified above - or a `scutage', we will cause the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, and greater barons to be summoned individually by letter. To those who hold lands directly of us we will cause a general summons to be issued, through the sheriffs and other officials, to come together on a fixed day (of which at least forty days notice shall be given) and at a fixed place. In all letters of summons, the cause of the summons will be stated. When a summons has been issued, the business appointed for the day shall go forward in accordance with the resolution of those present, even if not all those who were summoned have appeared.

15. In future we will allow no one to levy an `aid' from his free men, except to ransom his person, to make his eldest son a knight, and (once) to marry his eldest daughter. For these purposes only a reasonable `aid' may be levied.

16. No man shall be forced to perform more service for a knight's `fee', or other free holding of land, than is due from it.

17. Ordinary lawsuits shall not follow the royal court around, but shall be held in a fixed place.

18. Inquests of novel disseisin, mort d'ancestor, and darrein presentment shall be taken only in their proper county court. We ourselves, or in our absence abroad our chief justice, will send two justices to each county four times a year, and these justices, with four knights of the county elected by the county itself, shall hold the assizes in the county court, on the day and in the place where the court meets.

19. If any assizes cannot be taken on the day of the county court, as many knights and freeholders shall afterwards remain behind, of those who have attended the court, as will suffice for the administration of justice, having regard to the volume of business to be done.

20. For a trivial offence, a free man shall be fined only in proportion to the degree of his offence, and for a serious offence correspondingly, but not so heavily as to deprive him of his livelihood. In the same way, a merchant shall be spared his merchandise, and a husbandman the implements of his husbandry, if they fall upon the mercy of a royal court. None of these fines shall be imposed except by the assessment on oath of reputable men of the neighbourhood.

21. Earls and barons shall not be amerced save through their peers, and only according to the measure of the offence.

22. No clerk shall be amerced for his lay tenement ecept according to the manner of the other persons aforesaid; and not according to the amount of his ecclesiastical benefice.

23. Neither a town nor a man shall be forced to make bridges over the rivers, with the exception of those who, from of old and of right ought to do it.

24. No sheriff, constable, coroners, or other bailiffs of ours shall hold the pleas of our crown.

25. All counties, hundreds, wapentakes, and trithings--our demesne manors being exccepted--shall continue according to the old farms, without any increase at all.

26. If any one holding from us a lay fee shall die, and our sheriff or bailiff can show our letters patent containing our summons for the debt which the dead man owed to us,--our sheriff or bailiff may be allowed to attach and enroll the chattels of the dead man to the value of that debt, through view of lawful men; in such way, however, that nothing shall be removed thence until the debt is paid which was plainly owed to us. And the residue shall be left to the executors that they may carry out the will of the dead man. And if nothing is owed to us by him, all the chattels shall go to the use prescribed by the deceased, saving their reasonable portions to his wife and children.

27. If any freeman shall have died intestate his chattels shall be distributed through the hands of his near relatives and friends, by view of the church; saving to any one the debts which the dead man owed him.

28. No constable or other bailiff of ours shall take the corn or other chattels of any one except he straightway give money for them, or can be allowed a respite in that regard by the will of the seller.

29. No constable shall force any knight to pay money for castleward if he be willing to perform that ward in person, or--he for a reasonable cause not being able to perform it himself--through another proper man. And if we shall have led or sent him on a military expedition, he shall be quit of ward according to the amount of time during which, through us, he shall have been in military service.

30. No sheriff nor bailiff of ours, nor any one else, shall take the horses or carts of any freeman for transport, unless by the will of that freeman.

31. Neither we nor our bailiffs shall take another's wood for castles or for other private uses, unless by the will of him to whom the wood belongs.

32. We shall not hold the lands of those convicted of felony longer than a year and a day; and then the lands shall be restored to the lords of the fiefs.

33. Henceforth all the weirs in the Thames and Medway, and throughout all England, save on the sea-coast, shall be done away with entirely.

34. Henceforth the writ which is called Praecipe shall not be to served on any one for any holding so as to cause a free man to lose his court.

35. There shall be one measure of wine throughout our whole realm, and one measure of ale and one measure of corn--namely, the London quart;--and one width of dyed and russet and hauberk cloths--namely, two ells below the selvage. And with weights, moreover, it shall be as with measures.

36. Henceforth nothing shall be given or taken for a writ of inquest in a matter concerning life or limb; but it shall be conceded gratis, and shall not be denied.

37. If any one hold of us in fee-farm, or in socage, or in burkage, and hold land of another by military service, we shall not, by reason of that fee-farm, or socage, or burkage, have the wardship of his heir or of his land which is held in fee from another. Nor shall we have the wardship of that fee-farm, or socage, or burkage unless that fee-farm owe military service. We shall not, by reason of some petit-serjeanty which some one holds of us through the service of giving us knives or arrows or the like, have the wardship of his heir or of the land which he holds of another by military service.

38. No bailiff, on his own simple assertion, shall henceforth any one to his law, without producing faithful witnesses in evidence.

39. No freeman shall be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any way harmed--nor will we go upon or send upon him--save by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.

40. To none will we sell, to none deny or delay, right or justice.

41. All merchants may safely and securely go out of England, and come into England, and delay and pass through England, as well by land as by water, for the purpose of buying and selling, free from all evil taxes, subject to the ancient and right customs--save in time of war, and if they are of the land at war against us. And if such be found in our land at the beginning of the war, they shall be held, without harm to their bodies and goods, until it shall be known to us or our chief justice how the merchants of our land are to be treated who shall, at that time, be found in the land at war against us. And if ours shall be safe there, the others shall be safe in our land.

42. Henceforth any person, saving fealty to us, may go out of our realm and return to it, safely and securely, by land and by water, except perhaps for a brief period in time of war, for the common good of the realm. But prisoners and outlaws are excepted according to the law of the realm; also people of a land at war against us, and the merchants, with regard to whom shall be done as we have said.

43. If any one hold from any escheat--as from the honour of Walingford, Nottingham, Boloin, Lancaster, or the other escheats which are in our hands and are baronies--and shall die, his heir shall not give another relief, nor shall he perform for us other service than he would perform for a baron if that barony were in the hand of a baron; and we shall hold it in the same way in which the baron has held it.

44. Persons dwelling without the forest shall not henceforth come before the forest justices, through common summonses, unless they are impleaded or are the sponsors of some person or persons attached for matters concerning the forest.

45. We will not make men justices, constables, sheriffs, or bailiffs unless they are such as know the law of the realm, and are minded to observe it rightly.

46. All barons who have founded abbeys for which they have charters of the king of England, or ancient right of tenure, shall have, as they ought to have, their custody when vacant.

47- A11 forests constituted as such in our time shall straightway be annulled; and the same shall be done for river banks made into places of defence by us in our time.

48. A11 evil customs concerning forests and warrens, and concerning foresters and warreners, sheriffs and their servants, river banks and their guardians, shall straightway be inquired into each county, through twelve sworn knights from that county, and shall be eradicated by them, entirely, so that they shall never be renewed, within forty days after the inquest has been made; in such manner that we shall first know about them, or our justice if we be not in England.

49. We shall straightway return all hostages and charters which were delivered to us by Englishmen as a surety for peace or faithful service.

50. We shall entirey remove from their bailwicks the relatives of Gerard de Athyes, so that they shall henceforth have no bailwick in England: Engelard de Cygnes, Andrew Peter and Gyon de Chanceles, Gyon de Cygnes, Geoffrey de Martin and his brothers, Philip Mark and his brothers, and Geoffrey his nephew, and the whole following of them.

51. And straightway after peace is restored we shall remove from the realm all the foreign soldiers, crossbowmen, servants, hirelings, who may have come with horses and arms to the harm of the realm.

52. If any one shall have been disseized by us, or removed, without a legal sentence of his peers, from his lands, castles, liberties or lawful right, we shall straightway restore them to him. And if a dispute shall arise concerning this matter it shall be settled according to the judgment of the twenty-five barons who are mentioned below as sureties for the peace. But with regard to all those things of which any one was, by king Henry our father or king Richard our brother, disseized or dispossessed without legal judgment of his peers, which we have in our hand or which others hold, and for which we ought to give a guarantee: We shall have respite until the common term for crusaders. Except with regard to those concerning which a plea was moved, or an inquest made by our order, before we took the cross. But when we return from our pilgrimage, or if, by chance, we desist from our pilgrimage, we shall straightway then show full justice regarding them.

53. We shall have the same respite, moreover, and in the same manner, in the matter of showing justice with regard to forests to be annulled and forests to remain, which Henry our father or Richard our brother constituted; and in the matter of wardships of lands which belong to the fee of another--wardships of which kind we have hitherto enjoyed by reason of the fee which some one held from us in military service;--and in the matter of abbeys founded in the fee of another than ourselves--in which the lord of the fee may say that he has jurisdiction. And when we return, or if we desist from our pilgrimage, we shall straightway exhibit full justice to those complaining with regard to these matters.

54. No one shall be taken or imprisoned on account of the appeal of a woman concerning the death of another than her husband.

55. All fines imposed by us unjustly and contrary to the law of the land, and all amerciaments made unjustly and contrary to the law of the land, shall be altogether remitted, or it shall be done with regard to them according to the judgment of the twenty five barons mentioned below as sureties for the peace, or according to the judgment of the majority of them together with the aforesaid Stephen archbishop of Canterbury, if he can be present, and with others whom he may wish to associate with himself for this purpose. And if he can not be present, the affair shall nevertheless proceed without him; in such way that, if one or more of the said twenty five barons shall be concerned in a similar complaint, they shall be removed as to this particular decision, and, in their place, for this purpose alone, others shall be subtituted who shall be chosen and sworn by the remainder of those twenty five.

56. If we have disseized or dispossessed Welshmen of their lands or liberties or other things without legal judgment of their peers, in England or in Wales,--they shall straightway be restored to them. And if a dispute shall arise concerning this, then action shall be taken upon it in the March through judgment of their peers- -concerning English holdings according to the law of England, concerning Welsh holdings according to the law of Wales, concerning holdings in the March according to the law of the March. The Welsh shall do likewise with regard to us and our subjects.

57. But with regard to all those things of which any one of the Welsh by king Henry our father or king Richard our brother, disseized or dispossessed without legal judgment of his peers, which we have in our hand or which others hold, and for which we ought to give a guarantee: we shall have respite until the common term for crusaders. Except with regard to those concerning which a plea was moved, or an inquest made by our order, before we took the cross. But when we return from our pilgrimage, or if, by chance, we desist from our pilgrimage, we shall straightway then show full justice regarding them, according to the laws of Wales and the aforesaid districts.

58. We shall straightway return the son of Llewelin and all the Welsh hostages, and the charters delivered to us as surety for the peace.

59. We shall act towards Alexander king of the Scots regarding the restoration of his sisters, and his hostages, and his liberties and his lawful right, as we shall act towards our other barons of England; unless it ought to be otherwise according to the charters which we hold from William, his father, the former king of the Scots. And this shall be done through judgment of his peers in our court.

60. Moreover all the subjects of our realm, clergy as well as laity, shall, as far as pertains to them, observe, with regard to their vassals, all these aforesaid customs and liberties which we have decreed shall, as far as pertains to us, be observed in our realm with regard to our own.

61. Inasmuch as, for the sake of God, and for the bettering of our realm, and for the more ready healing of the discord which has arisen between us and our barons, we have made all these aforesaid concessions,--wishing them to enjoy for ever entire and firm stability, we make and grant to them the folIowing security: that the baron, namely, may elect at their pleaure twenty five barons from the realm, who ought, with all their strength, to observe, maintain and cause to be observed, the peace and privileges which we have granted to them and confirmed by this our present charter. In such wise, namely, that if we, or our justice, or our bailiffs, or any one of our servants shall have transgressed against any one in any respect, or shall have broken one of the articles of peace or security, and our transgression shall have been shown to four barons of the aforesaid twenty five: those four barons shall come to us, or, if we are abroad, to our justice, showing to us our error; and they shall ask us to cause that error to be amended without delay. And if we do not amend that error, or, we being abroad, if our justice do not amend it within a term of forty days from the time when it was shown to us or, we being abroad, to our justice: the aforesaid four barons shall refer the matter to the remainder of the twenty five barons, and those twenty five barons, with the whole land in common, shall distrain and oppress us in every way in their power,--namely, by taking our castles, lands and possessions, and in every other way that they can, until amends shall have been made according to their judnnent. Saving the persons of ourselves, our queen and our children. And when amends shall have been made they shall be in accord with us as they had been previously. And whoever of the land wishes to do so, shall swear that in carrying out all the aforesaid measures he will obey the mandates of the aforesaid twenty five barons, and that, with them, he will oppress us to the extent of his power. And, to any one who wishes to do so, we publicly and freely give permission to swear; and we will never prevent any one from swearing. Moreover, all those in the land who shall be unwilling, themselves and of their own accord, to swear to the twenty five barons as to distraining and oppressing us with them: such ones we shall make to wear by our mandate, as has been said. And if any one of the twenty five barons shall die, or leave the country, or in any other way be prevented from carrying out the aforesaid measures,--the remainder of the aforesaid twenty five barons shall choose another in his place, according to their judgment, who shall be sworn in the same way as the others. Moreover, in all things entrusted to those twenty five barons to be carried out, if those twenty five shall be present and chance to disagree among themselves with regard to some matter, or if some of them, having been summoned, shall be unwilling or unable to be present: that which the majority of those present shall decide or decree shall be considered binding and valid, just as if all the twenty five had consented to it. And the aforesaid twenty five shall swear that they will faithfully observe all the foregoing, and will caue them be observed to the extent of their power. And we shall obtain nothing from any one, either through ourselves or through another, by which any of those concessions and liberties may be revoked or diminished. And if any such thing shall have been obtained, it shall be vain and invalid, and we shall never make use of it either through ourselves or through another.

62. And we have fully remitted to all, and pardoned, all the ill- will, anger and rancour which have arisen between us and our subjects, clergy and laity, from the time of the struggle. Moreover have fully remitted to all, clergy and laity, and--as far as pertains to us--have pardoned fully all the transgressions committed, on the occasion of that same struggle, from Easter of the sixteenth year of our reign until the re-establishment of peace. In witness of which, more-over, we have caused to be drawn up for them letters patent of lord Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, lord Henry, archbishop of Dubland the aforesaid bishops and master Pandulf, regarding that surety and the aforesaid concessions.

63. Wherefore we will and firmly decree that the English church shall be free, and that the subjects of our realm shall have and hold all the aforesaid liberties, rights and concessions, duly and in peace, freely and quietly, fully and entirely, for themselves and their heirs from us and our heirs, in all matters and in all places, forever, as has been said. Moreover it has been sworn, on our part as well as on the part of the barons, that all these above mentioned provisions shall observed with good faith and without evil intent. The witnesses being the above mentioned and many others. Given through our hand, in the plain called Runnymede between Windsor and Stanes, on the fifteenth day of June, in the seventeenth year of our reign.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Karl Marx said...

Karl Marx and Frederick Engels

Manifesto
of the Communist Party
1848

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Bourgeois and Proletarians | Proletarians and Communists | Socialist and Communist Literature | Position of the Communists in relation to the various existing opposition parties | Preface to 1872 German edition | Preface to 1882 Russian edition | Preface to 1883 German edition | Preface to 1888 English edition | Preface to 1890 German edition | Notes on the Manifesto and translations of it


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A spectre is haunting Europe -- the spectre of communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Tsar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies.

Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as communistic by its opponents in power? Where is the opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of communism, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries?

Two things result from this fact:

I. Communism is already acknowledged by all European powers to be itself a power.

II. It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the spectre of communism with a manifesto of the party itself.

To this end, Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London and sketched the following manifesto, to be published in the English, French, German, Italian, Flemish and Danish languages.



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I -- BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS [1]

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The history of all hitherto existing society [2] is the history of class struggles.

Freeman and slave, patrician and plebian, lord and serf, guild-master [3] and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.

In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into various orders, a manifold gradation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights, plebians, slaves; in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these classes, again, subordinate gradations.

The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones.

Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinct feature: it has simplified class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other -- bourgeoisie and proletariat.

From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolized by closed guilds, now no longer suffices for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed aside by the manufacturing middle class; division of labor between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labor in each single workshop.

Meantime, the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacturers no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionized industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, MODERN INDUSTRY; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.

Modern industry has established the world market, for which the discovery of America paved the way. This market has given an immense development to commerce, to navigation, to communication by land. This development has, in turn, reacted on the extension of industry; and in proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways extended, in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed, increased its capital, and pushed into the background every class handed down from the Middle Ages.

We see, therefore, how the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development, of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange.

Each step in the development of the bourgeoisie was accompanied by a corresponding political advance in that class. An oppressed class under the sway of the feudal nobility, an armed and self-governing association of medieval commune [4]: here independent urban republic (as in Italy and Germany); there taxable "third estate" of the monarchy (as in France); afterward, in the period of manufacturing proper, serving either the semi-feudal or the absolute monarchy as a counterpoise against the nobility, and, in fact, cornerstone of the great monarchies in general -- the bourgeoisie has at last, since the establishment of Modern Industry and of the world market, conquered for itself, in the modern representative state, exclusive political sway. The executive of the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie.

The bourgeoisie, historically, has played a most revolutionary part.

The bourgeoisie, wherever it has got the upper hand, has put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations. It has pitilessly torn asunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to his "natural superiors", and has left no other nexus between people than naked self-interest, than callous "cash payment". It has drowned out the most heavenly ecstacies of religious fervor, of chivalrous enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of egotistical calculation. It has resolved personal worth into exchange value, and in place of the numberless indefeasible chartered freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable freedom -- Free Trade. In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation.

The bourgeoisie has stripped of its halo every occupation hitherto honored and looked up to with reverent awe. It has converted the physician, the lawyer, the priest, the poet, the man of science, into its paid wage laborers.

The bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its sentimental veil, and has reduced the family relation into a mere money relation.

The bourgeoisie has disclosed how it came to pass that the brutal display of vigor in the Middle Ages, which reactionaries so much admire, found its fitting complement in the most slothful indolence. It has been the first to show what man's activity can bring about. It has accomplished wonders far surpassing Egyptian pyramids, Roman aqueducts, and Gothic cathedrals; it has conducted expeditions that put in the shade all former exoduses of nations and crusades.

The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society. Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real condition of life and his relations with his kind.

The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the entire surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connections everywhere.

The bourgeoisie has, through its exploitation of the world market, given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country. To the great chagrin of reactionaries, it has drawn from under the feet of industry the national ground on which it stood. All old-established national industries have been destroyed or are daily being destroyed. They are dislodged by new industries, whose introduction becomes a life and death question for all civilized nations, by industries that no longer work up indigenous raw material, but raw material drawn from the remotest zones; industries whose products are consumed, not only at home, but in every quarter of the globe. In place of the old wants, satisfied by the production of the country, we find new wants, requiring for their satisfaction the products of distant lands and climes. In place of the old local and national seclusion and self-sufficiency, we have intercourse in every direction, universal inter-dependence of nations. And as in material, so also in intellectual production. The intellectual creations of individual nations become common property. National one-sidedness and narrow-mindedness become more and more impossible, and from the numerous national and local literatures, there arises a world literature.

The bourgeoisie, by the rapid improvement of all instruments of production, by the immensely facilitated means of communication, draws all, even the most barbarian, nations into civilization. The cheap prices of commodities are the heavy artillery with which it forces the barbarians' intensely obstinate hatred of foreigners to capitulate. It compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilization into their midst, i.e., to become bourgeois themselves. In one word, it creates a world after its own image.

The bourgeoisie has subjected the country to the rule of the towns. It has created enormous cities, has greatly increased the urban population as compared with the rural, and has thus rescued a considerable part of the population from the idiocy of rural life. Just as it has made the country dependent on the towns, so it has made barbarian and semi-barbarian countries dependent on the civilized ones, nations of peasants on nations of bourgeois, the East on the West.

The bourgeoisie keeps more and more doing away with the scattered state of the population, of the means of production, and of property. It has agglomerated population, centralized the means of production, and has concentrated property in a few hands. The necessary consequence of this was political centralization. Independent, or but loosely connected provinces, with separate interests, laws, governments, and systems of taxation, became lumped together into one nation, with one government, one code of laws, one national class interest, one frontier, and one customs tariff.

The bourgeoisie, during its rule of scarce one hundred years, has created more massive and more colossal productive forces than have all preceding generations together. Subjection of nature's forces to man, machinery, application of chemistry to industry and agriculture, steam navigation, railways, electric telegraphs, clearing of whole continents for cultivation, canalization or rivers, whole populations conjured out of the ground -- what earlier century had even a presentiment that such productive forces slumbered in the lap of social labor?

We see then: the means of production and of exchange, on whose foundation the bourgeoisie built itself up, were generated in feudal society. At a certain stage in the development of these means of production and of exchange, the conditions under which feudal society produced and exchanged, the feudal organization of agriculture and manufacturing industry, in one word, the feudal relations of property became no longer compatible with the already developed productive forces; they became so many fetters. They had to be burst asunder; they were burst asunder.

Into their place stepped free competition, accompanied by a social and political constitution adapted in it, and the economic and political sway of the bourgeois class.

A similar movement is going on before our own eyes. Modern bourgeois society, with its relations of production, of exchange and of property, a society that has conjured up such gigantic means of production and of exchange, is like the sorcerer who is no longer able to control the powers of the nether world whom he has called up by his spells. For many a decade past, the history of industry and commerce is but the history of the revolt of modern productive forces against modern conditions of production, against the property relations that are the conditions for the existence of the bourgeois and of its rule. It is enough to mention the commercial crises that, by their periodical return, put the existence of the entire bourgeois society on its trial, each time more threateningly. In these crises, a great part not only of the existing products, but also of the previously created productive forces, are periodically destroyed. In these crises, there breaks out an epidemic that, in all earlier epochs, would have seemed an absurdity -- the epidemic of over-production. Society suddenly finds itself put back into a state of momentary barbarism; it appears as if a famine, a universal war of devastation, had cut off the supply of every means of subsistence; industry and commerce seem to be destroyed. And why? Because there is too much civilization, too much means of subsistence, too much industry, too much commerce. The productive forces at the disposal of society no longer tend to further the development of the conditions of bourgeois property; on the contrary, they have become too powerful for these conditions, by which they are fettered, and so soon as they overcome these fetters, they bring disorder into the whole of bourgeois society, endanger the existence of bourgeois property. The conditions of bourgeois society are too narrow to comprise the wealth created by them. And how does the bourgeoisie get over these crises? On the one hand, by enforced destruction of a mass of productive forces; on the other, by the conquest of new markets, and by the more thorough exploitation of the old ones. That is to say, by paving the way for more extensive and more destructive crises, and by diminishing the means whereby crises are prevented.

The weapons with which the bourgeoisie felled feudalism to the ground are now turned against the bourgeoisie itself.

But not only has the bourgeoisie forged the weapons that bring death to itself; it has also called into existence the men who are to wield those weapons -- the modern working class -- the proletarians.

In proportion as the bourgeoisie, i.e., capital, is developed, in the same proportion is the proletariat, the modern working class, developed -- a class of laborers, who live only so long as they find work, and who find work only so long as their labor increases capital. These laborers, who must sell themselves piecemeal, are a commodity, like every other article of commerce, and are consequently exposed to all the vicissitudes of competition, to all the fluctuations of the market.

Owing to the extensive use of machinery, and to the division of labor, the work of the proletarians has lost all individual character, and, consequently, all charm for the workman. He becomes an appendage of the machine, and it is only the most simple, most monotonous, and most easily acquired knack, that is required of him. Hence, the cost of production of a workman is restricted, almost entirely, to the means of subsistence that he requires for maintenance, and for the propagation of his race. But the price of a commodity, and therefore also of labor, is equal to its cost of production. In proportion, therefore, as the repulsiveness of the work increases, the wage decreases. What is more, in proportion as the use of machinery and division of labor increases, in the same proportion the burden of toil also increases, whether by prolongation of the working hours, by the increase of the work exacted in a given time, or by increased speed of machinery, etc.

Modern Industry has converted the little workshop of the patriarchal master into the great factory of the industrial capitalist. Masses of laborers, crowded into the factory, are organized like soldiers. As privates of the industrial army, they are placed under the command of a perfect hierarchy of officers and sergeants. Not only are they slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois state; they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine, by the overlooker, and, above all, in the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself. The more openly this despotism proclaims gain to be its end and aim, the more petty, the more hateful and the more embittering it is.

The less the skill and exertion of strength implied in manual labor, in other words, the more modern industry becomes developed, the more is the labor of men superseded by that of women. Differences of age and sex have no longer any distinctive social validity for the working class. All are instruments of labor, more or less expensive to use, according to their age and sex.

No sooner is the exploitation of the laborer by the manufacturer, so far at an end, that he receives his wages in cash, than he is set upon by the other portion of the bourgeoisie, the landlord, the shopkeeper, the pawnbroker, etc.

The lower strata of the middle class -- the small tradespeople, shopkeepers, and retired tradesmen generally, the handicraftsmen and peasants -- all these sink gradually into the proletariat, partly because their diminutive capital does not suffice for the scale on which Modern Industry is carried on, and is swamped in the competition with the large capitalists, partly because their specialized skill is rendered worthless by new methods of production. Thus, the proletariat is recruited from all classes of the population.

The proletariat goes through various stages of development. With its birth begins its struggle with the bourgeoisie. At first, the contest is carried on by individual laborers, then by the work of people of a factory, then by the operative of one trade, in one locality, against the individual bourgeois who directly exploits them. They direct their attacks not against the bourgeois condition of production, but against the instruments of production themselves; they destroy imported wares that compete with their labor, they smash to pieces machinery, they set factories ablaze, they seek to restore by force the vanished status of the workman of the Middle Ages.

At this stage, the laborers still form an incoherent mass scattered over the whole country, and broken up by their mutual competition. If anywhere they unite to form more compact bodies, this is not yet the consequence of their own active union, but of the union of the bourgeoisie, which class, in order to attain its own political ends, is compelled to set the whole proletariat in motion, and is moreover yet, for a time, able to do so. At this stage, therefore, the proletarians do not fight their enemies, but the enemies of their enemies, the remnants of absolute monarchy, the landowners, the non-industrial bourgeois, the petty bourgeois. Thus, the whole historical movement is concentrated in the hands of the bourgeoisie; every victory so obtained is a victory for the bourgeoisie.

But with the development of industry, the proletariat not only increases in number; it becomes concentrated in greater masses, its strength grows, and it feels that strength more. The various interests and conditions of life within the ranks of the proletariat are more and more equalized, in proportion as machinery obliterates all distinctions of labor, and nearly everywhere reduces wages to the same low level. The growing competition among the bourgeois, and the resulting commercial crises, make the wages of the workers ever more fluctuating. The increasing improvement of machinery, ever more rapidly developing, makes their livelihood more and more precarious; the collisions between individual workmen and individual bourgeois take more and more the character of collisions between two classes. Thereupon, the workers begin to form combinations (trade unions) against the bourgeois; they club together in order to keep up the rate of wages; they found permanent associations in order to make provision beforehand for these occasional revolts. Here and there, the contest breaks out into riots.

Now and then the workers are victorious, but only for a time. The real fruit of their battles lie not in the immediate result, but in the ever expanding union of the workers. This union is helped on by the improved means of communication that are created by Modern Industry, and that place the workers of different localities in contact with one another. It was just this contact that was needed to centralize the numerous local struggles, all of the same character, into one national struggle between classes. But every class struggle is a political struggle. And that union, to attain which the burghers of the Middle Ages, with their miserable highways, required centuries, the modern proletarian, thanks to railways, achieve in a few years.

This organization of the proletarians into a class, and, consequently, into a political party, is continually being upset again by the competition between the workers themselves. But it ever rises up again, stronger, firmer, mightier. It compels legislative recognition of particular interests of the workers, by taking advantage of the divisions among the bourgeoisie itself. Thus, the Ten-Hours Bill in England was carried.

Altogether, collisions between the classes of the old society further in many ways the course of development of the proletariat. The bourgeoisie finds itself involved in a constant battle. At first with the aristocracy; later on, with those portions of the bourgeoisie itself, whose interests have become antagonistic to the progress of industry; at all time with the bourgeoisie of foreign countries. In all these battles, it sees itself compelled to appeal to the proletariat, to ask for help, and thus to drag it into the political arena. The bourgeoisie itself, therefore, supplies the proletariat with its own elements of political and general education, in other words, it furnishes the proletariat with weapons for fighting the bourgeoisie.

Further, as we have already seen, entire sections of the ruling class are, by the advance of industry, precipitated into the proletariat, or are at least threatened in their conditions of existence. These also supply the proletariat with fresh elements of enlightenment and progress.

Finally, in times when the class struggle nears the decisive hour, the progress of dissolution going on within the ruling class, in fact within the whole range of old society, assumes such a violent, glaring character, that a small section of the ruling class cuts itself adrift, and joins the revolutionary class, the class that holds the future in its hands. Just as, therefore, at an earlier period, a section of the nobility went over to the bourgeoisie, so now a portion of the bourgeoisie goes over to the proletariat, and in particular, a portion of the bourgeois ideologists, who have raised themselves to the level of comprehending theoretically the historical movement as a whole.

Of all the classes that stand face to face with the bourgeoisie today, the proletariat alone is a genuinely revolutionary class. The other classes decay and finally disappear in the face of Modern Industry; the proletariat is its special and essential product.

The lower middle class, the small manufacturer, the shopkeeper, the artisan, the peasant, all these fight against the bourgeoisie, to save from extinction their existence as fractions of the middle class. They are therefore not revolutionary, but conservative. Nay, more, they are reactionary, for they try to roll back the wheel of history. If, by chance, they are revolutionary, they are only so in view of their impending transfer into the proletariat; they thus defend not their present, but their future interests; they desert their own standpoint to place themselves at that of the proletariat.

The "dangerous class", the social scum, that passively rotting mass thrown off by the lowest layers of the old society, may, here and there, be swept into the movement by a proletarian revolution; its conditions of life, however, prepare it far more for the part of a bribed tool of reactionary intrigue.

In the condition of the proletariat, those of old society at large are already virtually swamped. The proletarian is without property; his relation to his wife and children has no longer anything in common with the bourgeois family relations; modern industry labor, modern subjection to capital, the same in England as in France, in America as in Germany, has stripped him of every trace of national character. Law, morality, religion, are to him so many bourgeois prejudices, behind which lurk in ambush just as many bourgeois interests.

All the preceding classes that got the upper hand sought to fortify their already acquired status by subjecting society at large to their conditions of appropriation. The proletarians cannot become masters of the productive forces of society, except by abolishing their own previous mode of appropriation, and thereby also every other previous mode of appropriation. They have nothing of their own to secure and to fortify; their mission is to destroy all previous securities for, and insurances of, individual property.

All previous historical movements were movements of minorities, or in the interest of minorities. The proletarian movement is the self-conscious, independent movement of the immense majority, in the interest of the immense majority. The proletariat, the lowest stratum of our present society, cannot stir, cannot raise itself up, without the whole superincumbent strata of official society being sprung into the air.

Though not in substance, yet in form, the struggle of the proletariat with the bourgeoisie is at first a national struggle. The proletariat of each country must, of course, first of all settle matters with its own bourgeoisie.

In depicting the most general phases of the development of the proletariat, we traced the more or less veiled civil war, raging within existing society, up to the point where that war breaks out into open revolution, and where the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie lays the foundation for the sway of the proletariat.

Hitherto, every form of society has been based, as we have already seen, on the antagonism of oppressing and oppressed classes. But in order to oppress a class, certain conditions must be assured to it under which it can, at least, continue its slavish existence. The serf, in the period of serfdom, raised himself to membership in the commune, just as the petty bourgeois, under the yoke of the feudal absolutism, managed to develop into a bourgeois. The modern laborer, on the contrary, instead of rising with the process of industry, sinks deeper and deeper below the conditions of existence of his own class. He becomes a pauper, and pauperism develops more rapidly than population and wealth. And here it becomes evident that the bourgeoisie is unfit any longer to be the ruling class in society, and to impose its conditions of existence upon society as an overriding law. It is unfit to rule because it is incompetent to assure an existence to its slave within his slavery, because it cannot help letting him sink into such a state, that it has to feed him, instead of being fed by him. Society can no longer live under this bourgeoisie, in other words, its existence is no longer compatible with society.

The essential conditions for the existence and for the sway of the bourgeois class is the formation and augmentation of capital; the condition for capital is wage labor. Wage labor rests exclusively on competition between the laborers. The advance of industry, whose involuntary promoter is the bourgeoisie, replaces the isolation of the laborers, due to competition, by the revolutionary combination, due to association. The development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and appropriates products. What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable.


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FOOTNOTES

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[1] By bourgeoisie is meant the class of modern capitalists, owners of the means of social production and employers of wage labor.

By proletariat, the class of modern wage laborers who, having no means of production of their own, are reduced to selling their labor power in order to live. [Note by Engels - 1888 English edition]

[2] That is, all _written_ history. In 1847, the pre-history of society, the social organization existing previous to recorded history, all but unknown. Since then, August von Haxthausen (1792-1866) discovered common ownership of land in Russia, Georg Ludwig von Maurer proved it to be the social foundation from which all Teutonic races started in history, and, by and by, village communities were found to be, or to have been, the primitive form of society everywhere from India to Ireland. The inner organization of this primitive communistic society was laid bare, in its typical form, by Lewis Henry Morgan's (1818-1861) crowning discovery of the true nature of the gens and its relation to the tribe. With the dissolution of the primeaval communities, society begins to be differentiated into separate and finally antagonistic classes. I have attempted to retrace this dissolution in _Der Ursprung der

Familie, des Privateigenthumus und des Staats_, second edition, Stuttgart, 1886. [Engels, 1888 English edition]

[3] Guild-master, that is, a full member of a guild, a master within, not a head of a guild. [Engels: 1888 English edition]

[4] This was the name given their urban communities by the townsmen of Italy and France, after they had purchased or conquered their initial rights of self-government from their feudal lords. [Engels: 1890 German edition]

"Commune" was the name taken in France by the nascent towns even before they had conquered from their feudal lords and masters local self-government and political rights as the "Third Estate". Generally speaking, for the economical development of the bourgeoisie, England is here taken as the typical country, for its political development, France. [Engels: 1888 English edition]



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II -- PROLETARIANS AND COMMUNISTS

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In what relation do the Communists stand to the proletarians as a whole? The Communists do not form a separate party opposed to the other working-class parties.

They have no interests separate and apart from those of the proletariat as a whole.

They do not set up any sectarian principles of their own, by which to shape and mold the proletarian movement.

The Communists are distinguished from the other working-class parties by this only:

(1) In the national struggles of the proletarians of the different countries, they point out and bring to the front the common interests of the entire proletariat, independently of all nationality.

(2) In the various stages of development which the struggle of the working class against the bourgeoisie has to pass through, they always and everywhere represent the interests of the movement as a whole.

The Communists, therefore, are on the one hand practically, the most advanced and resolute section of the working-class parties of every country, that section which pushes forward all others; on the other hand, theoretically, they have over the great mass of the proletariat the advantage of clearly understanding the lines of march, the conditions, and the ultimate general results of the proletarian movement.

The immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all other proletarian parties: Formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat.

The theoretical conclusions of the Communists are in no way based on ideas or principles that have been invented, or discovered, by this or that would-be universal reformer.

They merely express, in general terms, actual relations springing from an existing class struggle, from a historical movement going on under our very eyes. The abolition of existing property relations is not at all a distinctive feature of communism.

All property relations in the past have continually been subject to historical change consequent upon the change in historical conditions.

The French Revolution, for example, abolished feudal property in favor of bourgeois property.

The distinguishing feature of communism is not the abolition of property generally, but the abolition of bourgeois property. But modern bourgeois private property is the final and most complete expression of the system of producing and appropriating products that is based on class antagonisms, on the exploitation of the many by the few.

In this sense, the theory of the Communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property.

We Communists have been reproached with the desire of abolishing the right of personally acquiring property as the fruit of a man's own labor, which property is alleged to be the groundwork of all personal freedom, activity and independence.

Hard-won, self-acquired, self-earned property! Do you mean the property of petty artisan and of the small peasant, a form of property that preceded the bourgeois form? There is no need to abolish that; the development of industry has to a great extent already destroyed it, and is still destroying it daily.

Or do you mean the modern bourgeois private property?

But does wage labor create any property for the laborer? Not a bit. It creates capital, i.e., that kind of property which exploits wage labor, and which cannot increase except upon conditions of begetting a new supply of wage labor for fresh exploitation. Property, in its present form, is based on the antagonism of capital and wage labor. Let us examine both sides of this antagonism.

To be a capitalist, is to have not only a purely personal, but a social STATUS in production. Capital is a collective product, and only by the united action of many members, nay, in the last resort, only by the united action of all members of society, can it be set in motion.

Capital is therefore not only personal; it is a social power.

When, therefore, capital is converted into common property, into the property of all members of society, personal property is not thereby transformed into social property. It is only the social character of the property that is changed. It loses its class character.

Let us now take wage labor.

The average price of wage labor is the minimum wage, i.e., that quantum of the means of subsistence which is absolutely requisite to keep the laborer in bare existence as a laborer. What, therefore, the wage laborer appropriates by means of his labor merely suffices to prolong and reproduce a bare existence. We by no means intend to abolish this personal appropriation of the products of labor, an appropriation that is made for the maintenance and reproduction of human life, and that leaves no surplus wherewith to command the labor of others. All that we want to do away with is the miserable character of this appropriation, under which the laborer lives merely to increase capital, and is allowed to live only in so far as the interest of the ruling class requires it.

In bourgeois society, living labor is but a means to increase accumulated labor. In communist society, accumulated labor is but a means to widen, to enrich, to promote the existence of the laborer.

In bourgeois society, therefore, the past dominates the present; in communist society, the present dominates the past. In bourgeois society, capital is independent and has individuality, while the living person is dependent and has no individuality.

And the abolition of this state of things is called by the bourgeois, abolition of individuality and freedom! And rightly so. The abolition of bourgeois individuality, bourgeois independence, and bourgeois freedom is undoubtedly aimed at.

By freedom is meant, under the present bourgeois conditions of production, free trade, free selling and buying.

But if selling and buying disappears, free selling and buying disappears also. This talk about free selling and buying, and all the other "brave words" of our bourgeois about freedom in general, have a meaning, if any, only in contrast with restricted selling and buying, with the fettered traders of the Middle Ages, but have no meaning when opposed to the communist abolition of buying and selling, or the bourgeois conditions of production, and of the bourgeoisie itself.

You are horrified at our intending to do away with private property. But in your existing society, private property is already done away with for nine-tenths of the population; its existence for the few is solely due to its non-existence in the hands of those nine-tenths. You reproach us, therefore, with intending to do away with a form of property, the necessary condition for whose existence is the non-existence of any property for the immense majority of society.

In one word, you reproach us with intending to do away with your property. Precisely so; that is just what we intend.

From the moment when labor can no longer be converted into capital, money, or rent, into a social power capable of being monopolized, i.e., from the moment when individual property can no longer be transformed into bourgeois property, into capital, from that moment, you say, individuality vanishes.

You must, therefore, confess that by "individual" you mean no other person than the bourgeois, than the middle-class owner of property. This person must, indeed, be swept out of the way, and made impossible.

Communism deprives no man of the power to appropriate the products of society; all that it does is to deprive him of the power to subjugate the labor of others by means of such appropriations.

It has been objected that upon the abolition of private property, all work will cease, and universal laziness will overtake us.

According to this, bourgeois society ought long ago to have gone to the dogs through sheer idleness; for those who acquire anything, do not work. The whole of this objection is but another expression of the tautology: There can no longer be any wage labor when there is no longer any capital.

All objections urged against the communistic mode of producing and appropriating material products, have, in the same way, been urged against the communistic mode of producing and appropriating intellectual products. Just as to the bourgeois, the disappearance of class property is the disappearance of production itself, so the disappearance of class culture is to him identical with the disappearance of all culture.

That culture, the loss of which he laments, is, for the enormous majority, a mere training to act as a machine.

But don't wrangle with us so long as you apply, to our intended abolition of bourgeois property, the standard of your bourgeois notions of freedom, culture, law, etc. Your very ideas are but the outgrowth of the conditions of your bourgeois production and bourgeois property, just as your jurisprudence is but the will of your class made into a law for all, a will whose essential character and direction are determined by the economical conditions of existence of your class.

The selfish misconception that induces you to transform into eternal laws of nature and of reason the social forms stringing from your present mode of production and form of property -- historical relations that rise and disappear in the progress of production -- this misconception you share with every ruling class that has preceded you. What you see clearly in the case of ancient property, what you admit in the case of feudal property, you are of course forbidden to admit in the case of your own bourgeois form of property.

Abolition of the family! Even the most radical flare up at this infamous proposal of the Communists.

On what foundation is the present family, the bourgeois family, based? On capital, on private gain. In its completely developed form, this family exists only among the bourgeoisie. But this state of things finds its complement in the practical absence of the family among proletarians, and in public prostitution.

The bourgeois family will vanish as a matter of course when its complement vanishes, and both will vanish with the vanishing of capital.

Do you charge us with wanting to stop the exploitation of children by their parents? To this crime we plead guilty.

But, you say, we destroy the most hallowed of relations, when we replace home education by social.

And your education! Is not that also social, and determined by the social conditions under which you educate, by the intervention direct or indirect, of society, by means of schools, etc.? The Communists have not intended the intervention of society in education; they do but seek to alter the character of that intervention, and to rescue education from the influence of the ruling class.

The bourgeois claptrap about the family and education, about the hallowed correlation of parents and child, becomes all the more disgusting, the more, by the action of Modern Industry, all the family ties among the proletarians are torn asunder, and their children transformed into simple articles of commerce and instruments of labor.

But you Communists would introduce community of women, screams the bourgeoisie in chorus.

The bourgeois sees his wife a mere instrument of production. He hears that the instruments of production are to be exploited in common, and, naturally, can come to no other conclusion that the lot of being common to all will likewise fall to the women.

He has not even a suspicion that the real point aimed at is to do away with the status of women as mere instruments of production.

For the rest, nothing is more ridiculous than the virtuous indignation of our bourgeois at the community of women which, they pretend, is to be openly and officially established by the Communists. The Communists have no need to introduce free love; it has existed almost from time immemorial.

Our bourgeois, not content with having wives and daughters of their proletarians at their disposal, not to speak of common prostitutes, take the greatest pleasure in seducing each other's wives. (Ah, those were the days!)

Bourgeois marriage is, in reality, a system of wives in common and thus, at the most, what the Communists might possibly be reproached with is that they desire to introduce, in substitution for a hypocritically concealed, an openly legalized system of free love. For the rest, it is self-evident that the abolition of the present system of production must bring with it the abolition of free love springing from that system, i.e., of prostitution both public and private.

The Communists are further reproached with desiring to abolish countries and nationality.

The workers have no country. We cannot take from them what they have not got. Since the proletariat must first of all acquire political supremacy, must rise to be the leading class of the nation, must constitute itself the nation, it is, so far, itself national, though not in the bourgeois sense of the word.

National differences and antagonism between peoples are daily more and more vanishing, owing to the development of the bourgeoisie, to freedom of commerce, to the world market, to uniformity in the mode of production and in the conditions of life corresponding thereto.

The supremacy of the proletariat will cause them to vanish still faster. United action of the leading civilized countries at least is one of the first conditions for the emancipation of the proletariat.

In proportion as the exploitation of one individual by another will also be put an end to, the exploitation of one nation by another will also be put an end to. In proportion as the antagonism between classes within the nation vanishes, the hostility of one nation to another will come to an end.

The charges against communism made from a religious, a philosophical and, generally, from an ideological standpoint, are not deserving of serious examination.

Does it require deep intuition to comprehend that man's ideas, views, and conception, in one word, man's consciousness, changes with every change in the conditions of his material existence, in his social relations and in his social life?

What else does the history of ideas prove, than that intellectual production changes its character in proportion as material production is changed? The ruling ideas of each age have ever been the ideas of its ruling class.

When people speak of the ideas that revolutionize society, they do but express that fact that within the old society the elements of a new one have been created, and that the dissolution of the old ideas keeps even pace with the dissolution of the old conditions of existence.

When the ancient world was in its last throes, the ancient religions were overcome by Christianity. When Christian ideas succumbed in the eighteenth century to rationalist ideas, feudal society fought its death battle with the then revolutionary bourgeoisie. The ideas of religious liberty and freedom of conscience merely gave expression to the sway of free competition within the domain of knowledge.

"Undoubtedly," it will be said, "religious, moral, philosophical, and juridicial ideas have been modified in the course of historical development. But religion, morality, philosophy, political science, and law, constantly survived this change."

"There are, besides, eternal truths, such as Freedom, Justice, etc., that are common to all states of society. But communism abolishes eternal truths, it abolishes all religion, and all morality, instead of constituting them on a new basis; it therefore acts in contradiction to all past historical experience."

What does this accusation reduce itself to? The history of all past society has consisted in the development of class antagonisms, antagonisms that assumed different forms at different epochs.

But whatever form they may have taken, one fact is common to all past ages, viz., the exploitation of one part of society by the other. No wonder, then, that the social consciousness of past ages, despite all the multiplicity and variety it displays, moves within certain common forms, or general ideas, which cannot completely vanish except with the total disappearance of class antagonisms.

The communist revolution is the most radical rupture with traditional relations; no wonder that its development involved the most radical rupture with traditional ideas.

But let us have done with the bourgeois objections to communism.

We have seen above that the first step in the revolution by the working class is to raise the proletariat to the position of ruling class to win the battle of democracy.

The proletariat will use its political supremacy to wrest, by degree, all capital from the bourgeoisie, to centralize all instruments of production in the hands of the state, i.e., of the proletariat organized as the ruling class; and to increase the total productive forces as rapidly as possible.

Of course, in the beginning, this cannot be effected except by means of despotic inroads on the rights of property, and on the conditions of bourgeois production; by means of measures, therefore, which appear economically insufficient and untenable, but which, in the course of the movement, outstrip themselves, necessitate further inroads upon the old social order, and are unavoidable as a means of entirely revolutionizing the mode of production.

These measures will, of course, be different in different countries.

Nevertheless, in most advanced countries, the following will be pretty generally applicable.

1. Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes.

2. A heavy progressive or graduated income tax.

3. Abolition of all rights of inheritance.

4. Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.

5. Centralization of credit in the banks of the state, by means of a national bank with state capital and an exclusive monopoly.

6. Centralization of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the state.

7. Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the state; the bringing into cultivation of waste lands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan.

8. Equal obligation of all to work. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture.

9. Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; gradual abolition of all the distinction between town and country by a more equable distribution of the populace over the country.

10. Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children's factory labor in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production, etc.

When, in the course of development, class distinctions have disappeared, and all production has been concentrated in the hands of a vast association of the whole nation, the public power will lose its political character. Political power, properly so called, is merely the organized power of one class for oppressing another. If the proletariat during its contest with the bourgeoisie is compelled, by the force of circumstances, to organize itself as a class; if, by means of a revolution, it makes itself the ruling class, and, as such, sweeps away by force the old conditions of production, then it will, along with these conditions, have swept away the conditions for the existence of class antagonisms and of classes generally, and will thereby have abolished its own supremacy as a class.

In place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonisms, we shall have an association in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all.



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III -- SOCIALIST AND COMMUNIST LITERATURE

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1. REACTIONARY SOCIALISM

a. Feudal Socialism

Owing to their historical position, it became the vocation of the aristocracies of France and England to write pamphlets against modern bourgeois society. In the French Revolution of July 1830, and in the English reform agitation, these aristocracies again succumbed to the hateful upstart. Thenceforth, a serious political struggle was altogether out of the question. A literary battle alone remained possible. But even in the domain of literature, the old cries of the restoration period had become impossible. [1]

In order to arouse sympathy, the aristocracy was obliged to lose sight, apparently, of its own interests, and to formulate its indictment against the bourgeoisie in the interest of the exploited working class alone. Thus, the aristocracy took their revenge by singing lampoons on their new masters and whispering in his ears sinister prophesies of coming catastrophe.

In this way arose feudal socialism: half lamentation, half lampoon; half an echo of the past, half menace of the future; at times, by its bitter, witty and incisive criticism, striking the bourgeoisie to the very heart's core, but always ludicrous in its effect, through total incapacity to comprehend the march of modern history.

The aristocracy, in order to rally the people to them, waved the proletarian alms-bag in front for a banner. But the people, so often as it joined them, saw on their hindquarters the old feudal coats of arms, and deserted with loud and irreverent laughter.

One section of the French Legitimists and "Young England" exhibited this spectacle:

In pointing out that their mode of exploitation was different to that of the bourgeoisie, the feudalists forget that they exploited under circumstances and conditions that were quite different and that are now antiquated. In showing that, under their rule, the modern proletariat never existed, they forget that the modern bourgeoisie is the necessary offspring of their own form of society.

For the rest, so little do they conceal the reactionary character of their criticism that their chief accusation against the bourgeois amounts to this: that under the bourgeois regime a class is being developed which is destined to cut up, root and branch, the old order of society.

What they upbraid the bourgeoisie with is not so much that it creates a proletariat as that it creates a _revolutionary_ proletariat.

In political practice, therefore, they join in all corrective measures against the working class; and in ordinary life, despite their high falutin' phrases, they stoop to pick up the golden apples dropped from the tree of industry, and to barter truth, love, and honor, for traffic in wool, beetroot-sugar, and potato spirits. [2]

As the parson has ever gone hand in hand with the landlord, so has clerical socialism with feudal socialism.

Nothing is easier than to give Christian asceticism a socialist tinge. Has not Christianity declaimed against private property, against marriage, against the state? Has it not preached in the place of these, charity and poverty, celibacy and mortification of the flesh, monastic life and Mother Church? Christian socialism is but the holy water with which the priest consecrates the heart-burnings of the aristocrat.

b. Petty-Bourgeois Socialism

The feudal aristocracy was not the only class that was ruined by the bourgeoisie, not the only class whose conditions of existence pined and perished in the atmosphere of modern bourgeois society. The medieval burgesses and the small peasant proprietors were the precursors of the modern bourgeoisie. In those countries which are but little developed, industrially and commercially, these two classes still vegetate side by side with the rising bourgeoisie.

In countries where modern civilization has become fully developed, a new class of petty bourgeois has been formed, fluctuating between proletariat and bourgeoisie, and ever renewing itself a supplementary part of bourgeois society. The individual members of this class, however, as being constantly hurled down into the proletariat by the action of competition, and, as Modern Industry develops, they even see the moment approaching when they will completely disappear as an independent section of modern society, to be replaced in manufactures, agriculture and commerce, by overlookers, bailiffs and shopmen.

In countries like France, where the peasants constitute far more than half of the population, it was natural that writers who sided with the proletariat against the bourgeoisie should use, in their criticism of the bourgeois regime, the standard of the peasant and petty bourgeois, and from the standpoint of these intermediate classes, should take up the cudgels for the working class. Thus arose petty-bourgeois socialism. Sismondi was the head of this school, not only in France but also in England.

This school of socialism dissected with great acuteness the contradictions in the conditions of modern production. It laid bare the hypocritical apologies of economists. It proved, incontrovertibly, the disastrous effects of machinery and division of labor; the concentration of capital and land in a few hands; overproduction and crises; it pointed out the inevitable ruin of the petty bourgeois and peasant, the misery of the proletariat, the anarchy in production, the crying inequalities in the distribution of wealth, the industrial war of extermination between nations, the dissolution of old moral bonds, of the old family relations, of the old nationalities.

In it positive aims, however, this form of socialism aspires either to restoring the old means of production and of exchange, and with them the old property relations, and the old society, or to cramping the modern means of production and of exchange within the framework of the old property relations that have been, and were bound to be, exploded by those means. In either case, it is both reactionary and Utopian.

Its last words are: corporate guilds for manufacture; patriarchal relations in agriculture.

Ultimately, when stubborn historical facts had dispersed all intoxicating effects of self-deception, this form of socialism ended in a miserable hangover.

c. German or "True" Socialism

The socialist and communist literature of France, a literature that originated under the pressure of a bourgeoisie in power, and that was the expressions of the struggle against this power, was introduced into Germany at a time when the bourgeoisie in that country had just begun its contest with feudal absolutism.

German philosophers, would-be philosophers, and beaux esprits (men of letters), eagerly seized on this literature, only forgetting that when these writings immigrated from France into Germany, French social conditions had not immigrated along with them. In contact with German social conditions, this French literature lost all its immediate practical significance and assumed a purely literary aspect. Thus, to the German philosophers of the eighteenth century, the demands of the first French Revolution were nothing more than the demands of "Practical Reason" in general, and the utterance of the will of the revolutionary French bourgeoisie signified, in their eyes, the laws of pure will, of will as it was bound to be, of true human will generally.

The work of the German literati consisted solely in bringing the new French ideas into harmony with their ancient philosophical conscience, or rather, in annexing the French ideas without deserting their own philosophic point of view.

This annexation took place in the same way in which a foreign language is appropriated, namely, by translation.

It is well known how the monks wrote silly lives of Catholic saints _over_ the manuscripts on which the classical works of ancient heathendom had been written. The German literati reversed this process with the profane French literature. They wrote their philosophical nonsense beneath the French original. For instance, beneath the French criticism of the economic functions of money, they wrote "alienation of humanity", and beneath the French criticism of the bourgeois state they wrote "dethronement of the category of the general", and so forth.

The introduction of these philosophical phrases at the back of the French historical criticisms, they dubbed "Philosophy of Action", "True Socialism", "German Science of Socialism", "Philosophical Foundation of Socialism", and so on.

The French socialist and communist literature was thus completely emasculated. And, since it ceased, in the hands of the German, to express the struggle of one class with the other, he felt conscious of having overcome "French one-sidedness" and of representing, not true requirements, but the requirements of truth; not the interests of the proletariat, but the interests of human nature, of man in general, who belongs to no class, has no reality, who exists only in the misty realm of philosophical fantasy.

This German socialism, which took its schoolboy task so seriously and solemnly, and extolled its poor stock-in-trade in such a mountebank fashion, meanwhile gradually lost its pedantic innocence.

The fight of the Germans, and especially of the Prussian bourgeoisie, against feudal aristocracy and absolute monarchy, in other words, the liberal movement, became more earnest.

By this, the long-wished for opportunity was offered to "True" Socialism of confronting the political movement with the socialistic demands, of hurling the traditional anathemas against liberalism, against representative government, against bourgeois competition, bourgeois freedom of the press, bourgeois legislation, bourgeois liberty and equality, and of preaching to the masses that they had nothing to gain, and everything to lose, by this bourgeois movement. German socialism forgot, in the nick of time, that the French criticism, whose silly echo it was, presupposed the existence of modern bourgeois society, with its corresponding economic conditions of existence, and the political constitution adapted thereto, the very things whose attainment was the object of the pending struggle in Germany.

To the absolute governments, with their following of parsons, professors, country squires, and officials, it served as a welcome scarecrow against the threatening bourgeoisie.

It was a sweet finish, after the bitter pills of flogging and bullets, with which these same governments, just at that time, dosed the German working-class risings.

While this "True" Socialism thus served the government as a weapon for fighting the German bourgeoisie, it, at the same time, directly represented a reactionary interest, the interest of German philistines. In Germany, the petty-bourgeois class, a relic of the sixteenth century, and since then constantly cropping up again under the various forms, is the real social basis of the existing state of things.

To preserve this class is to preserve the existing state of things in Germany. The industrial and political supremacy of the bourgeoisie threatens it with certain destruction -- on the one hand, from the concentration of capital; on the other, from the rise of a revolutionary proletariat. "True" Socialism appeared to kill these two birds with one stone. It spread like an epidemic.

The robe of speculative cobwebs, embroidered with flowers of rhetoric, steeped in the dew of sickly sentiment, this transcendental robe in which the German Socialists wrapped their sorry "eternal truths", all skin and bone, served to wonderfully increase the sale of their goods amongst such a public. And on its part German socialism recognized, more and more, its own calling as the bombastic representative of the petty-bourgeois philistine.

It proclaimed the German nation to be the model nation, and the German petty philistine to be the typical man. To every villainous meanness of this model man, it gave a hidden, higher, socialistic interpretation, the exact contrary of its real character. It went to the extreme length of directly opposing the "brutally destructive" tendency of communism, and of proclaiming its supreme and impartial contempt of all class struggles. With very few exceptions, all the so-called socialist and communist publications that now (1847) circulate in Germany belong to the domain of this foul and enervating literature. [3]

2. CONSERVATIVE OR BOURGEOIS SOCIALISM

A part of the bourgeoisie is desirous of redressing social grievances in order to secure the continued existence of bourgeois society.

To this section belong economists, philanthropists, humanitarians, improvers of the condition of the working class, organizers of charity, members of societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals, temperance fanatics, hole-and-corner reformers of every imaginable kind. This form of socialism has, moreover, been worked out into complete systems.

We may cite Proudhon's Philosophy of Poverty as an example of this form.

The socialistic bourgeois want all the advantages of modern social conditions without the struggles and dangers necessarily resulting therefrom. They desire the existing state of society, minus its revolutionary and disintegrating elements. They wish for a bourgeoisie without a proletariat. The bourgeoisie naturally conceives the world in which it is supreme to be the best; and bourgeois socialism develops this comfortable conception into various more or less complete systems. In requiring the proletariat to carry out such a system, and thereby to march straightaway into the social New Jerusalem, it but requires in reality that the proletariat should remain within the bounds of existing society, but should cast away all its hateful ideas concerning the bourgeoisie.

A second, and more practical, but less systematic, form of this socialism sought to depreciate every revolutionary movement in the eyes of the working class by showing that no mere political reform, but only a change in the material conditions of existence, in economical relations, could be of any advantage to them. By changes in the material conditions of existence, this form of socialism, however, by no means understands abolition of the bourgeois relations of production, an abolition that can be affected only by a revolution, but administrative reforms, based on the continued existence of these relations; reforms, therefore, that in no respect affect the relations between capital and labor, but, at the best, lessen the cost, and simplify the administrative work of bourgeois government.

Bourgeois socialism attains adequate expression when, and only when, it becomes a mere figure of speech.

Free trade: for the benefit of the working class. Protective duties: for the benefit of the working class. Prison reform: for the benefit of the working class. This is the last word and the only seriously meant word of bourgeois socialism.

It is summed up in the phrase: the bourgeois is a bourgeois -- for the benefit of the working class.

3. CRITICAL-UTOPIAN SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM

We do not here refer to that literature which, in every great modern revolution, has always given voice to the demands of the proletariat, such as the writings of Babeuf [4] and others.

The first direct attempts of the proletariat to attain its own ends, made in times of universal excitement, when feudal society was being overthrown, necessarily failed, owing to the then undeveloped state of the proletariat, as well as to the absence of the economic conditions for its emancipation, conditions that had yet to be produced, and could be produced by the impending bourgeois epoch alone. The revolutionary literature that accompanied these first movements of the proletariat had necessarily a reactionary character. It inculcated universal asceticism and social levelling in its crudest form.

The socialist and communist systems, properly so called, those of Saint-Simon [5], Fourier [6], Owen [7], and others, spring into existence in the early undeveloped period, described above, of the struggle between proletariat and bourgeoisie (see Section 1. Bourgeois and Proletarians).

The founders of these systems see, indeed, the class antagonisms, as well as the action of the decomposing elements in the prevailing form of society. But the proletariat, as yet in its infancy, offers to them the spectacle of a class without any historical initiative or any independent political movement.

Since the development of class antagonism keeps even pace with the development of industry, the economic situation, as they find it, does not as yet offer to them the material conditions for the emancipation of the proletariat. They therefore search after a new social science, after new social laws, that are to create these conditions.

Historical action is to yield to their personal inventive action; historically created conditions of emancipation to fantastic ones; and the gradual, spontaneous class organization of the proletariat to an organization of society especially contrived by these inventors. Future history resolves itself, in their eyes, into the propaganda and the practical carrying out of their social plans.

In the formation of their plans, they are conscious of caring chiefly for the interests of the working class, as being the most suffering class. Only from the point of view of being the most suffering class does the proletariat exist for them.

The undeveloped state of the class struggle, as well as their own surroundings, causes Socialists of this kind to consider themselves far superior to all class antagonisms. They want to improve the condition of every member of society, even that of the most favored. Hence, they habitually appeal to society at large, without the distinction of class; nay, by preference, to the ruling class. For how can people when once they understand their system, fail to see in it the best possible plan of the best possible state of society?

Hence, they reject all political, and especially all revolutionary action; they wish to attain their ends by peaceful means, necessarily doomed to failure, and by the force of example, to pave the way for the new social gospel.

Such fantastic pictures of future society, painted at a time when the proletariat is still in a very undeveloped state and has but a fantastic conception of its own position, correspond with the first instinctive yearnings of that class for a general reconstruction of society.

But these socialist and communist publications contain also a critical element. They attack every principle of existing society. Hence, they are full of the most valuable materials for the enlightenment of the working class. The practical measures proposed in them -- such as the abolition of the distinction between town and country, of the family, of the carrying on of industries for the account of private individuals, and of the wage system, the proclamation of social harmony, the conversion of the function of the state into a more superintendence of production -- all these proposals point solely to the disappearance of class antagonisms which were, at that time, only just cropping up, and which, in these publications, are recognized in their earliest indistinct and undefined forms only. These proposals, therefore, are of a purely utopian character.

The significance of critical-utopian socialism and communism bears an inverse relation to historical development. In proportion as the modern class struggle develops and takes definite shape, this fantastic standing apart from the contest, these fantastic attacks on it, lose all practical value and all theoretical justifications. Therefore, although the originators of these systems were, in many respects, revolutionary, their disciples have, in every case, formed mere reactionary sects. They hold fast by the original views of their masters, in opposition to the progressive historical development of the proletariat. They, therefore, endeavor, and that consistently, to deaden the class struggle and to reconcile the class antagonisms. They still dream of experimental realization of their social utopias, of founding isolated phalansteres, of establishing "Home Colonies", or setting up a "Little Icaria" [8] -- pocket editions of the New Jerusalem -- and to realize all these castles in the air, they are compelled to appeal to the feelings and purses of the bourgeois. By degrees, they sink into the category of the reactionary conservative socialists depicted above, differing from these only by more systematic pedantry, and by their fanatical and superstitious belief in the miraculous effects of their social science.

They, therefore, violently oppose all political action on the part of the working class; such action, according to them, can only result from blind unbelief in the new gospel.

The Owenites in England, and the Fourierists in France, respectively, oppose the Chartists and the Reformistes.


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FOOTNOTES

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[1] NOTE by Engels to 1888 English edition: Not the English Restoration (1660-1689), but the French Restoration (1814-1830).

[2] NOTE by Engels to 1888 English edition: This applies chiefly to Germany, where the landed aristocracy and squirearchy have large portions of their estates cultivated for their own account by stewards, and are, moreover, extensive beetroot-sugar manufacturers and distillers of potato spirits. The wealthier british aristocracy are, as yet, rather above that; but they, too, know how to make up for declining rents by lending their names to floaters or more or less shady joint-stock companies.

[3] NOTE by Engels to 1888 German edition: The revolutionary storm of 1848 swept away this whole shabby tendency and cured its protagonists of the desire to dabble in socialism. The chief representative and classical type of this tendency is Mr Karl Gruen.

[4] Francois Noel Babeuf (1760-1797): French political agitator; plotted unsuccessfully to destroy the Directory in revolutionary France and established a communistic system.

[5] Comte de Saint-Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy (1760-1825): French social philosopher; generally regarded as founder of French socialism. He thought society should be reorganized along industrial lines and that scientists should be the new spiritual leaders. His most important work is _Nouveau_Christianisme_ (1825).

[6] Charles Fourier (1772-1837): French social reformer; propounded a system of self-sufficient cooperatives known as Fourierism, especially in his work _Le_Nouveau_Monde_industriel_ (1829-30)

[7] Richard Owen (1771-1858): Welsh industrialist and social reformer. He formed a model industrial community at New Lanark, Scotland, and pioneered cooperative societies. His books include _New_View_Of_Society_ (1813).

[8] NOTE by Engels to 1888 English edition: "Home Colonies" were what Owen called his communist model societies. _Phalansteres_ were socialist colonies on the plan of Charles Fourier; Icaria was the name given by Caber to his utopia and, later on, to his American communist colony.



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IV -- POSITION OF THE COMMUNISTS IN RELATION TO
THE VARIOUS EXISTING OPPOSITION PARTIES

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Section II has made clear the relations of the Communists to the existing working-class parties, such as the Chartists in England and the Agrarian Reformers in America.

The Communists fight for the attainment of the immediate aims, for the enforcement of the momentary interests of the working class; but in the movement of the present, they also represent and take care of the future of that movement. In France, the Communists ally with the Social Democrats* against the conservative and radical bourgeoisie, reserving, however, the right to take up a critical position in regard to phases and illusions traditionally handed down from the Great Revolution.

In Switzerland, they support the Radicals, without losing sight of the fact that this party consists of antagonistic elements, partly of Democratic Socialists, in the French sense, partly of radical bourgeois.

In Poland, they support the party that insists on an agrarian revolution as the prime condition for national emancipation, that party which fomented the insurrection of Krakow in 1846.

In Germany, they fight with the bourgeoisie whenever it acts in a revolutionary way, against the absolute monarchy, the feudal squirearchy, and the petty-bourgeoisie.

But they never cease, for a single instant, to instill into the working class the clearest possible recognition of the hostile antagonism between bourgeoisie and proletariat, in order that the German workers may straightway use, as so many weapons against the bourgeoisie, the social and political conditions that the bourgeoisie must necessarily introduce along with its supremacy, and in order that, after the fall of the reactionary classes in Germany, the fight against the bourgeoisie itself may immediately begin.

The Communists turn their attention chiefly to Germany, because that country is on the eve of a bourgeois revolution that is bound to be carried out under more advanced conditions of European civilization and with a much more developed proletariat than that of England was in the seventeenth, and France in the eighteenth century, and because the bourgeois revolution in Germany will be but the prelude to an immediately following proletarian revolution.

In short, the Communists everywhere support every revolutionary movement against the existing social and political order of things.

In all these movements, they bring to the front, as the leading question in each, the property question, no matter what its degree of development at the time.

Finally, they labor everywhere for the union and agreement of the democratic parties of all countries.

The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win.

Proletarians of all countries, unite!


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FOOTNOTES

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* NOTE by Engels to 1888 English edition: The party then represented in Parliament by Ledru-Rollin, in literature by Louis Blanc (1811-82), in the daily press by the Reforme. The name of Social-Democracy signifies, with these its inventors, a section of the Democratic or Republican Party more or less tinged with socialism.



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PREFACE TO 1872 GERMAN EDITION

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The Communist League, an international association of workers, which could of course be only a secret one, under conditions obtaining at the time, commissioned us, the undersigned, at the Congress held in London in November 1847, to write for publication a detailed theoretical and practical programme for the Party. Such was the origin of the following Manifesto, the manuscript of which travelled to London to be printed a few weeks before the February Revolution. First published in German, it has been republished in that language in at least twelve different editions in Germany, England, and America. It was published in English for the first time in 1850 in the _Red Republican_, London, translated by Miss Helen Macfarlane, and in 1871 in at least three different translations in America. The french version first appeared in Paris shortly before the June insurrection of 1848, and recently in _Le Socialiste_ of New York. A new translation is in the course of preparation. A Polish version appeared in London shortly after it was first published in Germany. A Russian translation was published in Geneva in the 'sixties. Into Danish, too, it was translated shortly after its appearance.

However much that state of things may have altered during the last twenty-five years, the general principles laid down in the Manifesto are, on the whole, as correct today as ever. Here and there, some detail might be improved. The practical application of the principles will depend, as the Manifesto itself states, everywhere and at all times, on the historical conditions for the time being existing, and, for that reason, no special stress is laid on the revolutionary measures proposed at the end of Section II. That passage would, in many respects, be very differently worded today. In view of the gigantic strides of Modern Industry since 1848, and of the accompanying improved and extended organization of the working class, in view of the practical experience gained, first in the February Revolution, and then, still more, in the Paris Commune, where the proletariat for the first time held political power for two whole months, this programme has in some details been antiquated. One thing especially was proved by the Commune, viz., that "the working class cannot simply lay hold of ready-made state machinery, and wield it for its own purposes." (See The Civil War in France: Address of the General Council of the International Working Men's Assocation, 1871, where this point is further developed.) Further, it is self-evident that the criticism of socialist literature is deficient in relation to the present time, because it comes down only to 1847; also that the remarks on the relation of the Communists to the various opposition parties (Section IV), although, in principle still correct, yet in practice are antiquated, because the political situation has been entirely changed, and the progress of history has swept from off the earth the greater portion of the political parties there enumerated.

But then, the Manifesto has become a historical document which we have no longer any right to alter. A subsequent edition may perhaps appear with an introduction bridging the gap from 1847 to the present day; but this reprint was too unexpected to leave us time for that.

KARL MARX

FREDERICK ENGELS

June 24, 1872
London


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PREFACE TO 1882 RUSSIAN EDITION

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The first Russian edition of the Manifesto of the Communist Party, translated by Bakunin, was published early in the 'sixties by the printing office of the Kolokol. Then the West could see in it (the Russian edition of the Manifesto) only a literary curiosity. Such a view would be impossible today.

What a limited field the proletarian movement occupied at that time (December 1847) is most clearly shown by the last section: the position of the Communists in relation to the various opposition parties in various countries. Precisely Russia and the United States are missing here. It was the time when Russia constituted the last great reserve of all European reaction, when the United States absorbed the surplus proletarian forces of Europe through immigration. Both countries provided Europe with raw materials and were at the same time markets for the sale of its industrial products. Bother were, therefore, in one way of another, pillars of the existing European system.

How very different today. Precisely European immigration fitted North American for a gigantic agricultural production, whose competition is shaking the very foundations of European landed property -- large and small. At the same time, it enabled the United States to exploit its tremendous industrial resources with an energy and on a scale that must shortly break the industrial monopoly of Western Europe, and especially of England, existing up to now. Both circumstances react in a revolutionary manner upon America itself. Step by step, the small and middle land ownership of the farmers, the basis of the whole political constitution, is succumbing to the competition of giant farms; at the same time, a mass industrial proletariat and a fabulous concentration of capital funds are developing for the first time in the industrial regions.

And now Russia! During the Revolution of 1848-9, not only the European princes, but the European bourgeois as well, found their only salvation from the proletariat just beginning to awaken in Russian intervention. The Tsar was proclaimed the chief of European reaction. Today, he is a prisoner of war of the revolution in Gatchina, and Russia forms the vanguard of revolutionary action in Europe.

The Communist Manifesto had, as its object, the proclamation of the inevitable impending dissolution of modern bourgeois property. But in Russia we find, face-to-face with the rapidly flowering capitalist swindle and bourgeois property, just beginning to develop, more than half the land owned in common by the peasants. Now the question is: can the Russian obshchina, though greatly undermined, yet a form of primeaval common ownership of land, pass directly to the higher form of Communist common ownership? Or, on the contrary, must it first pass through the same process of dissolution such as constitutes the historical evolution of the West?

The only answer to that possible today is this: If the Russian Revolution becomes the signal for a proletarian revolution in the West, so that both complement each other, the present Russian common ownership of land may serve as the starting point for a communist development.

KARL MARX

FREDERICK ENGELS January 21, 1882
London



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PREFACE TO 1883 GERMAN EDITION

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The preface to the present edition I must, alas, sign alone. Marx, the man to whom the whole working class class of Europe and America owes more than to any one else -- rests at Highgate Cemetary and over his grave the first first grass is already growing. Since his death [March 13, 1883], there can be even less thought of revising or supplementing the Manifesto. But I consider it all the more necessary again to state the following expressly:

The basic thought running through the Manifesto -- that economic production, and the structure of society of every historical epoch necessarily arising therefrom, constitute the foundation for the political and intellectual history of that epoch; that consequently (ever since the dissolution of the primaeval communal ownership of land) all history has been a history of class struggles, of struggles between exploited and exploiting, between dominated and dominating classes at various stages of social evolution; that this struggle, however, has now reached a stage where the exploited and oppressed class (the proletariat) can no longer emancipate itself from the class which exploits and oppresses it (the bourgeoisie), without at the same time forever freeing the whole of society from exploitation, oppression, class struggles -- this basic thought belongs soley and exclusively to Marx.

[ENGELS FOOTNOTE TO PARAGRAPH: "This proposition", I wrote in the preface to the English translation, "which, in my opinion, is destined to do for history what Darwin's theory has done for biology, we both of us, had been gradually approaching for some years before 1845. How far I had independently progressed towards it is best shown by my _Conditions of the Working Class in England_. But when I again met Marx at Brussels, in spring 1845, he had it already worked out and put it before me in terms almost as clear as those in which I have stated it here."]

I have already stated this many times; but precisely now is it necessary that it also stand in front of the Manifesto itself.

FREDERICK ENGELS

June 28, 1883
London



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PREFACE TO 1888 ENGLISH EDITION

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The Manifesto was published as the platform of the Communist League, a working men's association, first exclusively German, later on international, and under the political conditions of the Continent before 1848, unavoidably a secret society. At a Congress of the League, held in November 1847, Marx and Engels were commissioned to prepare a complete theoretical and practical party programme. Drawn up in German, in January 1848, the manuscript was sent to the printer in London a few weeks before the French Revolution of February 24. A French translation was brought out in Paris shortly before the insurrection of June 1848. The first English translation, by Miss Helen Macfarlane, appeared in George Julian Harney's _Red Republican_, London, 1850. A Danish and a Polish edition had also been published.

The defeat of the Parisian insurrection of June 1848 -- the first great battle between proletariat and bourgeoisie -- drove again into the background, for a time, the social and political aspirations of the European working class. Thenceforth, the struggle for supremacy was, again, as it had been before the Revolution of February, solely between different sections of the propertied class; the working class was reduced to a fight for political elbow-room, and to the position of extreme wing of the middle-class Radicals. Wherever independent proletarian movements continued to show signs of life, they were ruthlessly hunted down. Thus the Prussian police hunted out the Central Board of the Communist League, then located in Cologne. The members were arrested and, after eighteen months' imprisonment, they were tried in October 1852. This selebrated "Cologne Communist Trial" lasted from October 4 till November 12; seven of the prisoners were sentenced to terms of imprisonment in a fortress, varying from three to six years. Immediately after the sentence, the League was formlly dissolved by the remaining members. As to the Manifesto, it seemed henceforth doomed to oblivion.

When the European workers had recovered sufficient strength for another attack on the ruling classes, the International Working Men's Association sprang up. But this association, formed with the express aim of welding into one body the whole militant proletariat of Europe and America, could not at once proclaim the principles laid down in the Manifesto. The International was bound to have a programme broad enough to be acceptable to the English trade unions, to the followers of Proudhon in France, Belgium, Italy, and Spain, and to the Lassalleans in Germany.

[ENGEL'S FOOTNOTE: Lassalle personally, to us, always acknowledged himself to be a disciple of Marx, and, as such, stood on the ground of the Manifesto. But in his first public agitation, 1862-1864, he did not go beyond demanding co-operative worhsops supported by state credit.]

Marx, who drew up this programme to the satisfaction of all parties, entirely trusted to the intellectual development of the working class, which was sure to result from combined action and mutual discussion. The very events and vicissitudes in the struggle against capital, the defeats even more than the victories, could not help bringing home to men's minds the insufficiency of their various favorite nostrums, and preparing the way for a more complete insight into the true conditions for working-class emancipation. And Marx was right. The International, on its breaking in 1874, left the workers quite different men from what it found them in 1864. Proudhonism in France, Lassalleanism in Germany, were dying out, and even the conservative English trade unions, though most of them had long since severed their connection with the International, were gradually advancing towards that point at which, last year at Swansea, their president could say in their name: "Continental socialism has lost its terror for us." In fact, the principles of the Manifesto had made considerable headway among the working men of all countries.

The Manifesto itself came thus to the front again. Since 1850, the German text had been reprinted several times in Switzerland, England, and America. In 1872, it was translated into English in New York, where the translation was published in _Woorhull and Claflin's Weekly_. From this English version, a French one was made in _Le Socialiste_ of New York. Since then, at least two more English translations, moer or less mutilated, have been brought out in America, and one of them has been reprinted in England. The first Russian translation, made by Bakunin, was published at Herzen's Kolokol office in Geneva, about 1863; a second one, by the heroic Vera Zasulich, also in Geneva, in 1882. A new Danish edition is to be found in _Socialdemokratisk Bibliothek_, Copenhagen, 1885; a fresh French translation in _Le Socialiste_, Paris, 1886. From this latter, a Spanish version was prepared and published in Madrid, 1886. The German reprints are not to be counted; there have been twelve altogether at the least. An Armenian translation, which was to be published in Constantinople some months ago, did not see the light, I am told, because the publisher was afraid of bringing out a book with the name of Marx on it, while the translator declined to call it his own production. Of further translations into other languages I have heard but had not seen. Thus the history of the Manifesto reflects the history of the modern working-class movement; at present, it is doubtless the most wide spread, the most international production of all socialist literature, the common platform acknowledged by millions of working men from Siberia to California.

Yet, when it was written, we could not have called it a _socialist_ manifesto. By Socialists, in 1847, were understood, on the one hand the adherents of the various Utopian systems: Owenites in England, Fourierists in France, both of them already reduced to the position of mere sects, and gradually dying out; on the other hand, the most multifarious social quacks who, by all manner of tinkering, professed to redress, without any danger to capital and profit, all sorts of social grievances, in both cases men outside the working-class movement, and looking rather to the "educated" classes for support. Whatever portion of the working class had become convinced of the insufficiency of mere political revolutions, and had proclaimed the necessity of total social change, called itself Communist. It was a crude, rough-hewn, purely instinctive sort of communism; still, it touched the cardinal point and was powerful enough amongst the working class to produce the Utopian communism of Cabet in France, and of Weitling in Germany. Thus, in 1847, socialism was a middle-class movement, communism a working-class movement. Socialism was, on the Continent at least, "respectable"; communism was the very opposite. And as our notion, from the very beginning, was that "the emancipation of the workers must be the act of the working class itself," there could be no doubt as to which of the two names we must take. Moreover, we have, ever since, been far from repudiating it.

The Manifesto being our joint production, I consider myself bound to state that the fundamental proposition which forms the nucleus belongs to Marx. That proposition is: That in every historical epoch, th prevailing mode of economic production and exchange, and the social organization necessarily following from it, form the basis upon which it is built up, and from that which alone can be explained the political and intellectual history of that epoch; that consequently the whole history of mankind (since the dissolution of primitive tribal society, holding land in common ownership) has been a history of class struggles, contests between exploiting and exploited, ruling and oppressed classes; That the history of these class struggles forms a series of evolutions in which, nowadays, a stage has been reached where the exploited and oppressed class -- the proletariat -- cannot attain its emancipation from the sway of the exploiting and ruling class -- the bourgeoisie -- without, at the same time, and once and for all, emancipating society at large from all exploitation, oppression, class distinction, and class struggles.

This proposition, which, in my opinion, is destined to do for history what Darwin's theory has done for biology, we both of us, had been gradually approaching for some years before 1845. How far I had independently progressed towards it is best shown by my _Conditions of the Working Class in England_. But when I again met Marx at Brussels, in spring 1845, he had it already worked out and put it before me in terms almost as clear as those in which I have stated it here.

From our joint preface to the German edition of 1872, I quote the following:

"However much that state of things may have altered during the last twenty-five years, the general principles laid down in the Manifesto are, on the whole, as correct today as ever. Here and there, some detail might be improved. The practical application of the principles will depend, as the Manifesto itself states, everywhere and at all times, on the historical conditions for the time being existing, and, for that reason, no special stress is laid on the revolutionary measures proposed at the end of Section II. That passage would, in many respects, be very differently worded today. In view of the gigantic strides of Modern Industry since 1848, and of the accompanying improved and extended organization of the working class, in view of the practical experience gained, first in the February Revolution, and then, still more, in the Paris Commune, where the proletariat for the first time held political power for two whole months, this programme has in some details been antiquated. One thing especially was proved by the Commune, viz., that "the working class cannot simply lay hold of ready-made state machinery, and wield it for its own purposes." (See _The Civil War in France: Address of the General Council of the International Working Men's Assocation_ 1871, where this point is further developed.) Further, it is self-evident that the criticism of socialist literature is deficient in relation to the present time, because it comes down only to 1847; also that the remarks on the relation of the Communists to the various opposition parties (Section IV), although, in principle still correct, yet in practice are antiquated, because the political situation has been entirely changed, and the progress of history has swept from off the Earth the greater portion of the political parties there enumerated.

"But then, the Manifesto has become a historical document which we have no longer any right to alter."

The present translation is by Mr Samuel Moore, the translator of the greater portion of Marx's _Capital_. We have revised it in common, and I have added a few notes explanatory of historical allusions.

FREDERICK ENGELS

January 30, 1888
London



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PREFACE TO 1890 GERMAN EDITION

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Since [the 1883 German edition preface] was written, a new German edition of the Manifesto has again become necessary, and much has also happened to the Manifesto which should be recorded here.

A second Russian translation -- by Vera Zasulich -- appeared in Geneva in 1882; the preface to that edition was written by Marx and myself. Unfortunately, the original German manuscript has gone astray; I must therefore retranslate from the Russian which will in no way improve the text. It reads:

"The first Russian edition of the Manifesto of the Communist Party, translated by Bakunin, was published early in the 'sixties by the printing office of the Kolokol. Then the West could see in it (the Russian edition of the Manifesto) only a literary curiosity. Such a view would be impossible today.

"What a limited field the proletarian movement occupied at that time (December 1847) is most clearly shown by the last section: the position of the Communists in relation to the various opposition parties in various countries. Precisely Russia and the United States are missing here. It was the time when Russia constituted the last great reserve of all European reaction, when the United States absorbed the surplus proletarian forces of Europe through immigration. Both countries provided Europe with raw materials and were at the same time markets for the sale of its industrial products. Both were, therefore, in one way of another, pillars of the existing European system.

"How very different today. Precisely European immigration fitted North American for a gigantic agricultural production, whose competition is shaking the very foundations of European landed property -- large and small. At the same time, it enabled the United States to exploit its tremendous industrial resources with an energy and on a scale that must shortly break the industrial monopoly of Western Europe, and especially of England, existing up to now. Both circumstances react in a revolutionary manner upon America itself. Step by step, the small and middle land ownership of the farmers, the basis of the whole political constitution, is succumbing to the competition of giant farms; at the same time, a mass industrial proletariat and a fabulous concentration of capital funds are developing for the first time in the industrial regions.

"And now Russia! During the Revolution of 1848-9, not only the European princes, but the European bourgeois as well, found their only salvation from the proletariat just beginning to awaken in Russian intervention. The Tsar was proclaimed the chief of European reaction. Today, he is a prisoner of war of the revolution in Gatchina, and Russia forms the vanguard of revolutionary action in Europe.

"The Communist Manifesto had, as its object, the proclamation of the inevitable impending dissolution of modern bourgeois property. But in Russia we find, face-to-face with the rapidly flowering capitalist swindle and bourgeois property, just beginning to develop, more than half the land owned in common by the peasants. Now the question is: can the Russian obshchina, though greatly undermined, yet a form of primeaval common ownership of land, pass directly to the higher form of Communist common ownership? Or, on the contrary, must it first pass through the same process of dissolution such as constitutes the historical evolution of the West?

"The only answer to that possible today is this: If the Russian Revolution becomes the signal for a proletarian revolution in the West, so that both complement each other, the present Russian common ownership of land may serve as the starting point for a communist development.

"January 21, 1882 London"

At about the same date, a new Polish version appeared in Geneva: _Manifest Kommunistyczny_.

Furthermore, a new Danish translation has appeared in the _Socialdemokratisk Bibliothek_, Copenhagen, 1885. Unfortunately, it is not quite complete; certain essential passages, which seem to have presented difficulties to the translator, have been omitted, and, in addition, there are saigns of carelessness here and there, which are all the more unpleasantly conspicuous since the translation indicates that had the translator taken a little more pains, he would have done an excellent piece of work.

A new French version appeared in 1886, in _Le Socialiste_ of Paris; it is the best published to date.

From this latter, a Spanish version was published the same year in _El Socialista_ of Madrid, and then reissued in pamphlet form: _Manifesto del Partido Communista_ por Carlos Marx y F. Engels, Madrid, Administracion de El Socialista, Hernan Cortes 8.

As a matter of curiosity, I may mention that in 1887 the manuscript of an Armenian translation was offered to a publisher in Constantinople. But the good man did not have the courage to publish something bearing the name of Marx and suggested that the translator set down his own name as author, which the latter however declined.

After one, and then another, of the more or less inaccurate American translations had been repeatedly reprinted in England, an authentic version at last appeared in 1888. This was my friend Samuel Moore, and we went through it together once more before it went to press. It is entitled: _Manifesto of the Communist_Party_, by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. Authorized English translation, edited and annotated by Frederick Engels, 1888, London, William Reeves, 185 Fleet Street, E.C. I have added some of the notes of that edition to the present one.

The Manifesto has had a history of its own. Greeted with enthusiasm, at the time of its appearance, by the not at all numerous vanguard of scientific socialism (as is proved by the translations mentioned in the first place), it was soon forced into the background by the reaction that began with the defeat of the Paris workers in June 1848, and was finally excommunicated "by law" in the conviction of the Cologne Communists in November 1852. With the disappearance from the public scene of the workers' movement that had begun with the February Revolution, the Manifesto too passed into the background.

When the European workers had again gathered sufficient strength for a new onslaught upon the power of the ruling classes, the International Working Men's Association came into being. Its aim was to weld together into _one_ huge army the whole militant working class of Europe and America. Therefore it could not _set out_ from the principles laid down in the Manifesto. It was bound to have a programme which would not shut the door on the English trade unions, the French, Belgian, Italian, and Spanish Proudhonists, and the German Lassalleans. This programme -- the considerations underlying the Statutes of the International -- was drawn up by Marx with a master hand acknowledged even by the Bakunin and the anarchists. For the ultimate final triumph of the ideas set forth in the Manifesto, Marx relied solely upon the intellectual development of the working class, as it necessarily has to ensue from united action and discussion. The events and vicissitudes in the struggle against capital, the defeats even more than the successes, could not but demonstrate to the fighters the inadequacy of their former universal panaceas, and make their minds more receptive to a thorough understanding of the true conditions for working-class emancipation. And Marx was right. The working class of 1874, at the dissolution of the International, was altogether different from that of 1864, at its foundation. Proudhonism in the Latin countries, and the specific Lassalleanism in Germany, were dying out; and even the ten arch-conservative English trade unions were gradually approaching the point where, in 1887, the chairman of their Swansea Congress could say in their name: "Continental socialism has lost its terror for us." Yet by 1887 continental socialism was almost exclusively the theory heralded in the Manifesto. Thus, to a certain extent, the history of the Manifesto reflects the history of the modern working-class movement since 1848. At present, it is doubtless the most widely circulated, the most international product of all socialist literature, the common programme of many millions of workers of all countries from Siberia to California.

Nevertheless, when it appeared, we could not have called it a _socialist_ manifesto. In 1847, two kinds of people were considered socialists. On the one hand were the adherents of the various utopian systems, notably the Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France, both of whom, at that date, had already dwindled to mere sects gradually dying out. On the other, the manifold types of social quacks who wanted to eliminate social abuses through their various universal panaceas and all kinds of patch-work, without hurting capital and profit in the least. In both cases, people who stood outside the labor movement and who looked for support rather to the "educated" classes. The section of the working class, however, which demanded a radical reconstruction of society, convinced that mere political revolutions were not enough, then called itself _Communist_. It was still a rough-hewn, only instinctive and frequently somewhat crude communism. Yet, it was powerful enough to bring into being two systems of utopian communism -- in France, the "Icarian" communists of Cabet, and in Germany that of Weitling. Socialism in 1847 signified a bourgeois movement, communism a working-class movement. Socialism was, on the Continent at least, quite respectable, whereas communism was the very opposite. And since we were very decidely of the opinion as early as then that "the emancipation of the workers must be the task of the working class itself," we could have no hesitation as to which of the two names we should choose. Nor has it ever occured to us to repudiate it.

"Working men of all countries, unite!" But few voices responded when we proclaimed these words to the world 42 years ago, on the eve of the first Paris Revolution in which the proletariat came out with the demands of its own. On September 28, 1864, however, the proletarians of most of the Western European countries joined hands in the International Working Men's Association of glorious memory. True, the International itself lived only nine years. But that the eternal union of the proletarians of all countries created by it is still alive and lives stronger than ever, there is no better witness than this day. Because today, as I write these lines, the European and American proletariat is reviewing its fighting forces, mobilized for the first time, mobilized as _one_ army, under _one_ flag, for _one_ immediate aim: the standard eight-hour working day to be established by legal enactment, as proclaimed by the Geneva Congress of the International in 1866, and again by the Paris Workers' Congress of 1889. And today's spectacle will open the eyes of the capitalists and landlords of all countries to the fact that today the proletarians of all countries are united indeed.

If only Marx were still by my side to see this with his own eyes!

FREDERICK ENGELS

May 1, 1890
London



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NOTES ON THE MANIFESTO AND TRANSLATIONS OF IT

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The Communist Manifesto was first published in February 1848 in London. It was written by Marx and Engels for the Communist League, an organisation of German emigre workers living in several western European countries. The translation above follows that of the authorised English translation by Samuel Moore of 1888. In a few places, notably the concluding line 'Proletarians of all countries, unite!', Hal Draper's 1994 translation has been followed, rather than Moore's, which reads 'Working men of all countries unite!' For an exceptionally thorough account of the background of the Manifesto, the history of different editions and translations, see Hal Draper The Adventures of the Communist Manifesto Centre for Socialist History, Berkeley 1994.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Jacob said...

The Book of Mormon

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THE BOOK OF JACOB, THE BROTHER OF NEPHI
The words of his preaching unto his brethren. He confoundeth a man who seeketh to overthrow the doctrine of Christ. A few words concerning the history of the people of Nephi.


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Jacob 1
[1] For behold, it came to pass that fifty and five years had passed away from the time that Lehi left Jerusalem; wherefore, Nephi gave me, Jacob, a commandment concerning the small plates, upon which these things are engraven.

[2] And he gave me, Jacob, a commandment that I should write upon these plates a few of the things which I consider to be most precious; that I should not touch, save it were lightly, concerning the history of this people which are called the people of Nephi.

[3] For he said that the history of his people should be engraven upon his other plates, and that I should preserve these plates and hand them down unto my seed, from generation to generation.

[4] And if there were preaching which was sacred, or revelation which was great, or prophesying, that I should engraven the heads of them upon these plates, and touch upon them as much as it were possible, for Christ's sake, and for the sake of our people.

[5] For because of faith and great anxiety, it truly had been made manifest unto us concerning our people, what things should happen unto them.

[6] And we also had many revelations, and the spirit of much prophecy; wherefore, we knew of Christ and his kingdom, which should come.

[7] Wherefore we labored diligently among our people, that we might persuade them to come unto Christ, and partake of the goodness of God, that they might enter into his rest, lest by any means he should swear in his wrath they should not enter in, as in the provocation in the days of temptation while the children of Israel were in the wilderness.

[8] Wherefore, we would to God that we could persuade all men not to rebel against God, to provoke him to anger, but that all men would believe in Christ, and view his death, and suffer his cross and bear the shame of the world; wherefore, I, Jacob, take it upon me to fulfil the commandment of my brother Nephi.

[9] Now Nephi began to be old, and he saw that he must soon die; wherefore, he anointed a man to be a king and a ruler over his people now, according to the reigns of the kings.

[10] The people having loved Nephi exceedingly, he having been a great protector for them, having wielded the sword of Laban in their defence, and having labored in all his days for their welfare --

[11] Wherefore, the people were desirous to retain in remembrance his name. And whoso should reign in his stead were called by the people, second Nephi, third Nephi, and so forth, according to the reigns of the kings; and thus they were called by the people, let them be of whatever name they would.

[12] And it came to pass that Nephi died.

[13] Now the people which were not Lamanites were Nephites; nevertheless, they were called Nephites, Jacobites, Josephites, Zoramites, Lamanites, Lemuelites, and Ishmaelites.

[14] But I, Jacob, shall not hereafter distinguish them by these names, but I shall call them Lamanites that seek to destroy the people of Nephi, and those who are friendly to Nephi I shall call Nephites, or the people of Nephi, according to the reigns of the kings.

[15] And now it came to pass that the people of Nephi, under the reign of the second king, began to grow hard in their hearts, and indulge themselves somewhat in wicked practices, such as like unto David of old desiring many wives and concubines, and also Solomon, his son.

[16] Yea, and they also began to search much gold and silver, and began to be lifted up somewhat in pride.

[17] Wherefore I, Jacob, gave unto them these words as I taught them in the temple, having first obtained mine errand from the Lord.

[18] For I, Jacob, and my brother Joseph had been consecrated priests and teachers of this people, by the hand of Nephi.

[19] And we did magnify our office unto the Lord, taking upon us the responsibility, answering the sins of the people upon our own heads if we did not teach them the word of God with all diligence; wherefore, by laboring with our might their blood might not come upon our garments; otherwise their blood would come upon our garments, and we would not be found spotless at the last day.


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Jacob 2
[1] The words which Jacob, the brother of Nephi, spake unto the people of Nephi, after the death of Nephi:

[2] Now, my beloved brethren, I, Jacob, according to the responsibility which I am under to God, to magnify mine office with soberness, and that I might rid my garments of your sins, I come up into the temple this day that I might declare unto you the word of God.

[3] And ye yourselves know that I have hitherto been diligent in the office of my calling; but I this day am weighed down with much more desire and anxiety for the welfare of your souls than I have hitherto been.

[4] For behold, as yet, ye have been obedient unto the word of the Lord, which I have given unto you.

[5] But behold, hearken ye unto me, and know that by the help of the all-powerful Creator of heaven and earth I can tell you concerning your thoughts, how that ye are beginning to labor in sin, which sin appeareth very abominable unto me, yea, and abominable unto God.

[6] Yea, it grieveth my soul and causeth me to shrink with shame before the presence of my Maker, that I must testify unto you concerning the wickedness of your hearts.

[7] And also it grieveth me that I must use so much boldness of speech concerning you, before your wives and your children, many of whose feelings are exceedingly tender and chaste and delicate before God, which thing is pleasing unto God;

[8] And it supposeth me that they have come up hither to hear the pleasing word of God, yea, the word which healeth the wounded soul.

[9] Wherefore, it burdeneth my soul that I should be constrained, because of the strict commandment which I have received from God, to admonish you according to your crimes, to enlarge the wounds of those who are already wounded, instead of consoling and healing their wounds; and those who have not been wounded, instead of feasting upon the pleasing word of God have daggers placed to pierce their souls and wound their delicate minds.

[10] But, notwithstanding the greatness of the task, I must do according to the strict commands of God, and tell you concerning your wickedness and abominations, in the presence of the pure in heart, and the broken heart, and under the glance of the piercing eye of the Almighty God.

[11] Wherefore, I must tell you the truth according to the plainness of the word of God. For behold, as I inquired of the Lord, thus came the word unto me, saying: Jacob, get thou up into the temple on the morrow, and declare the word which I shall give thee unto this people.

[12] And now behold, my brethren, this is the word which I declare unto you, that many of you have begun to search for gold, and for silver, and for all manner of precious ores, in the which this land, which is a land of promise unto you and to your seed, doth abound most plentifully.

[13] And the hand of providence hath smiled upon you most pleasingly, that you have obtained many riches; and because some of you have obtained more abundantly than that of your brethren ye are lifted up in the pride of your hearts, and wear stiff necks and high heads because of the costliness of your apparel, and persecute your brethren because ye suppose that ye are better than they.

[14] And now, my brethren, do ye suppose that God justifieth you in this thing? Behold, I say unto you, Nay. But he condemneth you, and if ye persist in these things his judgments must speedily come unto you.

[15] O that he would show you that he can pierce you, and with one glance of his eye he can smite you to the dust!

[16] O that he would rid you from this iniquity and abomination. And, O that ye would listen unto the word of his commands, and let not this pride of your hearts destroy your souls!

[17] Think of your brethren like unto yourselves, and be familiar with all and free with your substance, that they may be rich like unto you.

[18] But before ye seek for riches, seek ye for the kingdom of God.

[19] And after ye have obtained a hope in Christ ye shall obtain riches, if ye seek them; and ye will seek them for the intent to do good -- to clothe the naked, and to feed the hungry, and to liberate the captive, and administer relief to the sick and the afflicted.

[20] And now, my brethren, I have spoken unto you concerning pride; and those of you which have afflicted your neighbor, and persecuted him because ye were proud in your hearts, of the things which God hath given you, what say ye of it?

[21] Do ye not suppose that such things are abominable unto him who created all flesh? And the one being is as precious in his sight as the other. And all flesh is of the dust; and for the selfsame end hath he created them, that they should keep his commandments and glorify him forever.

[22] And now I make an end of speaking unto you concerning this pride. And were it not that I must speak unto you concerning a grosser crime, my heart would rejoice exceedingly because of you.

[23] But the word of God burdens me because of your grosser crimes. For behold, thus saith the Lord: This people begin to wax in iniquity; they understand not the scriptures, for they seek to excuse themselves in committing whoredoms, because of the things which were written concerning David, and Solomon his son.

[24] Behold, David and Solomon truly had many wives and concubines, which thing was abominable before me, saith the Lord.

[25] Wherefore, thus saith the Lord, I have led this people forth out of the land of Jerusalem, by the power of mine arm, that I might raise up unto me a righteous branch from the fruit of the loins of Joseph.

[26] Wherefore, I the Lord God will not suffer that this people shall do like unto them of old.

[27] Wherefore, my brethren, hear me, and hearken to the word of the Lord: For there shall not any man among you have save it be one wife; and concubines he shall have none;

[28] For I, the Lord God, delight in the chastity of women. And whoredoms are an abomination before me; thus saith the Lord of Hosts.

[29] Wherefore, this people shall keep my commandments, saith the Lord of Hosts, or cursed be the land for their sakes.

[30] For if I will, saith the Lord of Hosts, raise up seed unto me, I will command my people; otherwise they shall hearken unto these things.

[31] For behold, I, the Lord, have seen the sorrow, and heard the mourning of the daughters of my people in the land of Jerusalem, yea, and in all the lands of my people, because of the wickedness and abominations of their husbands.

[32] And I will not suffer, saith the Lord of Hosts, that the cries of the fair daughters of this people, which I have led out of the land of Jerusalem, shall come up unto me against the men of my people, saith the Lord of Hosts.

[33] For they shall not lead away captive the daughters of my people because of their tenderness, save I shall visit them with a sore curse, even unto destruction; for they shall not commit whoredoms, like unto them of old, saith the Lord of Hosts.

[34] And now behold, my brethren, ye know that these commandments were given to our father, Lehi; wherefore, ye have known them before; and ye have come unto great condemnation; for ye have done these things which ye ought not to have done.

[35] Behold, ye have done greater iniquities than the Lamanites, our brethren. Ye have broken the hearts of your tender wives, and lost the confidence of your children, because of your bad examples before them; and the sobbings of their hearts ascend up to God against you. And because of the strictness of the word of God, which cometh down against you, many hearts died, pierced with deep wounds.


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Jacob 3
[1] But behold, I, Jacob, would speak unto you that are pure in heart. Look unto God with firmness of mind, and pray unto him with exceeding faith, and he will console you in your afflictions, and he will plead your cause, and send down justice upon those who seek your destruction.

[2] O all ye that are pure in heart, lift up your heads and receive the pleasing word of God, and feast upon his love; for ye may, if your minds are firm, forever.

[3] But, wo, wo, unto you that are not pure in heart, that are filthy this day before God; for except ye repent the land is cursed for your sakes; and the Lamanites, which are not filthy like unto you, nevertheless they are cursed with a sore cursing, shall scourge you even unto destruction.

[4] And the time speedily cometh, that except ye repent they shall possess the land of your inheritance, and the Lord God will lead away the righteous out from among you.

[5] Behold, the Lamanites your brethren, whom ye hate because of their filthiness and the cursing which hath come upon their skins, are more righteous than you; for they have not forgotten the commandment of the Lord, which was given unto our father -- that they should have save it were one wife, and concubines they should have none, and there should not be whoredoms committed among them.

[6] And now, this commandment they observe to keep; wherefore, because of this observance, in keeping this commandment, the Lord God will not destroy them, but will be merciful unto them; and one day they shall become a blessed people.

[7] Behold, their husbands love their wives, and their wives love their husbands; and their husbands and their wives love their children; and their unbelief and their hatred towards you is because of the iniquity of their fathers; wherefore, how much better are you than they, in the sight of your great Creator?

[8] O my brethren, I fear that unless ye shall repent of your sins that their skins will be whiter than yours, when ye shall be brought with them before the throne of God.

[9] Wherefore, a commandment I give unto you, which is the word of God, that ye revile no more against them because of the darkness of their skins; neither shall ye revile against them because of their filthiness; but ye shall remember your own filthiness, and remember that their filthiness came because of their fathers.

[10] Wherefore, ye shall remember your children, how that ye have grieved their hearts because of the example that ye have set before them; and also, remember that ye may, because of your filthiness, bring your children unto destruction, and their sins be heaped upon your heads at the last day.

[11] O my brethren, hearken unto my words; arouse the faculties of your souls; shake yourselves that ye may awake from the slumber of death; and loose yourselves from the pains of hell that ye may not become angels to the devil, to be cast into that lake of fire and brimstone which is the second death.

[12] And now I, Jacob, spake many more things unto the people of Nephi, warning them against fornication and lasciviousness, and every kind of sin, telling them the awful consequences of them.

[13] And a hundredth part of the proceedings of this people, which now began to be numerous, cannot be written upon these plates; but many of their proceedings are written upon the larger plates, and their wars, and their contentions, and the reigns of their kings.

[14] These plates are called the plates of Jacob, and they were made by the hand of Nephi. And I make an end of speaking these words.


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Jacob 4
[1] Now behold, it came to pass that I, Jacob, having ministered much unto my people in word, (and I cannot write but a little of my words, because of the difficulty of engraving our words upon plates) and we know that the things which we write upon plates must remain;

[2] But whatsoever things we write upon anything save it be upon plates must perish and vanish away; but we can write a few words upon plates, which will give our children, and also our beloved brethren, a small degree of knowledge concerning us, or concerning their fathers --

[3] Now in this thing we do rejoice; and we labor diligently to engraven these words upon plates, hoping that our beloved brethren and our children will receive them with thankful hearts, and look upon them that they may learn with joy and not with sorrow, neither with contempt, concerning their first parents.

[4] For, for this intent have we written these things, that they may know that we knew of Christ, and we had a hope of his glory many hundred years before his coming; and not only we ourselves had a hope of his glory, but also all the holy prophets which were before us.

[5] Behold, they believed in Christ and worshiped the Father in his name, and also we worship the Father in his name. And for this intent we keep the law of Moses, it pointing our souls to him; and for this cause it is sanctified unto us for righteousness, even as it was accounted unto Abraham in the wilderness to be obedient unto the commands of God in offering up his son Isaac, which is a similitude of God and his Only Begotten Son.

[6] Wherefore, we search the prophets, and we have many revelations and the spirit of prophecy; and having all these witnesses we obtain a hope, and our faith becometh unshaken, insomuch that we truly can command in the name of Jesus and the very trees obey us, or the mountains, or the waves of the sea.

[7] Nevertheless, the Lord God showeth us our weakness that we may know that it is by his grace, and his great condescensions unto the children of men, that we have power to do these things.

[8] Behold, great and marvelous are the works of the Lord. How unsearchable are the depths of the mysteries of him; and it is impossible that man should find out all his ways. And no man knoweth of his ways save it be revealed unto him; wherefore, brethren, despise not the revelations of God.

[9] For behold, by the power of his word man came upon the face of the earth, which earth was created by the power of his word. Wherefore, if God being able to speak and the world was, and to speak and man was created, O then, why not able to command the earth, or the workmanship of his hands upon the face of it, according to his will and pleasure?

[10] Wherefore, brethren, seek not to counsel the Lord, but to take counsel from his hand. For behold, ye yourselves know that he counseleth in wisdom, and in justice, and in great mercy, over all his works.

[11] Wherefore, beloved brethren, be reconciled unto him through the atonement of Christ, his Only Begotten Son, and ye may obtain a resurrection, according to the power of the resurrection which is in Christ, and be presented as the first-fruits of Christ unto God, having faith, and obtained a good hope of glory in him before he manifesteth himself in the flesh.

[12] And now, beloved, marvel not that I tell you these things; for why not speak of the atonement of Christ, and attain to a perfect knowledge of him, as to attain to the knowledge of a resurrection and the world to come?

[13] Behold, my brethren, he that prophesieth, let him prophesy to the understanding of men; for the Spirit speaketh the truth and lieth not. Wherefore, it speaketh of things as they really are, and of things as they really will be; wherefore, these things are manifested unto us plainly, for the salvation of our souls. But behold, we are not witnesses alone in these things; for God also spake them unto prophets of old.

[14] But behold, the Jews were a stiffnecked people; and they despised the words of plainness, and killed the prophets, and sought for things that they could not understand. Wherefore, because of their blindness, which blindness came by looking beyond the mark, they must needs fall; for God hath taken away his plainness from them, and delivered unto them many things which they cannot understand, because they desired it. And because they desired it God hath done it, that they may stumble.

[15] And now I, Jacob, am led on by the Spirit unto prophesying; for I perceive by the workings of the Spirit which is in me, that by the stumbling of the Jews they will reject the stone upon which they might build and have safe foundation.

[16] But behold, according to the scriptures, this stone shall become the great, and the last, and the only sure foundation, upon which the Jews can build.

[17] And now, my beloved, how is it possible that these, after having rejected the sure foundation, can ever build upon it, that it may become the head of their corner?

[18] Behold, my beloved brethren, I will unfold this mystery unto you; if I do not, by any means, get shaken from my firmness in the Spirit, and stumble because of my over anxiety for you.


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Jacob 5
[1] Behold, my brethren, do ye not remember to have read the words of the prophet Zenos, which he spake unto the house of Israel, saying:

[2] Hearken, O ye house of Israel, and hear the words of me, a prophet of the Lord.

[3] For behold, thus saith the Lord, I will liken thee, O house of Israel, like unto a tame olive-tree, which a man took and nourished in his vineyard; and it grew, and waxed old, and began to decay.

[4] And it came to pass that the master of the vineyard went forth, and he saw that his olive-tree began to decay; and he said: I will prune it, and dig about it, and nourish it, that perhaps it may shoot forth young and tender branches, and it perish not.

[5] And it came to pass that he pruned it, and digged about it, and nourished it according to his word.

[6] And it came to pass that after many days it began to put forth somewhat a little, young and tender branches; but behold, the main top thereof began to perish.

[7] And it came to pass that the master of the vineyard saw it, and he said unto his servant: It grieveth me that I should lose this tree; wherefore, go and pluck the branches from a wild olive-tree, and bring them hither unto me; and we will pluck off those main branches which are beginning to wither away, and we will cast them into the fire that they may be burned.

[8] And behold, saith the Lord of the vineyard, I take away many of these young and tender branches, and I will graft them whithersoever I will; and it mattereth not that if it so be that the root of this tree will perish, I may preserve the fruit thereof unto myself; wherefore, I will take these young and tender branches, and I will graft them whithersoever I will.

[9] Take thou the branches of the wild olive-tree, and graft them in, in the stead thereof; and these which I have plucked off I will cast into the fire and burn them, that they may not cumber the ground of my vineyard.

[10] And it came to pass that the servant of the Lord of the vineyard did according to the word of the Lord of the vineyard, and grafted in the branches of the wild olive-tree.

[11] And the Lord of the vineyard caused that it should be digged about, and pruned, and nourished, saying unto his servant: It grieveth me that I should lose this tree; wherefore, that perhaps I might preserve the roots thereof that they perish not, that I might preserve them unto myself, I have done this thing.

[12] Wherefore, go thy way; watch the tree, and nourish it, according to my words.

[13] And these will I place in the nethermost part of my vineyard, whithersoever I will, it mattereth not unto thee; and I do it that I may preserve unto myself the natural branches of the tree; and also, that I may lay up fruit thereof against the season, unto myself; for it grieveth me that I should lose this tree and the fruit thereof.

[14] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard went his way, and hid the natural branches of the tame olive-tree in the nethermost parts of the vineyard, some in one and some in another, according to his will and pleasure.

[15] And it came to pass that a long time passed away, and the Lord of the vineyard said unto his servant: Come, let us go down into the vineyard, that we may labor in the vineyard.

[16] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard, and also the servant, went down into the vineyard to labor. And it came to pass that the servant said unto his master: Behold, look here; behold the tree.

[17] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard looked and beheld the tree in the which the wild olive branches had been grafted; and it had sprung forth and begun to bear fruit. And he beheld that it was good; and the fruit thereof was like unto the natural fruit.

[18] And he said unto the servant: Behold, the branches of the wild tree have taken hold of the moisture of the root thereof, that the root thereof hath brought forth much strength; and because of the much strength of the root thereof the wild branches have brought forth tame fruit. Now, if we had not grafted in these branches, the tree thereof would have perished. And now, behold, I shall lay up much fruit, which the tree thereof hath brought forth; and the fruit thereof I shall lay up against the season, unto mine own self.

[19] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard said unto the servant: Come, let us go to the nethermost part of the vineyard, and behold if the natural branches of the tree have not brought forth much fruit also, that I may lay up of the fruit thereof against the season, unto mine own self.

[20] And it came to pass that they went forth whither the master had hid the natural branches of the tree, and he said unto the servant: Behold these; and he beheld the first that it had brought forth much fruit; and he beheld also that it was good. And he said unto the servant: Take of the fruit thereof, and lay it up against the season, that I may preserve it unto mine own self; for behold, said he, this long time have I nourished it, and it hath brought forth much fruit.

[21] And it came to pass that the servant said unto his master: How comest thou hither to plant this tree, or this branch of the tree? For behold, it was the poorest spot in all the land of thy vineyard.

[22] And the Lord of the vineyard said unto him: Counsel me not; I knew that it was a poor spot of ground; wherefore, I said unto thee, I have nourished it this long time, and thou beholdest that it hath brought forth much fruit.

[23] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard said unto his servant: Look hither; behold I have planted another branch of the tree also; and thou knowest that this spot of ground was poorer than the first. But, behold the tree. I have nourished it this long time, and it hath brought forth much fruit; therefore, gather it, and lay it up against the season, that I may preserve it unto mine own self.

[24] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard said again unto his servant: Look hither, and behold another branch also, which I have planted; behold that I have nourished it also, and it hath brought forth fruit.

[25] And he said unto the servant: Look hither and behold the last. Behold, this have I planted in a good spot of ground; and I have nourished it this long time, and only a part of the tree hath brought forth tame fruit, and the other part of the tree hath brought forth wild fruit; behold, I have nourished this tree like unto the others.

[26] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard said unto the servant: Pluck off the branches that have not brought forth good fruit, and cast them into the fire.

[27] But behold, the servant said unto him: Let us prune it, and dig about it, and nourish it a little longer, that perhaps it may bring forth good fruit unto thee, that thou canst lay it up against the season.

[28] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard and the servant of the Lord of the vineyard did nourish all the fruit of the vineyard.

[29] And it came to pass that a long time had passed away, and the Lord of the vineyard said unto his servant: Come, let us go down into the vineyard, that we may labor again in the vineyard. For behold, the time draweth near, and the end soon cometh; wherefore, I must lay up fruit against the season, unto mine own self.

[30] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard and the servant went down into the vineyard; and they came to the tree whose natural branches had been broken off, and the wild branches had been grafted in; and behold all sorts of fruit did cumber the tree.

[31] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard did taste of the fruit, every sort according to its number. And the Lord of the vineyard said: Behold, this long time have we nourished this tree, and I have laid up unto myself against the season much fruit.

[32] But behold, this time it hath brought forth much fruit, and there is none of it which is good. And behold, there are all kinds of bad fruit; and it profiteth me nothing, notwithstanding all our labor; and now it grieveth me that I should lose this tree.

[33] And the Lord of the vineyard said unto the servant: What shall we do unto the tree, that I may preserve again good fruit thereof unto mine own self?

[34] And the servant said unto his master: Behold, because thou didst graft in the branches of the wild olive-tree they have nourished the roots, that they are alive and they have not perished; wherefore thou beholdest that they are yet good.

[35] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard said unto his servant: The tree profiteth me nothing, and the roots thereof profit me nothing so long as it shall bring forth evil fruit.

[36] Nevertheless, I know that the roots are good, and for mine own purpose I have preserved them; and because of their much strength they have hitherto brought forth, from the wild branches, good fruit.

[37] But behold, the wild branches have grown and have overrun the roots thereof; and because that the wild branches have overcome the roots thereof it hath brought forth much evil fruit; and because that it hath brought forth so much evil fruit thou beholdest that it beginneth to perish; and it will soon become ripened, that it may be cast into the fire, except we should do something for it to preserve it.

[38] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard said unto his servant: Let us go down into the nethermost parts of the vineyard, and behold if the natural branches have also brought forth evil fruit.

[39] And it came to pass that they went down into the nethermost parts of the vineyard. And it came to pass that they beheld that the fruit of the natural branches had become corrupt also; yea, the first and the second and also the last; and they had all become corrupt.

[40] And the wild fruit of the last had overcome that part of the tree which brought forth good fruit, even that the branch had withered away and died.

[41] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard wept, and said unto the servant: What could I have done more for my vineyard?

[42] Behold, I knew that all the fruit of the vineyard, save it were these, had become corrupted. And now these which have once brought forth good fruit have also become corrupted; and now all the trees of my vineyard are good for nothing save it be to be hewn down and cast into the fire.

[43] And behold this last, whose branch hath withered away, I did plant in a good spot of ground; yea, even that which was choice unto me above all other parts of the land of my vineyard.

[44] And thou beheldest that I also cut down that which cumbered this spot of ground, that I might plant this tree in the stead thereof.

[45] And thou beheldest that a part thereof brought forth good fruit, and a part thereof brought forth wild fruit; and because I plucked not the branches thereof and cast them into the fire, behold, they have overcome the good branch that it hath withered away.

[46] And now, behold, notwithstanding all the care which we have taken of my vineyard, the trees thereof have become corrupted, that they bring forth no good fruit; and these I had hoped to preserve, to have laid up fruit thereof against the season, unto mine own self. But, behold, they have become like unto the wild olive-tree, and they are of no worth but to be hewn down and cast into the fire; and it grieveth me that I should lose them.

[47] But what could I have done more in my vineyard? Have I slackened mine hand, that I have not nourished it, Nay, I have nourished it, and I have digged about it, and I have pruned it, and I have dunged it; and I have stretched forth mine hand almost all the day long, and the end draweth nigh. And it grieveth me that I should hew down all the trees of my vineyard, and cast them into the fire that they should be burned. Who is it that has corrupted my vineyard?

[48] And it came to pass that the servant said unto his master: Is it not the loftiness of thy vineyard -- have not the branches thereof overcome the roots which are good? And because the branches have overcome the roots thereof, behold they grew faster than the strength of the roots, taking strength unto themselves. Behold, I say, is not this the cause that the trees of thy vineyard have become corrupted?

[49] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard said unto the servant: Let us go to and hew down the trees of the vineyard and cast them into the fire, that they shall not cumber the ground of my vineyard, for I have done all. What could I have done more for my vineyard?

[50] But, behold, the servant said unto the Lord of the vineyard: Spare it a little longer.

[51] And the Lord said: Yea, I will spare it a little longer, for it grieveth me that I should lose the trees of my vineyard.

[52] Wherefore, let us take of the branches of these which I have planted in the nethermost parts of my vineyard, and let us graft them into the tree from whence they came; and let us pluck from the tree those branches whose fruit is most bitter, and graft in the natural branches of the tree in the stead thereof.

[53] And this will I do that the tree may not perish, that, perhaps, I may preserve unto myself the roots thereof for mine own purpose.

[54] And, behold, the roots of the natural branches of the tree which I planted whithersoever I would are yet alive; wherefore, that I may preserve them also for mine own purpose, I will take of the branches of this tree, and I will graft them in unto them.

Yea, I will graft in unto them the branches of their mother tree, that I may preserve the roots also unto mine own self, that when they shall be sufficiently strong perhaps they may bring forth good fruit unto me, and I may yet have glory in the fruit of my vineyard.

[55] And it came to pass that they took from the natural tree which had become wild, and grafted in unto the natural trees, which also had become wild.

[56] And they also took of the natural trees which had become wild, and grafted into their mother tree.

[57] And the Lord of the vineyard said unto the servant: Pluck not the wild branches from the trees, save it be those which are most bitter; and in them ye shall graft according to that which I have said.

[58] And we will nourish again the trees of the vineyard, and we will trim up the branches thereof; and we will pluck from the trees those branches which are ripened, that must perish, and cast them into the fire.

[59] And this I do that, perhaps, the roots thereof may take strength because of their goodness; and because of the change of the branches, that the good may overcome the evil.

[60] And because that I have preserved the natural branches and the roots thereof, and that I have grafted in the natural branches again into their mother tree, and have preserved the roots of their mother tree, that, perhaps, the trees of my vineyard may bring forth again good fruit; and that I may have joy again in the fruit of my vineyard, and, perhaps, that I may rejoice exceedingly that I have preserved the roots and the branches of the first fruit --

[61] Wherefore, go to, and call servants, that we may labor diligently with our might in the vineyard, that we may prepare the way, that I may bring forth again the natural fruit, which natural fruit is good and the most precious above all other fruit.

[62] Wherefore, let us go to and labor with our might this last time, for behold the end draweth nigh, and this is for the last time that I shall prune my vineyard.

[63] Graft in the branches; begin at the last that they may be first, and that the first may be last, and dig about the trees, both old and young, the first and the last; and the last and the first, that all may be nourished once again for the last time.

[64] Wherefore, dig about them, and prune them, and dung them once more, for the last time, for the end draweth nigh. And if it be so that these last grafts shall grow, and bring forth the natural fruit, then shall ye prepare the way for them, that they may grow.

[65] And as they begin to grow ye shall clear away the branches which bring forth bitter fruit, according to the strength of the good and the size thereof; and ye shall not clear away the bad thereof all at once, lest the roots thereof should be too strong for the graft, and the graft thereof shall perish, and I lose the trees of my vineyard.

[66] For it grieveth me that I should lose the trees of my vineyard; wherefore ye shall clear away the bad according as the good shall grow, that the root and the top may be equal in strength, until the good shall overcome the bad, and the bad be hewn down and cast into the fire, that they cumber not the ground of my vineyard; and thus will I sweep away the bad out of my vineyard.

[67] And the branches of the natural tree will I graft in again into the natural tree;

[68] And the branches of the natural tree will I graft into the natural branches of the tree; and thus will I bring them together again, that they shall bring forth the natural fruit, and they shall be one.

[69] And the bad shall be cast away, yea, even out of all the land of my vineyard; for behold, only this once will I prune my vineyard.

[70] And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard sent his servant; and the servant went and did as the Lord had commanded him, and brought other servants; and they were few.

[71] And the Lord of the vineyard said unto them: Go to, and labor in the vineyard, with your might. For behold, this is the last time that I shall nourish my vineyard; for the end is nigh at hand, and the season speedily cometh; and if ye labor with your might with me ye shall have joy in the fruit which I shall lay up unto myself against the time which will soon come.

[72] And it came to pass that the servants did go and labor with their mights; and the Lord of the vineyard labored also with them; and they did obey the commandments of the Lord of the vineyard in all things.

[73] And there began to be the natural fruit again in the vineyard; and the natural branches began to grow and thrive exceedingly; and the wild branches began to be plucked off and to be cast away; and they did keep the root and the top thereof equal, according to the strength thereof.

[74] And thus they labored, with all diligence, according to the commandments of the Lord of the vineyard, even until the bad had been cast away out of the vineyard, and the Lord had preserved unto himself that the trees had become again the natural fruit; and they became like unto one body; and the fruits were equal; and the Lord of the vineyard had preserved unto himself the natural fruit, which was most precious unto him from the beginning.

[75] And it came to pass that when the Lord of the vineyard saw that his fruit was good, and that his vineyard was no more corrupt, he called up his servants, and said unto them: Behold, for this last time have we nourished my vineyard; and thou beholdest that I have done according to my will; and I have preserved the natural fruit, that it is good, even like as it was in the beginning. And blessed art thou; for because ye have been diligent in laboring with me in my vineyard, and have kept my commandments, and have brought unto me again the natural fruit, that my vineyard is no more corrupted, and the bad is cast away, behold ye shall have joy with me because of the fruit of my vineyard.

[76] For behold, for a long time will I lay up of the fruit of my vineyard unto mine own self against the season, which speedily cometh; and for the last time have I nourished my vineyard, and pruned it, and dug about it, and dunged it; wherefore I will lay up unto mine own self of the fruit, for a long time, according to that which I have spoken.

[77] And when the time cometh that evil fruit shall again come into my vineyard, then will I cause the good and the bad to be gathered; and the good will I preserve unto myself, and the bad will I cast away into its own place. And then cometh the season and the end; and my vineyard will I cause to be burned with fire.


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Jacob 6
[1] And now, behold, my brethren, as I said unto you that I would prophesy, behold, this is my prophecy -- that the things which this prophet Zenos spake, concerning the house of Israel, in the which he likened them unto a tame olive-tree, must surely come to pass.

[2] And the day that he shall set his hand again the second time to recover his people, is the day, yea, even the last time, that the servants of the Lord shall go forth in his power, to nourish and prune his vineyard; and after that the end soon cometh.

[3] And how blessed are they who have labored diligently in his vineyard; and how cursed are they who shall be cast out into their own place! And the world shall be burned with fire.

[4] And how merciful is our God unto us, for he remembereth the house of Israel, both roots and branches; and he stretches forth his hands unto them all the day long; and they are a stiffnecked and a gainsaying people; but as many as will not harden their hearts shall be saved in the kingdom of God.

[5] Wherefore, my beloved brethren, I beseech of you in words of soberness that ye would repent, and come with full purpose of heart, and cleave unto God as he cleaveth unto you. And while his arm of mercy is extended towards you in the light of the day, harden not your hearts.

[6] Yea, today, if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts; for why will ye die?

[7] For behold, after ye have been nourished by the good word of God all the day long, will ye bring forth evil fruit, that ye must be hewn down and cast into the fire?

[8] Behold, will ye reject these words? Will ye reject the words of the prophets; and will ye reject all the words which have been spoken concerning Christ, after so many have spoken concerning him; and deny the good word of Christ, and the power of God, and the gift of the Holy Ghost, and quench the Holy Spirit, and make a mock of the great plan of redemption, which hath been laid for you?

[9] Know ye not that if ye will do these things, that the power of the redemption and the resurrection, which is in Christ, will bring you to stand with shame and awful guilt before the bar of God?

[10] And according to the power of justice, for justice cannot be denied, ye must go away into that lake of fire and brimstone, whose flames are unquenchable, and whose smoke ascendeth up forever and ever, which lake of fire and brimstone is endless torment.

[11] O then, my beloved brethren, repent ye, and enter in at the strait gate, and continue in the way which is narrow, until ye shall obtain eternal life.

[12] O be wise; what can I say more?

[13] Finally, I bid you farewell, until I shall meet you before the pleasing bar of God, which bar striketh the wicked with awful dread and fear. Amen.


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Jacob 7
[1] And now it came to pass after some years had passed away, there came a man among the people of Nephi, whose name was Sherem.

[2] And it came to pass that he began to preach among the people, and to declare unto them that there should be no Christ. And he preached many things which were flattering unto the people; and this he did that he might overthrow the doctrine of Christ.

[3] And he labored diligently that he might lead away the hearts of the people, insomuch that he did lead away many hearts; and he knowing that I, Jacob, had faith in Christ who should come, he sought much opportunity that he might come unto me.

[4] And he was learned, that he had a perfect knowledge of the language of the people; wherefore, he could use much flattery, and much power of speech, according to the power of the devil.

[5] And he had hope to shake me from the faith, notwithstanding the many revelations and the many things which I had seen concerning these things; for I truly had seen angels, and they had ministered unto me. And also, I had heard the voice of the Lord speaking unto me in very word, from time to time; wherefore, I could not be shaken.

[6] And it came to pass that he came unto me, and on this wise did he speak unto me, saying: Brother Jacob, I have sought much opportunity that I might speak unto you; for I have heard and also know that thou goest about much, preaching that which ye call the gospel, or the doctrine of Christ.

[7] And ye have led away much of this people that they pervert the right way of God, and keep not the law of Moses which is the right way; and convert the law of Moses into the worship of a being which ye say shall come many hundred years hence. And now behold, I, Sherem, declare unto you that this is blasphemy; for no man knoweth of such things; for he cannot tell of things to come. And after this manner did Sherem contend against me.

[8] But behold, the Lord God poured in his Spirit into my soul, insomuch that I did confound him in all his words.

[9] And I said unto him: Deniest thou the Christ who shall come? And he said: If there should be a Christ, I would not deny him; but I know that there is no Christ, neither has been, nor ever will be.

[10] And I said unto him: Believest thou the scriptures? And he said, Yea.

[11] And I said unto him: Then ye do not understand them; for they truly testify of Christ. Behold, I say unto you that none of the prophets have written, nor prophesied, save they have spoken concerning this Christ.

[12] And this is not all -- it has been made manifest unto me, for I have heard and seen; and it also has been made manifest unto me by the power of the Holy Ghost; wherefore, I know if there should be no atonement made all mankind must be lost.

[13] And it came to pass that he said unto me: Show me a sign by this power of the Holy Ghost, in the which ye know so much.

[14] And I said unto him: What am I that I should tempt God to show unto thee a sign in the thing which thou knowest to be true?

Yet thou wilt deny it, because thou art of the devil. Nevertheless, not my will be done; but if God shall smite thee, let that be a sign unto thee that he has power, both in heaven and in earth; and also, that Christ shall come. And thy will, O Lord, be done, and not mine.

[15] And it came to pass that when I, Jacob, had spoken these words, the power of the Lord came upon him, insomuch that he fell to the earth. And it came to pass that he was nourished for the space of many days.

[16] And it came to pass that he said unto the people: Gather together on the morrow, for I shall die; wherefore, I desire to speak unto the people before I shall die.

[17] And it came to pass that on the morrow the multitude were gathered together; and he spake plainly unto them and denied the things which he had taught them, and confessed the Christ, and the power of the Holy Ghost, and the ministering of angels.

[18] And he spake plainly unto them, that he had been deceived by the power of the devil. And he spake of hell, and of eternity, and of eternal punishment.

[19] And he said: I fear lest I have committed the unpardonable sin, for I have lied unto God; for I denied the Christ, and said that I believed the scriptures; and they truly testify of him. And because I have thus lied unto God I greatly fear lest my case shall be awful; but I confess unto God.

[20] And it came to pass that when he had said these words he could say no more, and he gave up the ghost.

[21] And when the multitude had witnessed that he spake these things as he was about to give up the ghost, they were astonished exceedingly; insomuch that the power of God came down upon them, and they were overcome that they fell to the earth.

[22] Now, this thing was pleasing unto me, Jacob, for I had requested it of my Father who was in heaven; for he had heard my cry and answered my prayer.

[23] And it came to pass that peace and the love of God was restored again among the people; and they searched the scriptures, and hearkened no more to the words of this wicked man.

[24] And it came to pass that many means were devised to reclaim and restore the Lamanites to the knowledge of the truth; but it all was vain, for they delighted in wars and bloodshed, and they had an eternal hatred against us, their brethren. And they sought by the power of their arms to destroy us continually.

[25] Wherefore, the people of Nephi did fortify against them with their arms, and with all their might, trusting in the God and rock of their salvation; wherefore, they became as yet, conquerors of their enemies.

[26] And it came to pass that I, Jacob, began to be old; and the record of this people being kept on the other plates of Nephi, wherefore, I conclude this record, declaring that I have written according to the best of my knowledge, by saying that the time passed away with us, and also our lives passed away like as it were unto us a dream, we being a lonesome and a solemn people, wanderers, cast out from Jerusalem, born in tribulation, in a wilderness, and hated of our brethren, which caused wars and contentions; wherefore, we did mourn out our days.

[27] And I, Jacob, saw that I must soon go down to my grave; wherefore, I said unto my son Enos: Take these plates. And I told him the things which my brother Nephi had commanded me, and he promised obedience unto the commands. And I make an end of my writing upon these plates, which writing has been small; and to the reader I bid farewell, hoping that many of my brethren may read my words. Brethren, adieu.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Leo Tolstoy said...

WAR AND PEACE by Leo Tolstoy
BOOK ONE: 1805
CHAPTER I

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"Well, Prince, so Genoa and Lucca are now just family estates of the Buonapartes. But I warn you, if you don't tell me that this means war, if you still try to defend the infamies and horrors perpetrated by that Antichrist- I really believe he is Antichrist- I will have nothing more to do with you and you are no longer my friend, no longer my 'faithful slave,' as you call yourself! But how do you do? I see I have frightened you- sit down and tell me all the news."

It was in July, 1805, and the speaker was the well-known Anna Pavlovna Scherer, maid of honor and favorite of the Empress Marya Fedorovna. With these words she greeted Prince Vasili Kuragin, a man of high rank and importance, who was the first to arrive at her reception. Anna Pavlovna had had a cough for some days. She was, as she said, suffering from la grippe; grippe being then a new word in St. Petersburg, used only by the elite.

All her invitations without exception, written in French, and delivered by a scarlet-liveried footman that morning, ran as follows:

"If you have nothing better to do, Count [or Prince], and if the prospect of spending an evening with a poor invalid is not too terrible, I shall be very charmed to see you tonight between 7 and 10- Annette Scherer."

"Heavens! what a virulent attack!" replied the prince, not in the least disconcerted by this reception. He had just entered, wearing an embroidered court uniform, knee breeches, and shoes, and had stars on his breast and a serene expression on his flat face. He spoke in that refined French in which our grandfathers not only spoke but thought, and with the gentle, patronizing intonation natural to a man of importance who had grown old in society and at court. He went up to Anna Pavlovna, kissed her hand, presenting to her his bald, scented, and shining head, and complacently seated himself on the sofa.

"First of all, dear friend, tell me how you are. Set your friend's mind at rest," said he without altering his tone, beneath the politeness and affected sympathy of which indifference and even irony could be discerned.

"Can one be well while suffering morally? Can one be calm in times like these if one has any feeling?" said Anna Pavlovna. "You are staying the whole evening, I hope?"

"And the fete at the English ambassador's? Today is Wednesday. I must put in an appearance there," said the prince. "My daughter is coming for me to take me there."

"I thought today's fete had been canceled. I confess all these festivities and fireworks are becoming wearisome."

"If they had known that you wished it, the entertainment would have been put off," said the prince, who, like a wound-up clock, by force of habit said things he did not even wish to be believed.

"Don't tease! Well, and what has been decided about Novosiltsev's dispatch? You know everything."

"What can one say about it?" replied the prince in a cold, listless tone. "What has been decided? They have decided that Buonaparte has burnt his boats, and I believe that we are ready to burn ours."

Prince Vasili always spoke languidly, like an actor repeating a stale part. Anna Pavlovna Scherer on the contrary, despite her forty years, overflowed with animation and impulsiveness. To be an enthusiast had become her social vocation and, sometimes even when she did not feel like it, she became enthusiastic in order not to disappoint the expectations of those who knew her. The subdued smile which, though it did not suit her faded features, always played round her lips expressed, as in a spoiled child, a continual consciousness of her charming defect, which she neither wished, nor could, nor considered it necessary, to correct.

In the midst of a conversation on political matters Anna Pavlovna burst out:

"Oh, don't speak to me of Austria. Perhaps I don't understand things, but Austria never has wished, and does not wish, for war. She is betraying us! Russia alone must save Europe. Our gracious sovereign recognizes his high vocation and will be true to it. That is the one thing I have faith in! Our good and wonderful sovereign has to perform the noblest role on earth, and he is so virtuous and noble that God will not forsake him. He will fulfill his vocation and crush the hydra of revolution, which has become more terrible than ever in the person of this murderer and villain! We alone must avenge the blood of the just one.... Whom, I ask you, can we rely on?... England with her commercial spirit will not and cannot understand the Emperor Alexander's loftiness of soul. She has refused to evacuate Malta. She wanted to find, and still seeks, some secret motive in our actions. What answer did Novosiltsev get? None. The English have not understood and cannot understand the self-abnegation of our Emperor who wants nothing for himself, but only desires the good of mankind. And what have they promised? Nothing! And what little they have promised they will not perform! Prussia has always declared that Buonaparte is invincible, and that all Europe is powerless before him.... And I don't believe a word that Hardenburg says, or Haugwitz either. This famous Prussian neutrality is just a trap. I have faith only in God and the lofty destiny of our adored monarch. He will save Europe!"

She suddenly paused, smiling at her own impetuosity.

"I think," said the prince with a smile, "that if you had been sent instead of our dear Wintzingerode you would have captured the King of Prussia's consent by assault. You are so eloquent. Will you give me a cup of tea?"

"In a moment. A propos," she added, becoming calm again, "I am expecting two very interesting men tonight, le Vicomte de Mortemart, who is connected with the Montmorencys through the Rohans, one of the best French families. He is one of the genuine emigres, the good ones. And also the Abbe Morio. Do you know that profound thinker? He has been received by the Emperor. Had you heard?"

"I shall be delighted to meet them," said the prince. "But tell me," he added with studied carelessness as if it had only just occurred to him, though the question he was about to ask was the chief motive of his visit, "is it true that the Dowager Empress wants Baron Funke to be appointed first secretary at Vienna? The baron by all accounts is a poor creature."

Prince Vasili wished to obtain this post for his son, but others were trying through the Dowager Empress Marya Fedorovna to secure it for the baron.

Anna Pavlovna almost closed her eyes to indicate that neither she nor anyone else had a right to criticize what the Empress desired or was pleased with.

"Baron Funke has been recommended to the Dowager Empress by her sister," was all she said, in a dry and mournful tone.

As she named the Empress, Anna Pavlovna's face suddenly assumed an expression of profound and sincere devotion and respect mingled with sadness, and this occurred every time she mentioned her illustrious patroness. She added that Her Majesty had deigned to show Baron Funke beaucoup d'estime, and again her face clouded over with sadness.

The prince was silent and looked indifferent. But, with the womanly and courtierlike quickness and tact habitual to her, Anna Pavlovna wished both to rebuke him (for daring to speak he had done of a man recommended to the Empress) and at the same time to console him, so she said:

"Now about your family. Do you know that since your daughter came out everyone has been enraptured by her? They say she is amazingly beautiful."

The prince bowed to signify his respect and gratitude.

"I often think," she continued after a short pause, drawing nearer to the prince and smiling amiably at him as if to show that political and social topics were ended and the time had come for intimate conversation- "I often think how unfairly sometimes the joys of life are distributed. Why has fate given you two such splendid children? I don't speak of Anatole, your youngest. I don't like him," she added in a tone admitting of no rejoinder and raising her eyebrows. "Two such charming children. And really you appreciate them less than anyone, and so you don't deserve to have them."

And she smiled her ecstatic smile.

"I can't help it," said the prince. "Lavater would have said I lack the bump of paternity."

"Don't joke; I mean to have a serious talk with you. Do you know I am dissatisfied with your younger son? Between ourselves" (and her face assumed its melancholy expression), "he was mentioned at Her Majesty's and you were pitied...."

The prince answered nothing, but she looked at him significantly, awaiting a reply. He frowned.

"What would you have me do?" he said at last. "You know I did all a father could for their education, and they have both turned out fools. Hippolyte is at least a quiet fool, but Anatole is an active one. That is the only difference between them." He said this smiling in a way more natural and animated than usual, so that the wrinkles round his mouth very clearly revealed something unexpectedly coarse and unpleasant.

"And why are children born to such men as you? If you were not a father there would be nothing I could reproach you with," said Anna Pavlovna, looking up pensively.

"I am your faithful slave and to you alone I can confess that my children are the bane of my life. It is the cross I have to bear. That is how I explain it to myself. It can't be helped!"

He said no more, but expressed his resignation to cruel fate by a gesture. Anna Pavlovna meditated.

"Have you never thought of marrying your prodigal son Anatole?" she asked. "They say old maids have a mania for matchmaking, and though I don't feel that weakness in myself as yet,I know a little person who is very unhappy with her father. She is a relation of yours, Princess Mary Bolkonskaya."

Prince Vasili did not reply, though, with the quickness of memory and perception befitting a man of the world, he indicated by a movement of the head that he was considering this information.

"Do you know," he said at last, evidently unable to check the sad current of his thoughts, "that Anatole is costing me forty thousand rubles a year? And," he went on after a pause, "what will it be in five years, if he goes on like this?" Presently he added: "That's what we fathers have to put up with.... Is this princess of yours rich?"

"Her father is very rich and stingy. He lives in the country. He is the well-known Prince Bolkonski who had to retire from the army under the late Emperor, and was nicknamed 'the King of Prussia.' He is very clever but eccentric, and a bore. The poor girl is very unhappy. She has a brother; I think you know him, he married Lise Meinen lately. He is an aide-de-camp of Kutuzov's and will be here tonight."

"Listen, dear Annette," said the prince, suddenly taking Anna Pavlovna's hand and for some reason drawing it downwards. "Arrange that affair for me and I shall always be your most devoted slave- slafe wigh an f, as a village elder of mine writes in his reports. She is rich and of good family and that's all I want."

And with the familiarity and easy grace peculiar to him, he raised the maid of honor's hand to his lips, kissed it, and swung it to and fro as he lay back in his armchair, looking in another direction.

"Attendez," said Anna Pavlovna, reflecting, "I'll speak to Lise, young Bolkonski's wife, this very evening, and perhaps the thing can be arranged. It shall be on your family's behalf that I'll start my apprenticeship as old maid."

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Observer

How about pullling the plug?

This blog is no longer a forum for different opinions but is now Dave Smith's forum for leaving no doubt that the man's mind is totally gone!

Don't know why you continue to provide this asshole with a forum for his worthless crap and libel that nobody gives a shit about!

Maybe you don't care about the risk you take with his junk, but for me, it's not worth my time.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Leo Tolstoy said...

WAR AND PEACE by Leo Tolstoy
Book One
CHAPTER II

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Anna Pavlovna's drawing room was gradually filling. The highest Petersburg society was assembled there: people differing widely in age and character but alike in the social circle to which they belonged. Prince Vasili's daughter, the beautiful Helene, came to take her father to the ambassador's entertainment; she wore a ball dress and her badge as maid of honor. The youthful little Princess Bolkonskaya, known as la femme la plus seduisante de Petersbourg,* was also there. She had been married during the previous winter, and being pregnant did not go to any large gatherings, but only to small receptions. Prince Vasili's son, Hippolyte, had come with Mortemart, whom he introduced. The Abbe Morio and many others had also come.

* The most fascinating woman in Petersburg.

To each new arrival Anna Pavlovna said, "You have not yet seen my aunt," or "You do not know my aunt?" and very gravely conducted him or her to a little old lady, wearing large bows of ribbon in her cap, who had come sailing in from another room as soon as the guests began to arrive; and slowly turning her eyes from the visitor to her aunt, Anna Pavlovna mentioned each one's name and then left them.

Each visitor performed the ceremony of greeting this old aunt whom not one of them knew, not one of them wanted to know, and not one of them cared about; Anna Pavlovna observed these greetings with mournful and solemn interest and silent approval. The aunt spoke to each of them in the same words, about their health and her own, and the health of Her Majesty, "who, thank God, was better today." And each visitor, though politeness prevented his showing impatience, left the old woman with a sense of relief at having performed a vexatious duty and did not return to her the whole evening.

The young Princess Bolkonskaya had brought some work in a gold-embroidered velvet bag. Her pretty little upper lip, on which a delicate dark down was just perceptible, was too short for her teeth, but it lifted all the more sweetly, and was especially charming when she occasionally drew it down to meet the lower lip. As is always the case with a thoroughly attractive woman, her defect- the shortness of her upper lip and her half-open mouth- seemed to be her own special and peculiar form of beauty. Everyone brightened at the sight of this pretty young woman, so soon to become a mother, so full of life and health, and carrying her burden so lightly. Old men and dull dispirited young ones who looked at her, after being in her company and talking to her a little while, felt as if they too were becoming, like her, full of life and health. All who talked to her, and at each word saw her bright smile and the constant gleam of her white teeth, thought that they were in a specially amiable mood that day.

The little princess went round the table with quick, short, swaying steps, her workbag on her arm, and gaily spreading out her dress sat down on a sofa near the silver samovar, as if all she was doing was a pleasure to herself and to all around her. "I have brought my work," said she in French, displaying her bag and addressing all present. "Mind, Annette, I hope you have not played a wicked trick on me," she added, turning to her hostess. "You wrote that it was to be quite a small reception, and just see how badly I am dressed." And she spread out her arms to show her short-waisted, lace-trimmed, dainty gray dress, girdled with a broad ribbon just below the breast.

"Soyez tranquille, Lise, you will always be prettier than anyone else," replied Anna Pavlovna.

"You know," said the princess in the same tone of voice and still in French, turning to a general, "my husband is deserting me? He is going to get himself killed. Tell me what this wretched war is for?" she added, addressing Prince Vasili, and without waiting for an answer she turned to speak to his daughter, the beautiful Helene.

"What a delightful woman this little princess is!" said Prince Vasili to Anna Pavlovna.

One of the next arrivals was a stout, heavily built young man with close-cropped hair, spectacles, the light-colored breeches fashionable at that time, a very high ruffle, and a brown dress coat. This stout young man was an illegitimate son of Count Bezukhov, a well-known grandee of Catherine's time who now lay dying in Moscow. The young man had not yet entered either the military or civil service, as he had only just returned from abroad where he had been educated, and this was his first appearance in society. Anna Pavlovna greeted him with the nod she accorded to the lowest hierarchy in her drawing room. But in spite of this lowest-grade greeting, a look of anxiety and fear, as at the sight of something too large and unsuited to the place, came over her face when she saw Pierre enter. Though he was certainly rather bigger than the other men in the room, her anxiety could only have reference to the clever though shy, but observant and natural, expression which distinguished him from everyone else in that drawing room.

"It is very good of you, Monsieur Pierre, to come and visit a poor invalid," said Anna Pavlovna, exchanging an alarmed glance with her aunt as she conducted him to her.

Pierre murmured something unintelligible, and continued to look round as if in search of something. On his way to the aunt he bowed to the little princess with a pleased smile, as to an intimate acquaintance.

Anna Pavlovna's alarm was justified, for Pierre turned away from the aunt without waiting to hear her speech about Her Majesty's health. Anna Pavlovna in dismay detained him with the words: "Do you know the Abbe Morio? He is a most interesting man."

"Yes, I have heard of his scheme for perpetual peace, and it is very interesting but hardly feasible."

"You think so?" rejoined Anna Pavlovna in order to say something and get away to attend to her duties as hostess. But Pierre now committed a reverse act of impoliteness. First he had left a lady before she had finished speaking to him, and now he continued to speak to another who wished to get away. With his head bent, and his big feet spread apart, he began explaining his reasons for thinking the abbe's plan chimerical.

"We will talk of it later," said Anna Pavlovna with a smile.

And having got rid of this young man who did not know how to behave, she resumed her duties as hostess and continued to listen and watch, ready to help at any point where the conversation might happen to flag. As the foreman of a spinning mill, when he has set the hands to work, goes round and notices here a spindle that has stopped or there one that creaks or makes more noise than it should, and hastens to check the machine or set it in proper motion, so Anna Pavlovna moved about her drawing room, approaching now a silent, now a too-noisy group, and by a word or slight rearrangement kept the conversational machine in steady, proper, and regular motion. But amid these cares her anxiety about Pierre was evident. She kept an anxious watch on him when he approached the group round Mortemart to listen to what was being said there, and again when he passed to another group whose center was the abbe.

Pierre had been educated abroad, and this reception at Anna Pavlovna's was the first he had attended in Russia. He knew that all the intellectual lights of Petersburg were gathered there and, like a child in a toyshop, did not know which way to look, afraid of missing any clever conversation that was to be heard. Seeing the self-confident and refined expression on the faces of those present he was always expecting to hear something very profound. At last he came up to Morio. Here the conversation seemed interesting and he stood waiting for an opportunity to express his own views, as young people are fond of doing.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Enos said...

The Book of Mormon

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THE BOOK OF ENOS

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Enos 1
[1] Behold, it came to pass that I, Enos, knowing my father that he was a just man -- for he taught me in his language, and also in the nurture and admonition of the Lord -- and blessed be the name of my God for it --

[2] And I will tell you of the wrestle which I had before God, before I received a remission of my sins.

[3] Behold, I went to hunt beasts in the forests; and the words which I had often heard my father speak concerning eternal life, and the joy of the saints, sunk deep into my heart.

[4] And my soul hungered; and I kneeled down before my Maker, and I cried unto him in mighty prayer and supplication for mine own soul; and all the day long did I cry unto him; yea, and when the night came I did still raise my voice high that it reached the heavens.

[5] And there came a voice unto me, saying: Enos, thy sins are forgiven thee, and thou shalt be blessed.

[6] And I, Enos, knew that God could not lie; wherefore, my guilt was swept away.

[7] And I said: Lord, how is it done?

[8] And he said unto me: Because of thy faith in Christ, whom thou hast never before heard nor seen. And many years pass away before he shall manifest himself in the flesh; wherefore, go to, thy faith hath made thee whole.

[9] Now, it came to pass that when I had heard these words I began to feel a desire for the welfare of my brethren, the Nephites; wherefore, I did pour out my whole soul unto God for them.

[10] And while I was thus struggling in the spirit, behold, the voice of the Lord came into my mind again, saying: I will visit thy brethren according to their diligence in keeping my commandments. I have given unto them this land, and it is a holy land; and I curse it not save it be for the cause of iniquity; wherefore, I will visit thy brethren according as I have said; and their transgressions will I bring down with sorrow upon their own heads.

[11] And after I, Enos, had heard these words, my faith began to be unshaken in the Lord; and I prayed unto him with many long strugglings for my brethren, the Lamanites.

[12] And it came to pass that after I had prayed and labored with all diligence, the Lord said unto me: I will grant unto thee according to thy desires, because of thy faith.

[13] And now behold, this was the desire which I desired of him -- that if it should so be, that my people, the Nephites, should fall into transgression, and by any means be destroyed, and the Lamanites should not be destroyed, that the Lord God would preserve a record of my people, the Nephites; even if it so be by the power of his holy arm, that it might be brought forth at some future day unto the Lamanites, that, perhaps, they might be brought unto salvation --

[14] For at the present our strugglings were vain in restoring them to the true faith. And they swore in their wrath that, if it were possible, they would destroy our records and us, and also all the traditions of our fathers.

[15] Wherefore, I knowing that the Lord God was able to preserve our records, I cried unto him continually, for he had said unto me: Whatsoever thing ye shall ask in faith, believing that ye shall receive in the name of Christ, ye shall receive it.

[16] And I had faith, and I did cry unto God that he would preserve the records; and he covenanted with me that he would bring them forth unto the Lamanites in his own due time.

[17] And I, Enos, knew it would be according to the covenant which he had made; wherefore my soul did rest.

[18] And the Lord said unto me: Thy fathers have also required of me this thing; and it shall be done unto them according to their faith; for their faith was like unto thine.

[19] And now it came to pass that I, Enos, went about among the people of Nephi, prophesying of things to come, and testifying of the things which I had heard and seen.

[20] And I bear record that the people of Nephi did seek diligently to restore the Lamanites unto the true faith in God. But our labors were vain; their hatred was fixed, and they were led by their evil nature that they became wild, and ferocious, and a bloodthirsty people, full of idolatry and filthiness; feeding upon beasts of prey; dwelling in tents, and wandering about in the wilderness with a short skin girdle about their loins and their heads shaven; and their skill was in the bow, and in the cimeter, and the ax. And many of them did eat nothing save it was raw meat; and they were continually seeking to destroy us.

[21] And it came to pass that the people of Nephi did till the land, and raise all manner of grain, and of fruit, and flocks of herds, and flocks of all manner of cattle of every kind, and goats, and wild goats, and also many horses.

[22] And there were exceedingly many prophets among us. And the people were a stiffnecked people, hard to understand.

[23] And there was nothing save it was exceeding harshness, preaching and prophesying of wars, and contentions, and destructions, and continually reminding them of death, and the duration of eternity, and the judgments and the power of God, and all these things -- stirring them up continually to keep them in the fear of the Lord. I say there was nothing short of these things, and exceedingly great plainness of speech, would keep them from going down speedily to destruction. And after this manner do I write concerning them.

[24] And I saw wars between the Nephites and Lamanites in the course of my days.

[25] And it came to pass that I began to be old, and an hundred and seventy and nine years had passed away from the time that our father Lehi left Jerusalem.

[26] And I saw that I must soon go down to my grave, having been wrought upon by the power of God that I must preach and prophesy unto this people, and declare the word according to the truth which is in Christ. And I have declared it in all my days, and have rejoiced in it above that of the world.

[27] And I soon go to the place of my rest, which is with my Redeemer; for I know that in him I shall rest. And I rejoice in the day when my mortal shall put on immortality, and shall stand before him; then shall I see his face with pleasure, and he will say unto me: Come unto me, ye blessed, there is a place prepared for you in the mansions of my Father. Amen.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Gawd Almighty said...

Leviticus

Leviticus

1:1 And the LORD called unto Moses, and spake unto him out of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying, 1:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, If any man of you bring an offering unto the LORD, ye shall bring your offering of the cattle, even of the herd, and of the flock.

1:3 If his offering be a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD.

1:4 And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him.

1:5 And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall bring the blood, and sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar that is by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

1:6 And he shall flay the burnt offering, and cut it into his pieces.

1:7 And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay the wood in order upon the fire: 1:8 And the priests, Aaron's sons, shall lay the parts, the head, and the fat, in order upon the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar: 1:9 But his inwards and his legs shall he wash in water: and the priest shall burn all on the altar, to be a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

1:10 And if his offering be of the flocks, namely, of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt sacrifice; he shall bring it a male without blemish.

1:11 And he shall kill it on the side of the altar northward before the LORD: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall sprinkle his blood round about upon the altar.

1:12 And he shall cut it into his pieces, with his head and his fat: and the priest shall lay them in order on the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar: 1:13 But he shall wash the inwards and the legs with water: and the priest shall bring it all, and burn it upon the altar: it is a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

1:14 And if the burnt sacrifice for his offering to the LORD be of fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtledoves, or of young pigeons.

1:15 And the priest shall bring it unto the altar, and wring off his head, and burn it on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be wrung out at the side of the altar: 1:16 And he shall pluck away his crop with his feathers, and cast it beside the altar on the east part, by the place of the ashes: 1:17 And he shall cleave it with the wings thereof, but shall not divide it asunder: and the priest shall burn it upon the altar, upon the wood that is upon the fire: it is a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

2:1 And when any will offer a meat offering unto the LORD, his offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon: 2:2 And he shall bring it to Aaron's sons the priests: and he shall take thereout his handful of the flour thereof, and of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof; and the priest shall burn the memorial of it upon the altar, to be an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: 2:3 And the remnant of the meat offering shall be Aaron's and his sons': it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the LORD made by fire.

2:4 And if thou bring an oblation of a meat offering baken in the oven, it shall be unleavened cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil.

2:5 And if thy oblation be a meat offering baken in a pan, it shall be of fine flour unleavened, mingled with oil.

2:6 Thou shalt part it in pieces, and pour oil thereon: it is a meat offering.

2:7 And if thy oblation be a meat offering baken in the fryingpan, it shall be made of fine flour with oil.

2:8 And thou shalt bring the meat offering that is made of these things unto the LORD: and when it is presented unto the priest, he shall bring it unto the altar.

2:9 And the priest shall take from the meat offering a memorial thereof, and shall burn it upon the altar: it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

2:10 And that which is left of the meat offering shall be Aaron's and his sons': it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the LORD made by fire.

2:11 No meat offering, which ye shall bring unto the LORD, shall be made with leaven: for ye shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, in any offering of the LORD made by fire.

2:12 As for the oblation of the firstfruits, ye shall offer them unto the LORD: but they shall not be burnt on the altar for a sweet savour.

2:13 And every oblation of thy meat offering shalt thou season with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat offering: with all thine offerings thou shalt offer salt.

2:14 And if thou offer a meat offering of thy firstfruits unto the LORD, thou shalt offer for the meat offering of thy firstfruits green ears of corn dried by the fire, even corn beaten out of full ears.

2:15 And thou shalt put oil upon it, and lay frankincense thereon: it is a meat offering.

2:16 And the priest shall burn the memorial of it, part of the beaten corn thereof, and part of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof: it is an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

3:1 And if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace offering, if he offer it of the herd; whether it be a male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the LORD.

3:2 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron's sons the priests shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about.

3:3 And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace offering an offering made by fire unto the LORD; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 3:4 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away.

3:5 And Aaron's sons shall burn it on the altar upon the burnt sacrifice, which is upon the wood that is on the fire: it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

3:6 And if his offering for a sacrifice of peace offering unto the LORD be of the flock; male or female, he shall offer it without blemish.

3:7 If he offer a lamb for his offering, then shall he offer it before the LORD.

3:8 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron's sons shall sprinkle the blood thereof round about upon the altar.

3:9 And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace offering an offering made by fire unto the LORD; the fat thereof, and the whole rump, it shall he take off hard by the backbone; and the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 3:10 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away.

3:11 And the priest shall burn it upon the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire unto the LORD.

3:12 And if his offering be a goat, then he shall offer it before the LORD.

3:13 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of it, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congregation: and the sons of Aaron shall sprinkle the blood thereof upon the altar round about.

3:14 And he shall offer thereof his offering, even an offering made by fire unto the LORD; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 3:15 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away.

3:16 And the priest shall burn them upon the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire for a sweet savour: all the fat is the LORD's.

3:17 It shall be a perpetual statute for your generations throughout all your dwellings, that ye eat neither fat nor blood.

4:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 4:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a soul shall sin through ignorance against any of the commandments of the LORD concerning things which ought not to be done, and shall do against any of them: 4:3 If the priest that is anointed do sin according to the sin of the people; then let him bring for his sin, which he hath sinned, a young bullock without blemish unto the LORD for a sin offering.

4:4 And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD; and shall lay his hand upon the bullock's head, and kill the bullock before the LORD.

4:5 And the priest that is anointed shall take of the bullock's blood, and bring it to the tabernacle of the congregation: 4:6 And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the LORD, before the vail of the sanctuary.

4:7 And the priest shall put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the LORD, which is in the tabernacle of the congregation; and shall pour all the blood of the bullock at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

4:8 And he shall take off from it all the fat of the bullock for the sin offering; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 4:9 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away, 4:10 As it was taken off from the bullock of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the priest shall burn them upon the altar of the burnt offering.

4:11 And the skin of the bullock, and all his flesh, with his head, and with his legs, and his inwards, and his dung, 4:12 Even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn him on the wood with fire: where the ashes are poured out shall he be burnt.

4:13 And if the whole congregation of Israel sin through ignorance, and the thing be hid from the eyes of the assembly, and they have done somewhat against any of the commandments of the LORD concerning things which should not be done, and are guilty; 4:14 When the sin, which they have sinned against it, is known, then the congregation shall offer a young bullock for the sin, and bring him before the tabernacle of the congregation.

4:15 And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD: and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD.

4:16 And the priest that is anointed shall bring of the bullock's blood to the tabernacle of the congregation: 4:17 And the priest shall dip his finger in some of the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, even before the vail.

4:18 And he shall put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the LORD, that is in the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall pour out all the blood at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

4:19 And he shall take all his fat from him, and burn it upon the altar.

4:20 And he shall do with the bullock as he did with the bullock for a sin offering, so shall he do with this: and the priest shall make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them.

4:21 And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn him as he burned the first bullock: it is a sin offering for the congregation.

4:22 When a ruler hath sinned, and done somewhat through ignorance against any of the commandments of the LORD his God concerning things which should not be done, and is guilty; 4:23 Or if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, come to his knowledge; he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a male without blemish: 4:24 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt offering before the LORD: it is a sin offering.

4:25 And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out his blood at the bottom of the altar of burnt offering.

4:26 And he shall burn all his fat upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the priest shall make an atonement for him as concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him.

4:27 And if any one of the common people sin through ignorance, while he doeth somewhat against any of the commandments of the LORD concerning things which ought not to be done, and be guilty; 4:28 Or if his sin, which he hath sinned, come to his knowledge: then he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a female without blemish, for his sin which he hath sinned.

4:29 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin offering, and slay the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering.

4:30 And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar.

4:31 And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace offerings; and the priest shall burn it upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him.

4:32 And if he bring a lamb for a sin offering, he shall bring it a female without blemish.

4:33 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin offering, and slay it for a sin offering in the place where they kill the burnt offering.

4:34 And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar: 4:35 And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of the peace offerings; and the priest shall burn them upon the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the LORD: and the priest shall make an atonement for his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven him.

5:1 And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and is a witness, whether he hath seen or known of it; if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity.

5:2 Or if a soul touch any unclean thing, whether it be a carcase of an unclean beast, or a carcase of unclean cattle, or the carcase of unclean creeping things, and if it be hidden from him; he also shall be unclean, and guilty.

5:3 Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever uncleanness it be that a man shall be defiled withal, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty.

5:4 Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty in one of these.

5:5 And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that he hath sinned in that thing: 5:6 And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid of the goats, for a sin offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin.

5:7 And if he be not able to bring a lamb, then he shall bring for his trespass, which he hath committed, two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD; one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering.

5:8 And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin offering first, and wring off his head from his neck, but shall not divide it asunder: 5:9 And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be wrung out at the bottom of the altar: it is a sin offering.

5:10 And he shall offer the second for a burnt offering, according to the manner: and the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin which he hath sinned, and it shall be forgiven him.

5:11 But if he be not able to bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he that sinned shall bring for his offering the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon: for it is a sin offering.

5:12 Then shall he bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it, even a memorial thereof, and burn it on the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the LORD: it is a sin offering.

5:13 And the priest shall make an atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in one of these, and it shall be forgiven him: and the remnant shall be the priest's, as a meat offering.

5:14 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 5:15 If a soul commit a trespass, and sin through ignorance, in the holy things of the LORD; then he shall bring for his trespass unto the LORD a ram without blemish out of the flocks, with thy estimation by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass offering.

5:16 And he shall make amends for the harm that he hath done in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering, and it shall be forgiven him.

5:17 And if a soul sin, and commit any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of the LORD; though he wist it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity.

5:18 And he shall bring a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass offering, unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his ignorance wherein he erred and wist it not, and it shall be forgiven him.

5:19 It is a trespass offering: he hath certainly trespassed against the LORD.

6:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 6:2 If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and lie unto his neighbour in that which was delivered him to keep, or in fellowship, or in a thing taken away by violence, or hath deceived his neighbour; 6:3 Or have found that which was lost, and lieth concerning it, and sweareth falsely; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein: 6:4 Then it shall be, because he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took violently away, or the thing which he hath deceitfully gotten, or that which was delivered him to keep, or the lost thing which he found, 6:5 Or all that about which he hath sworn falsely; he shall even restore it in the principal, and shall add the fifth part more thereto, and give it unto him to whom it appertaineth, in the day of his trespass offering.

6:6 And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass offering, unto the priest: 6:7 And the priest shall make an atonement for him before the LORD: and it shall be forgiven him for any thing of all that he hath done in trespassing therein.

6:8 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 6:9 Command Aaron and his sons, saying, This is the law of the burnt offering: It is the burnt offering, because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the morning, and the fire of the altar shall be burning in it.

6:10 And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and take up the ashes which the fire hath consumed with the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar.

6:11 And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place.

6:12 And the fire upon the altar shall be burning in it; it shall not be put out: and the priest shall burn wood on it every morning, and lay the burnt offering in order upon it; and he shall burn thereon the fat of the peace offerings.

6:13 The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar; it shall never go out.

6:14 And this is the law of the meat offering: the sons of Aaron shall offer it before the LORD, before the altar.

6:15 And he shall take of it his handful, of the flour of the meat offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which is upon the meat offering, and shall burn it upon the altar for a sweet savour, even the memorial of it, unto the LORD.

6:16 And the remainder thereof shall Aaron and his sons eat: with unleavened bread shall it be eaten in the holy place; in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation they shall eat it.

6:17 It shall not be baken with leaven. I have given it unto them for their portion of my offerings made by fire; it is most holy, as is the sin offering, and as the trespass offering.

6:18 All the males among the children of Aaron shall eat of it. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations concerning the offerings of the LORD made by fire: every one that toucheth them shall be holy.

6:19 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 6:20 This is the offering of Aaron and of his sons, which they shall offer unto the LORD in the day when he is anointed; the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meat offering perpetual, half of it in the morning, and half thereof at night.

6:21 In a pan it shall be made with oil; and when it is baken, thou shalt bring it in: and the baken pieces of the meat offering shalt thou offer for a sweet savour unto the LORD.

6:22 And the priest of his sons that is anointed in his stead shall offer it: it is a statute for ever unto the LORD; it shall be wholly burnt.

6:23 For every meat offering for the priest shall be wholly burnt: it shall not be eaten.

6:24 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 6:25 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, saying, This is the law of the sin offering: In the place where the burnt offering is killed shall the sin offering be killed before the LORD: it is most holy.

6:26 The priest that offereth it for sin shall eat it: in the holy place shall it be eaten, in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation.

6:27 Whatsoever shall touch the flesh thereof shall be holy: and when there is sprinkled of the blood thereof upon any garment, thou shalt wash that whereon it was sprinkled in the holy place.

6:28 But the earthen vessel wherein it is sodden shall be broken: and if it be sodden in a brasen pot, it shall be both scoured, and rinsed in water.

6:29 All the males among the priests shall eat thereof: it is most holy.

6:30 And no sin offering, whereof any of the blood is brought into the tabernacle of the congregation to reconcile withal in the holy place, shall be eaten: it shall be burnt in the fire.

7:1 Likewise this is the law of the trespass offering: it is most holy.

7:2 In the place where they kill the burnt offering shall they kill the trespass offering: and the blood thereof shall he sprinkle round about upon the altar.

7:3 And he shall offer of it all the fat thereof; the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, 7:4 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks, and the caul that is above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away: 7:5 And the priest shall burn them upon the altar for an offering made by fire unto the LORD: it is a trespass offering.

7:6 Every male among the priests shall eat thereof: it shall be eaten in the holy place: it is most holy.

7:7 As the sin offering is, so is the trespass offering: there is one law for them: the priest that maketh atonement therewith shall have it.

7:8 And the priest that offereth any man's burnt offering, even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt offering which he hath offered.

7:9 And all the meat offering that is baken in the oven, and all that is dressed in the fryingpan, and in the pan, shall be the priest's that offereth it.

7:10 And every meat offering, mingled with oil, and dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as much as another.

7:11 And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which he shall offer unto the LORD.

7:12 If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled with oil, of fine flour, fried.

7:13 Besides the cakes, he shall offer for his offering leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings.

7:14 And of it he shall offer one out of the whole oblation for an heave offering unto the LORD, and it shall be the priest's that sprinkleth the blood of the peace offerings.

7:15 And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day that it is offered; he shall not leave any of it until the morning.

7:16 But if the sacrifice of his offering be a vow, or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he offereth his sacrifice: and on the morrow also the remainder of it shall be eaten: 7:17 But the remainder of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burnt with fire.

7:18 And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings be eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it: it shall be an abomination, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity.

7:19 And the flesh that toucheth any unclean thing shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt with fire: and as for the flesh, all that be clean shall eat thereof.

7:20 But the soul that eateth of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, that pertain unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, even that soul shall be cut off from his people.

7:21 Moreover the soul that shall touch any unclean thing, as the uncleanness of man, or any unclean beast, or any abominable unclean thing, and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which pertain unto the LORD, even that soul shall be cut off from his people.

7:22 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 7:23 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, Ye shall eat no manner of fat, of ox, or of sheep, or of goat.

7:24 And the fat of the beast that dieth of itself, and the fat of that which is torn with beasts, may be used in any other use: but ye shall in no wise eat of it.

7:25 For whosoever eateth the fat of the beast, of which men offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD, even the soul that eateth it shall be cut off from his people.

7:26 Moreover ye shall eat no manner of blood, whether it be of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwellings.

7:27 Whatsoever soul it be that eateth any manner of blood, even that soul shall be cut off from his people.

7:28 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 7:29 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, He that offereth the sacrifice of his peace offerings unto the LORD shall bring his oblation unto the LORD of the sacrifice of his peace offerings.

7:30 His own hands shall bring the offerings of the LORD made by fire, the fat with the breast, it shall he bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the LORD.

7:31 And the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar: but the breast shall be Aaron's and his sons'.

7:32 And the right shoulder shall ye give unto the priest for an heave offering of the sacrifices of your peace offerings.

7:33 He among the sons of Aaron, that offereth the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right shoulder for his part.

7:34 For the wave breast and the heave shoulder have I taken of the children of Israel from off the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest and unto his sons by a statute for ever from among the children of Israel.

7:35 This is the portion of the anointing of Aaron, and of the anointing of his sons, out of the offerings of the LORD made by fire, in the day when he presented them to minister unto the LORD in the priest's office; 7:36 Which the LORD commanded to be given them of the children of Israel, in the day that he anointed them, by a statute for ever throughout their generations.

7:37 This is the law of the burnt offering, of the meat offering, and of the sin offering, and of the trespass offering, and of the consecrations, and of the sacrifice of the peace offerings; 7:38 Which the LORD commanded Moses in mount Sinai, in the day that he commanded the children of Israel to offer their oblations unto the LORD, in the wilderness of Sinai.

8:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 8:2 Take Aaron and his sons with him, and the garments, and the anointing oil, and a bullock for the sin offering, and two rams, and a basket of unleavened bread; 8:3 And gather thou all the congregation together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

8:4 And Moses did as the LORD commanded him; and the assembly was gathered together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

8:5 And Moses said unto the congregation, This is the thing which the LORD commanded to be done.

8:6 And Moses brought Aaron and his sons, and washed them with water.

8:7 And he put upon him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod upon him, and he girded him with the curious girdle of the ephod, and bound it unto him therewith.

8:8 And he put the breastplate upon him: also he put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim.

8:9 And he put the mitre upon his head; also upon the mitre, even upon his forefront, did he put the golden plate, the holy crown; as the LORD commanded Moses.

8:10 And Moses took the anointing oil, and anointed the tabernacle and all that was therein, and sanctified them.

8:11 And he sprinkled thereof upon the altar seven times, and anointed the altar and all his vessels, both the laver and his foot, to sanctify them.

8:12 And he poured of the anointing oil upon Aaron's head, and anointed him, to sanctify him.

8:13 And Moses brought Aaron's sons, and put coats upon them, and girded them with girdles, and put bonnets upon them; as the LORD commanded Moses.

8:14 And he brought the bullock for the sin offering: and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the bullock for the sin offering.

8:15 And he slew it; and Moses took the blood, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about with his finger, and purified the altar, and poured the blood at the bottom of the altar, and sanctified it, to make reconciliation upon it.

8:16 And he took all the fat that was upon the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and their fat, and Moses burned it upon the altar.

8:17 But the bullock, and his hide, his flesh, and his dung, he burnt with fire without the camp; as the LORD commanded Moses.

8:18 And he brought the ram for the burnt offering: and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the ram.

8:19 And he killed it; and Moses sprinkled the blood upon the altar round about.

8:20 And he cut the ram into pieces; and Moses burnt the head, and the pieces, and the fat.

8:21 And he washed the inwards and the legs in water; and Moses burnt the whole ram upon the altar: it was a burnt sacrifice for a sweet savour, and an offering made by fire unto the LORD; as the LORD commanded Moses.

8:22 And he brought the other ram, the ram of consecration: and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the ram.

8:23 And he slew it; and Moses took of the blood of it, and put it upon the tip of Aaron's right ear, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot.

8:24 And he brought Aaron's sons, and Moses put of the blood upon the tip of their right ear, and upon the thumbs of their right hands, and upon the great toes of their right feet: and Moses sprinkled the blood upon the altar round about.

8:25 And he took the fat, and the rump, and all the fat that was upon the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and their fat, and the right shoulder: 8:26 And out of the basket of unleavened bread, that was before the LORD, he took one unleavened cake, and a cake of oiled bread, and one wafer, and put them on the fat, and upon the right shoulder: 8:27 And he put all upon Aaron's hands, and upon his sons' hands, and waved them for a wave offering before the LORD.

8:28 And Moses took them from off their hands, and burnt them on the altar upon the burnt offering: they were consecrations for a sweet savour: it is an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

8:29 And Moses took the breast, and waved it for a wave offering before the LORD: for of the ram of consecration it was Moses' part; as the LORD commanded Moses.

8:30 And Moses took of the anointing oil, and of the blood which was upon the altar, and sprinkled it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon his sons' garments with him; and sanctified Aaron, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments with him.

8:31 And Moses said unto Aaron and to his sons, Boil the flesh at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: and there eat it with the bread that is in the basket of consecrations, as I commanded, saying, Aaron and his sons shall eat it.

8:32 And that which remaineth of the flesh and of the bread shall ye burn with fire.

8:33 And ye shall not go out of the door of the tabernacle of the congregation in seven days, until the days of your consecration be at an end: for seven days shall he consecrate you.

8:34 As he hath done this day, so the LORD hath commanded to do, to make an atonement for you.

8:35 Therefore shall ye abide at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation day and night seven days, and keep the charge of the LORD, that ye die not: for so I am commanded.

8:36 So Aaron and his sons did all things which the LORD commanded by the hand of Moses.

9:1 And it came to pass on the eighth day, that Moses called Aaron and his sons, and the elders of Israel; 9:2 And he said unto Aaron, Take thee a young calf for a sin offering, and a ram for a burnt offering, without blemish, and offer them before the LORD.

9:3 And unto the children of Israel thou shalt speak, saying, Take ye a kid of the goats for a sin offering; and a calf and a lamb, both of the first year, without blemish, for a burnt offering; 9:4 Also a bullock and a ram for peace offerings, to sacrifice before the LORD; and a meat offering mingled with oil: for to day the LORD will appear unto you.

9:5 And they brought that which Moses commanded before the tabernacle of the congregation: and all the congregation drew near and stood before the LORD.

9:6 And Moses said, This is the thing which the LORD commanded that ye should do: and the glory of the LORD shall appear unto you.

9:7 And Moses said unto Aaron, Go unto the altar, and offer thy sin offering, and thy burnt offering, and make an atonement for thyself, and for the people: and offer the offering of the people, and make an atonement for them; as the LORD commanded.

9:8 Aaron therefore went unto the altar, and slew the calf of the sin offering, which was for himself.

9:9 And the sons of Aaron brought the blood unto him: and he dipped his finger in the blood, and put it upon the horns of the altar, and poured out the blood at the bottom of the altar: 9:10 But the fat, and the kidneys, and the caul above the liver of the sin offering, he burnt upon the altar; as the LORD commanded Moses.

9:11 And the flesh and the hide he burnt with fire without the camp.

9:12 And he slew the burnt offering; and Aaron's sons presented unto him the blood, which he sprinkled round about upon the altar.

9:13 And they presented the burnt offering unto him, with the pieces thereof, and the head: and he burnt them upon the altar.

9:14 And he did wash the inwards and the legs, and burnt them upon the burnt offering on the altar.

9:15 And he brought the people's offering, and took the goat, which was the sin offering for the people, and slew it, and offered it for sin, as the first.

9:16 And he brought the burnt offering, and offered it according to the manner.

9:17 And he brought the meat offering, and took an handful thereof, and burnt it upon the altar, beside the burnt sacrifice of the morning.

9:18 He slew also the bullock and the ram for a sacrifice of peace offerings, which was for the people: and Aaron's sons presented unto him the blood, which he sprinkled upon the altar round about, 9:19 And the fat of the bullock and of the ram, the rump, and that which covereth the inwards, and the kidneys, and the caul above the liver: 9:20 And they put the fat upon the breasts, and he burnt the fat upon the altar: 9:21 And the breasts and the right shoulder Aaron waved for a wave offering before the LORD; as Moses commanded.

9:22 And Aaron lifted up his hand toward the people, and blessed them, and came down from offering of the sin offering, and the burnt offering, and peace offerings.

9:23 And Moses and Aaron went into the tabernacle of the congregation, and came out, and blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people.

9:24 And there came a fire out from before the LORD, and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat: which when all the people saw, they shouted, and fell on their faces.

10:1 And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took either of them his censer, and put fire therein, and put incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the LORD, which he commanded them not.

10:2 And there went out fire from the LORD, and devoured them, and they died before the LORD.

10:3 Then Moses said unto Aaron, This is it that the LORD spake, saying, I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me, and before all the people I will be glorified. And Aaron held his peace.

10:4 And Moses called Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Uzziel the uncle of Aaron, and said unto them, Come near, carry your brethren from before the sanctuary out of the camp.

10:5 So they went near, and carried them in their coats out of the camp; as Moses had said.

10:6 And Moses said unto Aaron, and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons, Uncover not your heads, neither rend your clothes; lest ye die, and lest wrath come upon all the people: but let your brethren, the whole house of Israel, bewail the burning which the LORD hath kindled.

10:7 And ye shall not go out from the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: for the anointing oil of the LORD is upon you. And they did according to the word of Moses.

10:8 And the LORD spake unto Aaron, saying, 10:9 Do not drink wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations: 10:10 And that ye may put difference between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean; 10:11 And that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the LORD hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.

10:12 And Moses spake unto Aaron, and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons that were left, Take the meat offering that remaineth of the offerings of the LORD made by fire, and eat it without leaven beside the altar: for it is most holy: 10:13 And ye shall eat it in the holy place, because it is thy due, and thy sons' due, of the sacrifices of the LORD made by fire: for so I am commanded.

10:14 And the wave breast and heave shoulder shall ye eat in a clean place; thou, and thy sons, and thy daughters with thee: for they be thy due, and thy sons' due, which are given out of the sacrifices of peace offerings of the children of Israel.

10:15 The heave shoulder and the wave breast shall they bring with the offerings made by fire of the fat, to wave it for a wave offering before the LORD; and it shall be thine, and thy sons' with thee, by a statute for ever; as the LORD hath commanded.

10:16 And Moses diligently sought the goat of the sin offering, and, behold, it was burnt: and he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, the sons of Aaron which were left alive, saying, 10:17 Wherefore have ye not eaten the sin offering in the holy place, seeing it is most holy, and God hath given it you to bear the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement for them before the LORD? 10:18 Behold, the blood of it was not brought in within the holy place: ye should indeed have eaten it in the holy place, as I commanded.

10:19 And Aaron said unto Moses, Behold, this day have they offered their sin offering and their burnt offering before the LORD; and such things have befallen me: and if I had eaten the sin offering to day, should it have been accepted in the sight of the LORD? 10:20 And when Moses heard that, he was content.

11:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them, 11:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.

11:3 Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.

11:4 Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.

11:5 And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.

11:6 And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.

11:7 And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you.

11:8 Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they are unclean to you.

11:9 These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat.

11:10 And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination unto you: 11:11 They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination.

11:12 Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you.

11:13 And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray, 11:14 And the vulture, and the kite after his kind; 11:15 Every raven after his kind; 11:16 And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind, 11:17 And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl, 11:18 And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle, 11:19 And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat.

11:20 All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you.

11:21 Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth; 11:22 Even these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind.

11:23 But all other flying creeping things, which have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you.

11:24 And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall be unclean until the even.

11:25 And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.

11:26 The carcases of every beast which divideth the hoof, and is not clovenfooted, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean unto you: every one that toucheth them shall be unclean.

11:27 And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even.

11:28 And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto you.

11:29 These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind, 11:30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole.

11:31 These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even.

11:32 And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherein any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed.

11:33 And every earthen vessel, whereinto any of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it.

11:34 Of all meat which may be eaten, that on which such water cometh shall be unclean: and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean.

11:35 And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase falleth shall be unclean; whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: for they are unclean and shall be unclean unto you.

11:36 Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase shall be unclean.

11:37 And if any part of their carcase fall upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it shall be clean.

11:38 But if any water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcase fall thereon, it shall be unclean unto you.

11:39 And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even.

11:40 And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.

11:41 And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth shall be an abomination; it shall not be eaten.

11:42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination.

11:43 Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby.

11:44 For I am the LORD your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

11:45 For I am the LORD that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.

11:46 This is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth: 11:47 To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten.

12:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 12:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a woman have conceived seed, and born a man child: then she shall be unclean seven days; according to the days of the separation for her infirmity shall she be unclean.

12:3 And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.

12:4 And she shall then continue in the blood of her purifying three and thirty days; she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purifying be fulfilled.

12:5 But if she bear a maid child, then she shall be unclean two weeks, as in her separation: and she shall continue in the blood of her purifying threescore and six days.

12:6 And when the days of her purifying are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtledove, for a sin offering, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest: 12:7 Who shall offer it before the LORD, and make an atonement for her; and she shall be cleansed from the issue of her blood. This is the law for her that hath born a male or a female.

12:8 And if she be not able to bring a lamb, then she shall bring two turtles, or two young pigeons; the one for the burnt offering, and the other for a sin offering: and the priest shall make an atonement for her, and she shall be clean.

13:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron, saying, 13:2 When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, a scab, or bright spot, and it be in the skin of his flesh like the plague of leprosy; then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests: 13:3 And the priest shall look on the plague in the skin of the flesh: and when the hair in the plague is turned white, and the plague in sight be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a plague of leprosy: and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean.

13:4 If the bright spot be white in the skin of his flesh, and in sight be not deeper than the skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague seven days: 13:5 And the priest shall look on him the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague in his sight be at a stay, and the plague spread not in the skin; then the priest shall shut him up seven days more: 13:6 And the priest shall look on him again the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague be somewhat dark, and the plague spread not in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean: it is but a scab: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.

13:7 But if the scab spread much abroad in the skin, after that he hath been seen of the priest for his cleansing, he shall be seen of the priest again.

13:8 And if the priest see that, behold, the scab spreadeth in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a leprosy.

13:9 When the plague of leprosy is in a man, then he shall be brought unto the priest; 13:10 And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the rising be white in the skin, and it have turned the hair white, and there be quick raw flesh in the rising; 13:11 It is an old leprosy in the skin of his flesh, and the priest shall pronounce him unclean, and shall not shut him up: for he is unclean.

13:12 And if a leprosy break out abroad in the skin, and the leprosy cover all the skin of him that hath the plague from his head even to his foot, wheresoever the priest looketh; 13:13 Then the priest shall consider: and, behold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: it is all turned white: he is clean.

13:14 But when raw flesh appeareth in him, he shall be unclean.

13:15 And the priest shall see the raw flesh, and pronounce him to be unclean: for the raw flesh is unclean: it is a leprosy.

13:16 Or if the raw flesh turn again, and be changed unto white, he shall come unto the priest; 13:17 And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the plague be turned into white; then the priest shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: he is clean.

13:18 The flesh also, in which, even in the skin thereof, was a boil, and is healed, 13:19 And in the place of the boil there be a white rising, or a bright spot, white, and somewhat reddish, and it be shewed to the priest; 13:20 And if, when the priest seeth it, behold, it be in sight lower than the skin, and the hair thereof be turned white; the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague of leprosy broken out of the boil.

13:21 But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hairs therein, and if it be not lower than the skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days: 13:22 And if it spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague.

13:23 But if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not, it is a burning boil; and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

13:24 Or if there be any flesh, in the skin whereof there is a hot burning, and the quick flesh that burneth have a white bright spot, somewhat reddish, or white; 13:25 Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the hair in the bright spot be turned white, and it be in sight deeper than the skin; it is a leprosy broken out of the burning: wherefore the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy.

13:26 But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hair in the bright spot, and it be no lower than the other skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days: 13:27 And the priest shall look upon him the seventh day: and if it be spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy.

13:28 And if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not in the skin, but it be somewhat dark; it is a rising of the burning, and the priest shall pronounce him clean: for it is an inflammation of the burning.

13:29 If a man or woman have a plague upon the head or the beard; 13:30 Then the priest shall see the plague: and, behold, if it be in sight deeper than the skin; and there be in it a yellow thin hair; then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a dry scall, even a leprosy upon the head or beard.

13:31 And if the priest look on the plague of the scall, and, behold, it be not in sight deeper than the skin, and that there is no black hair in it; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague of the scall seven days: 13:32 And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the plague: and, behold, if the scall spread not, and there be in it no yellow hair, and the scall be not in sight deeper than the skin; 13:33 He shall be shaven, but the scall shall he not shave; and the priest shall shut up him that hath the scall seven days more: 13:34 And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the scall: and, behold, if the scall be not spread in the skin, nor be in sight deeper than the skin; then the priest shall pronounce him clean: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.

13:35 But if the scall spread much in the skin after his cleansing; 13:36 Then the priest shall look on him: and, behold, if the scall be spread in the skin, the priest shall not seek for yellow hair; he is unclean.

13:37 But if the scall be in his sight at a stay, and that there is black hair grown up therein; the scall is healed, he is clean: and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

13:38 If a man also or a woman have in the skin of their flesh bright spots, even white bright spots; 13:39 Then the priest shall look: and, behold, if the bright spots in the skin of their flesh be darkish white; it is a freckled spot that groweth in the skin; he is clean.

13:40 And the man whose hair is fallen off his head, he is bald; yet is he clean.

13:41 And he that hath his hair fallen off from the part of his head toward his face, he is forehead bald: yet is he clean.

13:42 And if there be in the bald head, or bald forehead, a white reddish sore; it is a leprosy sprung up in his bald head, or his bald forehead.

13:43 Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the rising of the sore be white reddish in his bald head, or in his bald forehead, as the leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh; 13:44 He is a leprous man, he is unclean: the priest shall pronounce him utterly unclean; his plague is in his head.

13:45 And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare, and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean.

13:46 All the days wherein the plague shall be in him he shall be defiled; he is unclean: he shall dwell alone; without the camp shall his habitation be.

13:47 The garment also that the plague of leprosy is in, whether it be a woollen garment, or a linen garment; 13:48 Whether it be in the warp, or woof; of linen, or of woollen; whether in a skin, or in any thing made of skin; 13:49 And if the plague be greenish or reddish in the garment, or in the skin, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a plague of leprosy, and shall be shewed unto the priest: 13:50 And the priest shall look upon the plague, and shut up it that hath the plague seven days: 13:51 And he shall look on the plague on the seventh day: if the plague be spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in a skin, or in any work that is made of skin; the plague is a fretting leprosy; it is unclean.

13:52 He shall therefore burn that garment, whether warp or woof, in woollen or in linen, or any thing of skin, wherein the plague is: for it is a fretting leprosy; it shall be burnt in the fire.

13:53 And if the priest shall look, and, behold, the plague be not spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; 13:54 Then the priest shall command that they wash the thing wherein the plague is, and he shall shut it up seven days more: 13:55 And the priest shall look on the plague, after that it is washed: and, behold, if the plague have not changed his colour, and the plague be not spread; it is unclean; thou shalt burn it in the fire; it is fret inward, whether it be bare within or without.

13:56 And if the priest look, and, behold, the plague be somewhat dark after the washing of it; then he shall rend it out of the garment, or out of the skin, or out of the warp, or out of the woof: 13:57 And if it appear still in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a spreading plague: thou shalt burn that wherein the plague is with fire.

13:58 And the garment, either warp, or woof, or whatsoever thing of skin it be, which thou shalt wash, if the plague be departed from them, then it shall be washed the second time, and shall be clean.

13:59 This is the law of the plague of leprosy in a garment of woollen or linen, either in the warp, or woof, or any thing of skins, to pronounce it clean, or to pronounce it unclean.

14:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 14:2 This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: He shall be brought unto the priest: 14:3 And the priest shall go forth out of the camp; and the priest shall look, and, behold, if the plague of leprosy be healed in the leper; 14:4 Then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two birds alive and clean, and cedar wood, and scarlet, and hyssop: 14:5 And the priest shall command that one of the birds be killed in an earthen vessel over running water: 14:6 As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water: 14:7 And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let the living bird loose into the open field.

14:8 And he that is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, and shave off all his hair, and wash himself in water, that he may be clean: and after that he shall come into the camp, and shall tarry abroad out of his tent seven days.

14:9 But it shall be on the seventh day, that he shall shave all his hair off his head and his beard and his eyebrows, even all his hair he shall shave off: and he shall wash his clothes, also he shall wash his flesh in water, and he shall be clean.

14:10 And on the eighth day he shall take two he lambs without blemish, and one ewe lamb of the first year without blemish, and three tenth deals of fine flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, and one log of oil.

14:11 And the priest that maketh him clean shall present the man that is to be made clean, and those things, before the LORD, at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: 14:12 And the priest shall take one he lamb, and offer him for a trespass offering, and the log of oil, and wave them for a wave offering before the LORD: 14:13 And he shall slay the lamb in the place where he shall kill the sin offering and the burnt offering, in the holy place: for as the sin offering is the priest's, so is the trespass offering: it is most holy: 14:14 And the priest shall take some of the blood of the trespass offering, and the priest shall put it upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot: 14:15 And the priest shall take some of the log of oil, and pour it into the palm of his own left hand: 14:16 And the priest shall dip his right finger in the oil that is in his left hand, and shall sprinkle of the oil with his finger seven times before the LORD: 14:17 And of the rest of the oil that is in his hand shall the priest put upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the blood of the trespass offering: 14:18 And the remnant of the oil that is in the priest's hand he shall pour upon the head of him that is to be cleansed: and the priest shall make an atonement for him before the LORD.

14:19 And the priest shall offer the sin offering, and make an atonement for him that is to be cleansed from his uncleanness; and afterward he shall kill the burnt offering: 14:20 And the priest shall offer the burnt offering and the meat offering upon the altar: and the priest shall make an atonement for him, and he shall be clean.

14:21 And if he be poor, and cannot get so much; then he shall take one lamb for a trespass offering to be waved, to make an atonement for him, and one tenth deal of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering, and a log of oil; 14:22 And two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, such as he is able to get; and the one shall be a sin offering, and the other a burnt offering.

14:23 And he shall bring them on the eighth day for his cleansing unto the priest, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, before the LORD.

14:24 And the priest shall take the lamb of the trespass offering, and the log of oil, and the priest shall wave them for a wave offering before the LORD: 14:25 And he shall kill the lamb of the trespass offering, and the priest shall take some of the blood of the trespass offering, and put it upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot: 14:26 And the priest shall pour of the oil into the palm of his own left hand: 14:27 And the priest shall sprinkle with his right finger some of the oil that is in his left hand seven times before the LORD: 14:28 And the priest shall put of the oil that is in his hand upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the place of the blood of the trespass offering: 14:29 And the rest of the oil that is in the priest's hand he shall put upon the head of him that is to be cleansed, to make an atonement for him before the LORD.

14:30 And he shall offer the one of the turtledoves, or of the young pigeons, such as he can get; 14:31 Even such as he is able to get, the one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering, with the meat offering: and the priest shall make an atonement for him that is to be cleansed before the LORD.

14:32 This is the law of him in whom is the plague of leprosy, whose hand is not able to get that which pertaineth to his cleansing.

14:33 And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 14:34 When ye be come into the land of Canaan, which I give to you for a possession, and I put the plague of leprosy in a house of the land of your possession; 14:35 And he that owneth the house shall come and tell the priest, saying, It seemeth to me there is as it were a plague in the house: 14:36 Then the priest shall command that they empty the house, before the priest go into it to see the plague, that all that is in the house be not made unclean: and afterward the priest shall go in to see the house: 14:37 And he shall look on the plague, and, behold, if the plague be in the walls of the house with hollow strakes, greenish or reddish, which in sight are lower than the wall; 14:38 Then the priest shall go out of the house to the door of the house, and shut up the house seven days: 14:39 And the priest shall come again the seventh day, and shall look: and, behold, if the plague be spread in the walls of the house; 14:40 Then the priest shall command that they take away the stones in which the plague is, and they shall cast them into an unclean place without the city: 14:41 And he shall cause the house to be scraped within round about, and they shall pour out the dust that they scrape off without the city into an unclean place: 14:42 And they shall take other stones, and put them in the place of those stones; and he shall take other morter, and shall plaister the house.

14:43 And if the plague come again, and break out in the house, after that he hath taken away the stones, and after he hath scraped the house, and after it is plaistered; 14:44 Then the priest shall come and look, and, behold, if the plague be spread in the house, it is a fretting leprosy in the house; it is unclean.

14:45 And he shall break down the house, the stones of it, and the timber thereof, and all the morter of the house; and he shall carry them forth out of the city into an unclean place.

14:46 Moreover he that goeth into the house all the while that it is shut up shall be unclean until the even.

14:47 And he that lieth in the house shall wash his clothes; and he that eateth in the house shall wash his clothes.

14:48 And if the priest shall come in, and look upon it, and, behold, the plague hath not spread in the house, after the house was plaistered: then the priest shall pronounce the house clean, because the plague is healed.

14:49 And he shall take to cleanse the house two birds, and cedar wood, and scarlet, and hyssop: 14:50 And he shall kill the one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water: 14:51 And he shall take the cedar wood, and the hyssop, and the scarlet, and the living bird, and dip them in the blood of the slain bird, and in the running water, and sprinkle the house seven times: 14:52 And he shall cleanse the house with the blood of the bird, and with the running water, and with the living bird, and with the cedar wood, and with the hyssop, and with the scarlet: 14:53 But he shall let go the living bird out of the city into the open fields, and make an atonement for the house: and it shall be clean.

14:54 This is the law for all manner of plague of leprosy, and scall, 14:55 And for the leprosy of a garment, and of a house, 14:56 And for a rising, and for a scab, and for a bright spot: 14:57 To teach when it is unclean, and when it is clean: this is the law of leprosy.

15:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying, 15:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When any man hath a running issue out of his flesh, because of his issue he is unclean.

15:3 And this shall be his uncleanness in his issue: whether his flesh run with his issue, or his flesh be stopped from his issue, it is his uncleanness.

15:4 Every bed, whereon he lieth that hath the issue, is unclean: and every thing, whereon he sitteth, shall be unclean.

15:5 And whosoever toucheth his bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:6 And he that sitteth on any thing whereon he sat that hath the issue shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:7 And he that toucheth the flesh of him that hath the issue shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:8 And if he that hath the issue spit upon him that is clean; then he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:9 And what saddle soever he rideth upon that hath the issue shall be unclean.

15:10 And whosoever toucheth any thing that was under him shall be unclean until the even: and he that beareth any of those things shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:11 And whomsoever he toucheth that hath the issue, and hath not rinsed his hands in water, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:12 And the vessel of earth, that he toucheth which hath the issue, shall be broken: and every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water.

15:13 And when he that hath an issue is cleansed of his issue; then he shall number to himself seven days for his cleansing, and wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in running water, and shall be clean.

15:14 And on the eighth day he shall take to him two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, and come before the LORD unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and give them unto the priest: 15:15 And the priest shall offer them, the one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him before the LORD for his issue.

15:16 And if any man's seed of copulation go out from him, then he shall wash all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:17 And every garment, and every skin, whereon is the seed of copulation, shall be washed with water, and be unclean until the even.

15:18 The woman also with whom man shall lie with seed of copulation, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:19 And if a woman have an issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be put apart seven days: and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even.

15:20 And every thing that she lieth upon in her separation shall be unclean: every thing also that she sitteth upon shall be unclean.

15:21 And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:22 And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sat upon shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:23 And if it be on her bed, or on any thing whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the even.

15:24 And if any man lie with her at all, and her flowers be upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and all the bed whereon he lieth shall be unclean.

15:25 And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days out of the time of her separation, or if it run beyond the time of her separation; all the days of the issue of her uncleanness shall be as the days of her separation: she shall be unclean.

15:26 Every bed whereon she lieth all the days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed of her separation: and whatsoever she sitteth upon shall be unclean, as the uncleanness of her separation.

15:27 And whosoever toucheth those things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.

15:28 But if she be cleansed of her issue, then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean.

15:29 And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtles, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

15:30 And the priest shall offer the one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for her before the LORD for the issue of her uncleanness.

15:31 Thus shall ye separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness; that they die not in their uncleanness, when they defile my tabernacle that is among them.

15:32 This is the law of him that hath an issue, and of him whose seed goeth from him, and is defiled therewith; 15:33 And of her that is sick of her flowers, and of him that hath an issue, of the man, and of the woman, and of him that lieth with her that is unclean.

16:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they offered before the LORD, and died; 16:2 And the LORD said unto Moses, Speak unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times into the holy place within the vail before the mercy seat, which is upon the ark; that he die not: for I will appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat.

16:3 Thus shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock for a sin offering, and a ram for a burnt offering.

16:4 He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired: these are holy garments; therefore shall he wash his flesh in water, and so put them on.

16:5 And he shall take of the congregation of the children of Israel two kids of the goats for a sin offering, and one ram for a burnt offering.

16:6 And Aaron shall offer his bullock of the sin offering, which is for himself, and make an atonement for himself, and for his house.

16:7 And he shall take the two goats, and present them before the LORD at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

16:8 And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the LORD, and the other lot for the scapegoat.

16:9 And Aaron shall bring the goat upon which the LORD's lot fell, and offer him for a sin offering.

16:10 But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness.

16:11 And Aaron shall bring the bullock of the sin offering, which is for himself, and shall make an atonement for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin offering which is for himself: 16:12 And he shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off the altar before the LORD, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the vail: 16:13 And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the LORD, that the cloud of the incense may cover the mercy seat that is upon the testimony, that he die not: 16:14 And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the mercy seat eastward; and before the mercy seat shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times.

16:15 Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat: 16:16 And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions in all their sins: and so shall he do for the tabernacle of the congregation, that remaineth among them in the midst of their uncleanness.

16:17 And there shall be no man in the tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy place, until he come out, and have made an atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel.

16:18 And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the LORD, and make an atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about.

16:19 And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the children of Israel.

16:20 And when he hath made an end of reconciling the holy place, and the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring the live goat: 16:21 And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness: 16:22 And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness.

16:23 And Aaron shall come into the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall put off the linen garments, which he put on when he went into the holy place, and shall leave them there: 16:24 And he shall wash his flesh with water in the holy place, and put on his garments, and come forth, and offer his burnt offering, and the burnt offering of the people, and make an atonement for himself, and for the people.

16:25 And the fat of the sin offering shall he burn upon the altar.

16:26 And he that let go the goat for the scapegoat shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward come into the camp.

16:27 And the bullock for the sin offering, and the goat for the sin offering, whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the holy place, shall one carry forth without the camp; and they shall burn in the fire their skins, and their flesh, and their dung.

16:28 And he that burneth them shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he shall come into the camp.

16:29 And this shall be a statute for ever unto you: that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger that sojourneth among you: 16:30 For on that day shall the priest make an atonement for you, to cleanse you, that ye may be clean from all your sins before the LORD.

16:31 It shall be a sabbath of rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by a statute for ever.

16:32 And the priest, whom he shall anoint, and whom he shall consecrate to minister in the priest's office in his father's stead, shall make the atonement, and shall put on the linen clothes, even the holy garments: 16:33 And he shall make an atonement for the holy sanctuary, and he shall make an atonement for the tabernacle of the congregation, and for the altar, and he shall make an atonement for the priests, and for all the people of the congregation.

16:34 And this shall be an everlasting statute unto you, to make an atonement for the children of Israel for all their sins once a year. And he did as the LORD commanded Moses.

17:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 17:2 Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them; This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, saying, 17:3 What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the camp, 17:4 And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD; blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people: 17:5 To the end that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices, which they offer in the open field, even that they may bring them unto the LORD, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest, and offer them for peace offerings unto the LORD.

17:6 And the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the LORD at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and burn the fat for a sweet savour unto the LORD.

17:7 And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, after whom they have gone a whoring. This shall be a statute for ever unto them throughout their generations.

17:8 And thou shalt say unto them, Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers which sojourn among you, that offereth a burnt offering or sacrifice, 17:9 And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer it unto the LORD; even that man shall be cut off from among his people.

17:10 And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among you, that eateth any manner of blood; I will even set my face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people.

17:11 For the life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul.

17:12 Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood.

17:13 And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among you, which hunteth and catcheth any beast or fowl that may be eaten; he shall even pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust.

17:14 For it is the life of all flesh; the blood of it is for the life thereof: therefore I said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof: whosoever eateth it shall be cut off.

17:15 And every soul that eateth that which died of itself, or that which was torn with beasts, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger, he shall both wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even: then shall he be clean.

17:16 But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh; then he shall bear his iniquity.

18:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 18:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, I am the LORD your God.

18:3 After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do: and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do: neither shall ye walk in their ordinances.

18:4 Ye shall do my judgments, and keep mine ordinances, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God.

18:5 Ye shall therefore keep my statutes, and my judgments: which if a man do, he shall live in them: I am the LORD.

18:6 None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness: I am the LORD.

18:7 The nakedness of thy father, or the nakedness of thy mother, shalt thou not uncover: she is thy mother; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness.

18:8 The nakedness of thy father's wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father's nakedness.

18:9 The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, or daughter of thy mother, whether she be born at home, or born abroad, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover.

18:10 The nakedness of thy son's daughter, or of thy daughter's daughter, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover: for theirs is thine own nakedness.

18:11 The nakedness of thy father's wife's daughter, begotten of thy father, she is thy sister, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness.

18:12 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father's sister: she is thy father's near kinswoman.

18:13 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother's sister: for she is thy mother's near kinswoman.

18:14 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father's brother, thou shalt not approach to his wife: she is thine aunt.

18:15 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter in law: she is thy son's wife; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness.

18:16 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother's wife: it is thy brother's nakedness.

18:17 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter, neither shalt thou take her son's daughter, or her daughter's daughter, to uncover her nakedness; for they are her near kinswomen: it is wickedness.

18:18 Neither shalt thou take a wife to her sister, to vex her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her life time.

18:19 Also thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is put apart for her uncleanness.

18:20 Moreover thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour's wife, to defile thyself with her.

18:21 And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.

18:22 Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination.

18:23 Neither shalt thou lie with any beast to defile thyself therewith: neither shall any woman stand before a beast to lie down thereto: it is confusion.

18:24 Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things: for in all these the nations are defiled which I cast out before you: 18:25 And the land is defiled: therefore I do visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land itself vomiteth out her inhabitants.

18:26 Ye shall therefore keep my statutes and my judgments, and shall not commit any of these abominations; neither any of your own nation, nor any stranger that sojourneth among you: 18:27 (For all these abominations have the men of the land done, which were before you, and the land is defiled;) 18:28 That the land spue not you out also, when ye defile it, as it spued out the nations that were before you.

18:29 For whosoever shall commit any of these abominations, even the souls that commit them shall be cut off from among their people.

18:30 Therefore shall ye keep mine ordinance, that ye commit not any one of these abominable customs, which were committed before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God.

19:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 19:2 Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them, Ye shall be holy: for I the LORD your God am holy.

19:3 Ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and keep my sabbaths: I am the LORD your God.

19:4 Turn ye not unto idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God.

19:5 And if ye offer a sacrifice of peace offerings unto the LORD, ye shall offer it at your own will.

19:6 It shall be eaten the same day ye offer it, and on the morrow: and if ought remain until the third day, it shall be burnt in the fire.

19:7 And if it be eaten at all on the third day, it is abominable; it shall not be accepted.

19:8 Therefore every one that eateth it shall bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned the hallowed thing of the LORD: and that soul shall be cut off from among his people.

19:9 And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleanings of thy harvest.

19:10 And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather every grape of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and stranger: I am the LORD your God.

19:11 Ye shall not steal, neither deal falsely, neither lie one to another.

19:12 And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.

19:13 Thou shalt not defraud thy neighbour, neither rob him: the wages of him that is hired shall not abide with thee all night until the morning.

19:14 Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumblingblock before the blind, but shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD.

19:15 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment: thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honor the person of the mighty: but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour.

19:16 Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people: neither shalt thou stand against the blood of thy neighbour; I am the LORD.

19:17 Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine heart: thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy neighbour, and not suffer sin upon him.

19:18 Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.

19:19 Ye shall keep my statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind: thou shalt not sow thy field with mingled seed: neither shall a garment mingled of linen and woollen come upon thee.

19:20 And whosoever lieth carnally with a woman, that is a bondmaid, betrothed to an husband, and not at all redeemed, nor freedom given her; she shall be scourged; they shall not be put to death, because she was not free.

19:21 And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the LORD, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, even a ram for a trespass offering.

19:22 And the priest shall make an atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering before the LORD for his sin which he hath done: and the sin which he hath done shall be forgiven him.

19:23 And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as uncircumcised: three years shall it be as uncircumcised unto you: it shall not be eaten of.

19:24 But in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy to praise the LORD withal.

19:25 And in the fifth year shall ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you the increase thereof: I am the LORD your God.

19:26 Ye shall not eat any thing with the blood: neither shall ye use enchantment, nor observe times.

19:27 Ye shall not round the corners of your heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard.

19:28 Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon you: I am the LORD.

19:29 Do not prostitute thy daughter, to cause her to be a whore; lest the land fall to whoredom, and the land become full of wickedness.

19:30 Ye shall keep my sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary: I am the LORD.

19:31 Regard not them that have familiar spirits, neither seek after wizards, to be defiled by them: I am the LORD your God.

19:32 Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honour the face of the old man, and fear thy God: I am the LORD.

19:33 And if a stranger sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not vex him.

19:34 But the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.

19:35 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure.

19:36 Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall ye have: I am the LORD your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt.

19:37 Therefore shall ye observe all my statutes, and all my judgments, and do them: I am the LORD.

20:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 20:2 Again, thou shalt say to the children of Israel, Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth any of his seed unto Molech; he shall surely be put to death: the people of the land shall stone him with stones.

20:3 And I will set my face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people; because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile my sanctuary, and to profane my holy name.

20:4 And if the people of the land do any ways hide their eyes from the man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, and kill him not: 20:5 Then I will set my face against that man, and against his family, and will cut him off, and all that go a whoring after him, to commit whoredom with Molech, from among their people.

20:6 And the soul that turneth after such as have familiar spirits, and after wizards, to go a whoring after them, I will even set my face against that soul, and will cut him off from among his people.

20:7 Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy: for I am the LORD your God.

20:8 And ye shall keep my statutes, and do them: I am the LORD which sanctify you.

20:9 For every one that curseth his father or his mother shall be surely put to death: he hath cursed his father or his mother; his blood shall be upon him.

20:10 And the man that committeth adultery with another man's wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour's wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.

20:11 And the man that lieth with his father's wife hath uncovered his father's nakedness: both of them shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.

20:12 And if a man lie with his daughter in law, both of them shall surely be put to death: they have wrought confusion; their blood shall be upon them.

20:13 If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.

20:14 And if a man take a wife and her mother, it is wickedness: they shall be burnt with fire, both he and they; that there be no wickedness among you.

20:15 And if a man lie with a beast, he shall surely be put to death: and ye shall slay the beast.

20:16 And if a woman approach unto any beast, and lie down thereto, thou shalt kill the woman, and the beast: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.

20:17 And if a man shall take his sister, his father's daughter, or his mother's daughter, and see her nakedness, and she see his nakedness; it is a wicked thing; and they shall be cut off in the sight of their people: he hath uncovered his sister's nakedness; he shall bear his iniquity.

20:18 And if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness; he hath discovered her fountain, and she hath uncovered the fountain of her blood: and both of them shall be cut off from among their people.

20:19 And thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother's sister, nor of thy father's sister: for he uncovereth his near kin: they shall bear their iniquity.

20:20 And if a man shall lie with his uncle's wife, he hath uncovered his uncle's nakedness: they shall bear their sin; they shall die childless.

20:21 And if a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an unclean thing: he hath uncovered his brother's nakedness; they shall be childless.

20:22 Ye shall therefore keep all my statutes, and all my judgments, and do them: that the land, whither I bring you to dwell therein, spue you not out.

20:23 And ye shall not walk in the manners of the nation, which I cast out before you: for they committed all these things, and therefore I abhorred them.

20:24 But I have said unto you, Ye shall inherit their land, and I will give it unto you to possess it, a land that floweth with milk and honey: I am the LORD your God, which have separated you from other people.

20:25 Ye shall therefore put difference between clean beasts and unclean, and between unclean fowls and clean: and ye shall not make your souls abominable by beast, or by fowl, or by any manner of living thing that creepeth on the ground, which I have separated from you as unclean.

20:26 And ye shall be holy unto me: for I the LORD am holy, and have severed you from other people, that ye should be mine.

20:27 A man also or woman that hath a familiar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall surely be put to death: they shall stone them with stones: their blood shall be upon them.

21:1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them, There shall none be defiled for the dead among his people: 21:2 But for his kin, that is near unto him, that is, for his mother, and for his father, and for his son, and for his daughter, and for his brother.

21:3 And for his sister a virgin, that is nigh unto him, which hath had no husband; for her may he be defiled.

21:4 But he shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his people, to profane himself.

21:5 They shall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corner of their beard, nor make any cuttings in their flesh.

21:6 They shall be holy unto their God, and not profane the name of their God: for the offerings of the LORD made by fire, and the bread of their God, they do offer: therefore they shall be holy.

21:7 They shall not take a wife that is a whore, or profane; neither shall they take a woman put away from her husband: for he is holy unto his God.

21:8 Thou shalt sanctify him therefore; for he offereth the bread of thy God: he shall be holy unto thee: for I the LORD, which sanctify you, am holy.

21:9 And the daughter of any priest, if she profane herself by playing the whore, she profaneth her father: she shall be burnt with fire.

21:10 And he that is the high priest among his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil was poured, and that is consecrated to put on the garments, shall not uncover his head, nor rend his clothes; 21:11 Neither shall he go in to any dead body, nor defile himself for his father, or for his mother; 21:12 Neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the crown of the anointing oil of his God is upon him: I am the LORD.

21:13 And he shall take a wife in her virginity.

21:14 A widow, or a divorced woman, or profane, or an harlot, these shall he not take: but he shall take a virgin of his own people to wife.

21:15 Neither shall he profane his seed among his people: for I the LORD do sanctify him.

21:16 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 21:17 Speak unto Aaron, saying, Whosoever he be of thy seed in their generations that hath any blemish, let him not approach to offer the bread of his God.

21:18 For whatsoever man he be that hath a blemish, he shall not approach: a blind man, or a lame, or he that hath a flat nose, or any thing superfluous, 21:19 Or a man that is brokenfooted, or brokenhanded, 21:20 Or crookbackt, or a dwarf, or that hath a blemish in his eye, or be scurvy, or scabbed, or hath his stones broken; 21:21 No man that hath a blemish of the seed of Aaron the priest shall come nigh to offer the offerings of the LORD made by fire: he hath a blemish; he shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God.

21:22 He shall eat the bread of his God, both of the most holy, and of the holy.

21:23 Only he shall not go in unto the vail, nor come nigh unto the altar, because he hath a blemish; that he profane not my sanctuaries: for I the LORD do sanctify them.

21:24 And Moses told it unto Aaron, and to his sons, and unto all the children of Israel.

22:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 22:2 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that they separate themselves from the holy things of the children of Israel, and that they profane not my holy name in those things which they hallow unto me: I am the LORD.

22:3 Say unto them, Whosoever he be of all your seed among your generations, that goeth unto the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from my presence: I am the LORD.

22:4 What man soever of the seed of Aaron is a leper, or hath a running issue; he shall not eat of the holy things, until he be clean. And whoso toucheth any thing that is unclean by the dead, or a man whose seed goeth from him; 22:5 Or whosoever toucheth any creeping thing, whereby he may be made unclean, or a man of whom he may take uncleanness, whatsoever uncleanness he hath; 22:6 The soul which hath touched any such shall be unclean until even, and shall not eat of the holy things, unless he wash his flesh with water.

22:7 And when the sun is down, he shall be clean, and shall afterward eat of the holy things; because it is his food.

22:8 That which dieth of itself, or is torn with beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself therewith; I am the LORD.

22:9 They shall therefore keep mine ordinance, lest they bear sin for it, and die therefore, if they profane it: I the LORD do sanctify them.

22:10 There shall no stranger eat of the holy thing: a sojourner of the priest, or an hired servant, shall not eat of the holy thing.

22:11 But if the priest buy any soul with his money, he shall eat of it, and he that is born in his house: they shall eat of his meat.

22:12 If the priest's daughter also be married unto a stranger, she may not eat of an offering of the holy things.

22:13 But if the priest's daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is returned unto her father's house, as in her youth, she shall eat of her father's meat: but there shall be no stranger eat thereof.

22:14 And if a man eat of the holy thing unwittingly, then he shall put the fifth part thereof unto it, and shall give it unto the priest with the holy thing.

22:15 And they shall not profane the holy things of the children of Israel, which they offer unto the LORD; 22:16 Or suffer them to bear the iniquity of trespass, when they eat their holy things: for I the LORD do sanctify them.

22:17 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 22:18 Speak unto Aaron, and to his sons, and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them, Whatsoever he be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers in Israel, that will offer his oblation for all his vows, and for all his freewill offerings, which they will offer unto the LORD for a burnt offering; 22:19 Ye shall offer at your own will a male without blemish, of the beeves, of the sheep, or of the goats.

22:20 But whatsoever hath a blemish, that shall ye not offer: for it shall not be acceptable for you.

22:21 And whosoever offereth a sacrifice of peace offerings unto the LORD to accomplish his vow, or a freewill offering in beeves or sheep, it shall be perfect to be accepted; there shall be no blemish therein.

22:22 Blind, or broken, or maimed, or having a wen, or scurvy, or scabbed, ye shall not offer these unto the LORD, nor make an offering by fire of them upon the altar unto the LORD.

22:23 Either a bullock or a lamb that hath any thing superfluous or lacking in his parts, that mayest thou offer for a freewill offering; but for a vow it shall not be accepted.

22:24 Ye shall not offer unto the LORD that which is bruised, or crushed, or broken, or cut; neither shall ye make any offering thereof in your land.

22:25 Neither from a stranger's hand shall ye offer the bread of your God of any of these; because their corruption is in them, and blemishes be in them: they shall not be accepted for you.

22:26 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 22:27 When a bullock, or a sheep, or a goat, is brought forth, then it shall be seven days under the dam; and from the eighth day and thenceforth it shall be accepted for an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

22:28 And whether it be cow, or ewe, ye shall not kill it and her young both in one day.

22:29 And when ye will offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving unto the LORD, offer it at your own will.

22:30 On the same day it shall be eaten up; ye shall leave none of it until the morrow: I am the LORD.

22:31 Therefore shall ye keep my commandments, and do them: I am the LORD.

22:32 Neither shall ye profane my holy name; but I will be hallowed among the children of Israel: I am the LORD which hallow you, 22:33 That brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD.

23:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 23:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts.

23:3 Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the sabbath of the LORD in all your dwellings.

23:4 These are the feasts of the LORD, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons.

23:5 In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD's passover.

23:6 And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD: seven days ye must eat unleavened bread.

23:7 In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.

23:8 But ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD seven days: in the seventh day is an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.

23:9 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 23:10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest: 23:11 And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it.

23:12 And ye shall offer that day when ye wave the sheaf an he lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto the LORD.

23:13 And the meat offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto the LORD for a sweet savour: and the drink offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of an hin.

23:14 And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame day that ye have brought an offering unto your God: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.

23:15 And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven sabbaths shall be complete: 23:16 Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the LORD.

23:17 Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals; they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with leaven; they are the firstfruits unto the LORD.

23:18 And ye shall offer with the bread seven lambs without blemish of the first year, and one young bullock, and two rams: they shall be for a burnt offering unto the LORD, with their meat offering, and their drink offerings, even an offering made by fire, of sweet savour unto the LORD.

23:19 Then ye shall sacrifice one kid of the goats for a sin offering, and two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of peace offerings.

23:20 And the priest shall wave them with the bread of the firstfruits for a wave offering before the LORD, with the two lambs: they shall be holy to the LORD for the priest.

23:21 And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you: ye shall do no servile work therein: it shall be a statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.

23:22 And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not make clean riddance of the corners of thy field when thou reapest, neither shalt thou gather any gleaning of thy harvest: thou shalt leave them unto the poor, and to the stranger: I am the LORD your God.

23:23 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 23:24 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation.

23:25 Ye shall do no servile work therein: but ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

23:26 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 23:27 Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

23:28 And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before the LORD your God.

23:29 For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people.

23:30 And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people.

23:31 Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.

23:32 It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your sabbath.

23:33 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 23:34 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the LORD.

23:35 On the first day shall be an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.

23:36 Seven days ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD: on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD: it is a solemn assembly; and ye shall do no servile work therein.

23:37 These are the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD, a burnt offering, and a meat offering, a sacrifice, and drink offerings, every thing upon his day: 23:38 Beside the sabbaths of the LORD, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give unto the LORD.

23:39 Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days: on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath.

23:40 And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.

23:41 And ye shall keep it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year.

It shall be a statute for ever in your generations: ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month.

23:42 Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths: 23:43 That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.

23:44 And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of the LORD.

24:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 24:2 Command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure oil olive beaten for the light, to cause the lamps to burn continually.

24:3 Without the vail of the testimony, in the tabernacle of the congregation, shall Aaron order it from the evening unto the morning before the LORD continually: it shall be a statute for ever in your generations.

24:4 He shall order the lamps upon the pure candlestick before the LORD continually.

24:5 And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes thereof: two tenth deals shall be in one cake.

24:6 And thou shalt set them in two rows, six on a row, upon the pure table before the LORD.

24:7 And thou shalt put pure frankincense upon each row, that it may be on the bread for a memorial, even an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

24:8 Every sabbath he shall set it in order before the LORD continually, being taken from the children of Israel by an everlasting covenant.

24:9 And it shall be Aaron's and his sons'; and they shall eat it in the holy place: for it is most holy unto him of the offerings of the LORD made by fire by a perpetual statute.

24:10 And the son of an Israelitish woman, whose father was an Egyptian, went out among the children of Israel: and this son of the Israelitish woman and a man of Israel strove together in the camp; 24:11 And the Israelitish woman's son blasphemed the name of the Lord, and cursed. And they brought him unto Moses: (and his mother's name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan:) 24:12 And they put him in ward, that the mind of the LORD might be shewed them.

24:13 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 24:14 Bring forth him that hath cursed without the camp; and let all that heard him lay their hands upon his head, and let all the congregation stone him.

24:15 And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, Whosoever curseth his God shall bear his sin.

24:16 And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death, and all the congregation shall certainly stone him: as well the stranger, as he that is born in the land, when he blasphemeth the name of the Lord, shall be put to death.

24:17 And he that killeth any man shall surely be put to death.

24:18 And he that killeth a beast shall make it good; beast for beast.

24:19 And if a man cause a blemish in his neighbour; as he hath done, so shall it be done to him; 24:20 Breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth: as he hath caused a blemish in a man, so shall it be done to him again.

24:21 And he that killeth a beast, he shall restore it: and he that killeth a man, he shall be put to death.

24:22 Ye shall have one manner of law, as well for the stranger, as for one of your own country: for I am the LORD your God.

24:23 And Moses spake to the children of Israel, that they should bring forth him that had cursed out of the camp, and stone him with stones. And the children of Israel did as the LORD commanded Moses.

25:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses in mount Sinai, saying, 25:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye come into the land which I give you, then shall the land keep a sabbath unto the LORD.

25:3 Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; 25:4 But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land, a sabbath for the LORD: thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard.

25:5 That which groweth of its own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not reap, neither gather the grapes of thy vine undressed: for it is a year of rest unto the land.

25:6 And the sabbath of the land shall be meat for you; for thee, and for thy servant, and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant, and for thy stranger that sojourneth with thee.

25:7 And for thy cattle, and for the beast that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be meat.

25:8 And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and nine years.

25:9 Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubile to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land.

25:10 And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.

25:11 A jubile shall that fiftieth year be unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed.

25:12 For it is the jubile; it shall be holy unto you: ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field.

25:13 In the year of this jubile ye shall return every man unto his possession.

25:14 And if thou sell ought unto thy neighbour, or buyest ought of thy neighbour's hand, ye shall not oppress one another: 25:15 According to the number of years after the jubile thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, and according unto the number of years of the fruits he shall sell unto thee: 25:16 According to the multitude of years thou shalt increase the price thereof, and according to the fewness of years thou shalt diminish the price of it: for according to the number of the years of the fruits doth he sell unto thee.

25:17 Ye shall not therefore oppress one another; but thou shalt fear thy God:for I am the LORD your God.

25:18 Wherefore ye shall do my statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them; and ye shall dwell in the land in safety.

25:19 And the land shall yield her fruit, and ye shall eat your fill, and dwell therein in safety.

25:20 And if ye shall say, What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we shall not sow, nor gather in our increase: 25:21 Then I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years.

25:22 And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat yet of old fruit until the ninth year; until her fruits come in ye shall eat of the old store.

25:23 The land shall not be sold for ever: for the land is mine, for ye are strangers and sojourners with me.

25:24 And in all the land of your possession ye shall grant a redemption for the land.

25:25 If thy brother be waxen poor, and hath sold away some of his possession, and if any of his kin come to redeem it, then shall he redeem that which his brother sold.

25:26 And if the man have none to redeem it, and himself be able to redeem it; 25:27 Then let him count the years of the sale thereof, and restore the overplus unto the man to whom he sold it; that he may return unto his possession.

25:28 But if he be not able to restore it to him, then that which is sold shall remain in the hand of him that hath bought it until the year of jubile: and in the jubile it shall go out, and he shall return unto his possession.

25:29 And if a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold; within a full year may he redeem it.

25:30 And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be established for ever to him that bought it throughout his generations: it shall not go out in the jubile.

25:31 But the houses of the villages which have no wall round about them shall be counted as the fields of the country: they may be redeemed, and they shall go out in the jubile.

25:32 Notwithstanding the cities of the Levites, and the houses of the cities of their possession, may the Levites redeem at any time.

25:33 And if a man purchase of the Levites, then the house that was sold, and the city of his possession, shall go out in the year of jubile: for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children of Israel.

25:34 But the field of the suburbs of their cities may not be sold; for it is their perpetual possession.

25:35 And if thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt relieve him: yea, though he be a stranger, or a sojourner; that he may live with thee.

25:36 Take thou no usury of him, or increase: but fear thy God; that thy brother may live with thee.

25:37 Thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury, nor lend him thy victuals for increase.

25:38 I am the LORD your God, which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, and to be your God.

25:39 And if thy brother that dwelleth by thee be waxen poor, and be sold unto thee; thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bondservant: 25:40 But as an hired servant, and as a sojourner, he shall be with thee, and shall serve thee unto the year of jubile.

25:41 And then shall he depart from thee, both he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return.

25:42 For they are my servants, which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: they shall not be sold as bondmen.

25:43 Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour; but shalt fear thy God.

25:44 Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, which thou shalt have, shall be of the heathen that are round about you; of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids.

25:45 Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they begat in your land: and they shall be your possession.

25:46 And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession; they shall be your bondmen for ever: but over your brethren the children of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another with rigour.

25:47 And if a sojourner or stranger wax rich by thee, and thy brother that dwelleth by him wax poor, and sell himself unto the stranger or sojourner by thee, or to the stock of the stranger's family: 25:48 After that he is sold he may be redeemed again; one of his brethren may redeem him: 25:49 Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, may redeem him, or any that is nigh of kin unto him of his family may redeem him; or if he be able, he may redeem himself.

25:50 And he shall reckon with him that bought him from the year that he was sold to him unto the year of jubile: and the price of his sale shall be according unto the number of years, according to the time of an hired servant shall it be with him.

25:51 If there be yet many years behind, according unto them he shall give again the price of his redemption out of the money that he was bought for.

25:52 And if there remain but few years unto the year of jubile, then he shall count with him, and according unto his years shall he give him again the price of his redemption.

25:53 And as a yearly hired servant shall he be with him: and the other shall not rule with rigour over him in thy sight.

25:54 And if he be not redeemed in these years, then he shall go out in the year of jubile, both he, and his children with him.

25:55 For unto me the children of Israel are servants; they are my servants whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.

26:1 Ye shall make you no idols nor graven image, neither rear you up a standing image, neither shall ye set up any image of stone in your land, to bow down unto it: for I am the LORD your God.

26:2 Ye shall keep my sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary: I am the LORD.

26:3 If ye walk in my statutes, and keep my commandments, and do them; 26:4 Then I will give you rain in due season, and the land shall yield her increase, and the trees of the field shall yield their fruit.

26:5 And your threshing shall reach unto the vintage, and the vintage shall reach unto the sowing time: and ye shall eat your bread to the full, and dwell in your land safely.

26:6 And I will give peace in the land, and ye shall lie down, and none shall make you afraid: and I will rid evil beasts out of the land, neither shall the sword go through your land.

26:7 And ye shall chase your enemies, and they shall fall before you by the sword.

26:8 And five of you shall chase an hundred, and an hundred of you shall put ten thousand to flight: and your enemies shall fall before you by the sword.

26:9 For I will have respect unto you, and make you fruitful, and multiply you, and establish my covenant with you.

26:10 And ye shall eat old store, and bring forth the old because of the new.

26:11 And I set my tabernacle among you: and my soul shall not abhor you.

26:12 And I will walk among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be my people.

26:13 I am the LORD your God, which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bands of your yoke, and made you go upright.

26:14 But if ye will not hearken unto me, and will not do all these commandments; 26:15 And if ye shall despise my statutes, or if your soul abhor my judgments, so that ye will not do all my commandments, but that ye break my covenant: 26:16 I also will do this unto you; I will even appoint over you terror, consumption, and the burning ague, that shall consume the eyes, and cause sorrow of heart: and ye shall sow your seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it.

26:17 And I will set my face against you, and ye shall be slain before your enemies: they that hate you shall reign over you; and ye shall flee when none pursueth you.

26:18 And if ye will not yet for all this hearken unto me, then I will punish you seven times more for your sins.

26:19 And I will break the pride of your power; and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth as brass: 26:20 And your strength shall be spent in vain: for your land shall not yield her increase, neither shall the trees of the land yield their fruits.

26:21 And if ye walk contrary unto me, and will not hearken unto me; I will bring seven times more plagues upon you according to your sins.

26:22 I will also send wild beasts among you, which shall rob you of your children, and destroy your cattle, and make you few in number; and your high ways shall be desolate.

26:23 And if ye will not be reformed by me by these things, but will walk contrary unto me; 26:24 Then will I also walk contrary unto you, and will punish you yet seven times for your sins.

26:25 And I will bring a sword upon you, that shall avenge the quarrel of my covenant: and when ye are gathered together within your cities, I will send the pestilence among you; and ye shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy.

26:26 And when I have broken the staff of your bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver you your bread again by weight: and ye shall eat, and not be satisfied.

26:27 And if ye will not for all this hearken unto me, but walk contrary unto me; 26:28 Then I will walk contrary unto you also in fury; and I, even I, will chastise you seven times for your sins.

26:29 And ye shall eat the flesh of your sons, and the flesh of your daughters shall ye eat.

26:30 And I will destroy your high places, and cut down your images, and cast your carcases upon the carcases of your idols, and my soul shall abhor you.

26:31 And I will make your cities waste, and bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savour of your sweet odours.

26:32 And I will bring the land into desolation: and your enemies which dwell therein shall be astonished at it.

26:33 And I will scatter you among the heathen, and will draw out a sword after you: and your land shall be desolate, and your cities waste.

26:34 Then shall the land enjoy her sabbaths, as long as it lieth desolate, and ye be in your enemies' land; even then shall the land rest, and enjoy her sabbaths.

26:35 As long as it lieth desolate it shall rest; because it did not rest in your sabbaths, when ye dwelt upon it.

26:36 And upon them that are left alive of you I will send a faintness into their hearts in the lands of their enemies; and the sound of a shaken leaf shall chase them; and they shall flee, as fleeing from a sword; and they shall fall when none pursueth.

26:37 And they shall fall one upon another, as it were before a sword, when none pursueth: and ye shall have no power to stand before your enemies.

26:38 And ye shall perish among the heathen, and the land of your enemies shall eat you up.

26:39 And they that are left of you shall pine away in their iniquity in your enemies' lands; and also in the iniquities of their fathers shall they pine away with them.

26:40 If they shall confess their iniquity, and the iniquity of their fathers, with their trespass which they trespassed against me, and that also they have walked contrary unto me; 26:41 And that I also have walked contrary unto them, and have brought them into the land of their enemies; if then their uncircumcised hearts be humbled, and they then accept of the punishment of their iniquity: 26:42 Then will I remember my covenant with Jacob, and also my covenant with Isaac, and also my covenant with Abraham will I remember; and I will remember the land.

26:43 The land also shall be left of them, and shall enjoy her sabbaths, while she lieth desolate without them: and they shall accept of the punishment of their iniquity: because, even because they despised my judgments, and because their soul abhorred my statutes.

26:44 And yet for all that, when they be in the land of their enemies, I will not cast them away, neither will I abhor them, to destroy them utterly, and to break my covenant with them: for I am the LORD their God.

26:45 But I will for their sakes remember the covenant of their ancestors, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt in the sight of the heathen, that I might be their God: I am the LORD.

26:46 These are the statutes and judgments and laws, which the LORD made between him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses.

27:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 27:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When a man shall make a singular vow, the persons shall be for the LORD by thy estimation.

27:3 And thy estimation shall be of the male from twenty years old even unto sixty years old, even thy estimation shall be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary.

27:4 And if it be a female, then thy estimation shall be thirty shekels.

27:5 And if it be from five years old even unto twenty years old, then thy estimation shall be of the male twenty shekels, and for the female ten shekels.

27:6 And if it be from a month old even unto five years old, then thy estimation shall be of the male five shekels of silver, and for the female thy estimation shall be three shekels of silver.

27:7 And if it be from sixty years old and above; if it be a male, then thy estimation shall be fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels.

27:8 But if he be poorer than thy estimation, then he shall present himself before the priest, and the priest shall value him; according to his ability that vowed shall the priest value him.

27:9 And if it be a beast, whereof men bring an offering unto the LORD, all that any man giveth of such unto the LORD shall be holy.

27:10 He shall not alter it, nor change it, a good for a bad, or a bad for a good: and if he shall at all change beast for beast, then it and the exchange thereof shall be holy.

27:11 And if it be any unclean beast, of which they do not offer a sacrifice unto the LORD, then he shall present the beast before the priest: 27:12 And the priest shall value it, whether it be good or bad: as thou valuest it, who art the priest, so shall it be.

27:13 But if he will at all redeem it, then he shall add a fifth part thereof unto thy estimation.

27:14 And when a man shall sanctify his house to be holy unto the LORD, then the priest shall estimate it, whether it be good or bad: as the priest shall estimate it, so shall it stand.

27:15 And if he that sanctified it will redeem his house, then he shall add the fifth part of the money of thy estimation unto it, and it shall be his.

27:16 And if a man shall sanctify unto the LORD some part of a field of his possession, then thy estimation shall be according to the seed thereof: an homer of barley seed shall be valued at fifty shekels of silver.

27:17 If he sanctify his field from the year of jubile, according to thy estimation it shall stand.

27:18 But if he sanctify his field after the jubile, then the priest shall reckon unto him the money according to the years that remain, even unto the year of the jubile, and it shall be abated from thy estimation.

27:19 And if he that sanctified the field will in any wise redeem it, then he shall add the fifth part of the money of thy estimation unto it, and it shall be assured to him.

27:20 And if he will not redeem the field, or if he have sold the field to another man, it shall not be redeemed any more.

27:21 But the field, when it goeth out in the jubile, shall be holy unto the LORD, as a field devoted; the possession thereof shall be the priest's.

27:22 And if a man sanctify unto the LORD a field which he hath bought, which is not of the fields of his possession; 27:23 Then the priest shall reckon unto him the worth of thy estimation, even unto the year of the jubile: and he shall give thine estimation in that day, as a holy thing unto the LORD.

27:24 In the year of the jubile the field shall return unto him of whom it was bought, even to him to whom the possession of the land did belong.

27:25 And all thy estimations shall be according to the shekel of the sanctuary: twenty gerahs shall be the shekel.

27:26 Only the firstling of the beasts, which should be the LORD's firstling, no man shall sanctify it; whether it be ox, or sheep: it is the LORD's.

27:27 And if it be of an unclean beast, then he shall redeem it according to thine estimation, and shall add a fifth part of it thereto: or if it be not redeemed, then it shall be sold according to thy estimation.

27:28 Notwithstanding no devoted thing, that a man shall devote unto the LORD of all that he hath, both of man and beast, and of the field of his possession, shall be sold or redeemed: every devoted thing is most holy unto the LORD.

27:29 None devoted, which shall be devoted of men, shall be redeemed; but shall surely be put to death.

27:30 And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the LORD's: it is holy unto the LORD.

27:31 And if a man will at all redeem ought of his tithes, he shall add thereto the fifth part thereof.

27:32 And concerning the tithe of the herd, or of the flock, even of whatsoever passeth under the rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the LORD.

27:33 He shall not search whether it be good or bad, neither shall he change it: and if he change it at all, then both it and the change thereof shall be holy; it shall not be redeemed.

27:34 These are the commandments, which the LORD commanded Moses for the children of Israel in mount Sinai.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Mr. Rick Floraday,

Have you had enough yet?

Would you care to let this site be a constructive discussion among adults?

It is good to know you are not going to run for office again. I had heard this from other sources, but its nice to hear it directly.

If you can let your obsession for bashing Paisley, Mayor Al, David Smith, and other concerned citizens go, perhaps we can once again have interesting and informative discussions. They are not the source of all problems and evil in Monroe. Your friends are not the solution to the problems and evil in Monroe.

I will say I am not David Smith, and will say he is not behind the fine reading that has been posted on this site for the edification of readers the last two days.

I feel that reading fine historical documents, the Bible, Koran, and Book of Mormon, and classic novels along with some interesting articles is more productive than what you have been purveying on this blog.

Hate and spewing venom have no place in public discussion.

Personally I have many friends whom I disagree with. We have interesting and informative discussions about many topics. At the end we don’t always agree, but we leave friends with mutual respect.

This is the kind of relationship I have with John Iacoangelli. He is a man I don’t always agree with, but I respect him immensely. I think the same is true of him about me.

Why can’t you take a cue from your friend and behave in the same way?

Personal attacks, lies, and character assassination have no place in public discussions.

Please learn how to conduct yourself in a professional manner on this blog and in public.

If not, I will commit to your readers to continue to provide a steady diet of suitable alternative reading material for their edification.

Unfortunately I am afraid to sign my name given the childish behavior that has went on in this community by a very few parties including yourself the last few years.

I hope I can sign my name without fear in the future. In the meantime I am not David Smith.

Sincerely,
XXXXX.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Quit denying that you're David Smith. Why don't you stop blaming others for your sick postings on this blog. Blame everybody but yourself,everybody knows it's you. Delusional jackass!

Maybe should ask John Iocoangeli if he considers YOU a friend, bet you'd be surprised to hear not many people would WANT you as their friend. What a shock! Nice guy like you? Only the 3C will take you. Like attracts like.

You think you have respect from other people? What's to respect? Revulsion would be more like it.

Ever hear of what goes around comes around in life?

Perhaps you have totaled up so much "respect" that you will be amply rewarded in kind.

In the meantime you're fooling no one.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Growth
Goal
Controlled growth and preserved open space through a coordinated, inclusive development plan, efficient use of land, water front, and redevelopment with thoughtful provisions for infrastructure and services.
Strategies
Focus development in areas with existing infrastructure and services in place.
Create a board with a representative from each governmental unit to work closely with the planning authority to identify farmland, parks and open spaces, and wetlands for preservation as well as appropriate methods to protect those areas from development.
Municipal residential development would require planned communities be consistent with an integrated county-wide plan for urban and residential development.
Improve county wide availability of gas, sewer, water, roads, drainage systems and services with respect to measures identified for controlled growth.
Encourage downtown redevelopment through use of federal, state, county, local resources – (existing or new)
Develop a strategy for public waterfront use.

Entertainment & Leisure
Goal
Exciting entertainment day and night for youth, families, and people of all ages, with vibrant shopping malls and independent retailers, restaurants, theaters, special attractions, teen clubs, and communications infrastructure that serves local residents and draws visitors to Monroe County.
Strategies
Partnerships with local municipalities and investors to establish destination dining where a variety of restaurants exist.
Create, for the convenience and accessibility of the residents, incentives to assist small business owners in locating their business in Monroe County to create a shopping destination with an emphasis on boutiques, specialty stores, and markets following established zoning laws.
Establish a “Cool Cities” committee with sub-committees representing all age groups to develop a plan for day and night entertainment for all ages. (Including improving current structures – entertainment buildings)
Create a county-wide Regional Media Board to establish a communication infrastructure which represents and serves the county as a whole.

Education
Goal
Excellent education, beginning at birth, with continued accessible and affordable life long learning opportunities for all members of the community.
Strategies
Support and enhance educational facilities to accommodate massive potential growth providing accessibility and relevant appropriate curriculum for life long learners.
Promote quality education, beginning at birth, by providing human, financial, and physical resources to support career and technical education, specialty programming and a wide array of educational options to all citizens.
Our community college would capitalize on its reputation and attract more students by creating options for advanced placement, internships, nontraditional students, and four year degrees; and expand on specialized training facilities, cultural events, activities and sports.
Schools, community organizations, business members, and residents would work together to offer more integrated use of performing and fine arts, education experiences which support learning throughout life.
The community will provide activities that offer free pre-school programs, latch key services, internships, affordable before and after school care, camps and employer family friendly practices such as release time for parents and volunteers in order to support supplemental educational activities.


Environmental Quality
Goal
A healthy environment through preservation, conservation, education, clean and beautiful lakes, rivers, beaches, downtowns and an active county wide recycling center all maintained with adherence to exemplary environmental standards that include improved air quality, an aggressive brown-field redevelopment plan and ways to reduce foreign trash.
Strategies
The county, village, city and townships would partner with existing Phase II communities to develop environmental strategies for public environmental education and public participation.
Establish a regional recycling center with satellite centers throughout the county.
Establish green spaces, wetland preserves, wildlife sanctuaries and beautify downtowns working in conjunction with community members, schools and other organizations for the benefit of preserving natural habitat that can be studied, maintained and enjoyed by all.
Monroe County residents, business and community leaders would support and encourage improved and reasonable standards for water, air, waste (foreign trash) and land (brown-field development).
Support and encourage state and federal legislators to improve the standards for cleaner air, water, and land.

Arts, Culture, History & Events
Goal
Arts, Culture & Heritage play a key role in community life by developing and promoting arts education, concerts and shows in performing arts facilities and events, tours and programs in other venues throughout the county.

Strategies
The community arts board would represent a wide variety of arts. Stake holders would form ad hoc committee for special interest/skills (i.e. dance, visual arts, poetry, etc.), seek funding from grants, private sector and other stakeholders and promote and market all activities in the arts including street fairs, concerts, local artists, etc.
Stakeholders who represent all geographic areas of county interested in historic heritage and preservation would develop a long range plan to focus on themes to merge together.
Inventory existing venues for cultural (fine arts, concerts, street fairs) activities. Identify a suitable stakeholder to coordinate the inventory and conduct a needs assessment for performances and events. Identify a suitable public relations and marketing specialist/facilitator.
Further develop historic buildings, promote more of our heritage, and offer more educational experiences regarding the county’s history.
Group that represents all geographical areas in the county who are capable of handling arts and cultural events would promote county wide arts, activities, street fairs, festivals and tours. Arts education for all age groups including teens.
Create family friendly, interactive, hands on activities for Monroe County History (similar to the arts hands on). Kids wear period clothing, eat period food/candy, play with toys, games, Old Frenchtown Days types of things.
Monroe County Arts Board would create a family friendly venue to promote arts education and hands on activities for the enjoyment of all ages (this could be a COSI type of museum, but with fine arts emphasis rather than science). In order to promote family life, foster creativity and an appreciation of the arts. Could also be a tourist destination, scout badges, schools.


Neighborhood & Community Character
Goal
Clean, beautiful, landscaped, walk-able neighborhoods with attractive building and preserved historic structures that maintain the county’s sense of place as well as small communities that retain wide-open spaces that preserve their rural character.
Strategies
Adopt a county wide “main street” philosophy to encourage and assist with creative adaptive reuse, growth, and development.
Establish a county wide task force to promote intergovernmental cooperation to plan and manage growth for industrial, residential, recreational, farmland and parks in order to preserve open space and retain the rural character of all areas of Monroe County.
Encourage state governments, county, townships, villages and cities to fund sidewalks in neighborhoods and walking trails.
Encourage townships, cities and villages to form community pride organizations, using schools, community groups and government to keep communities clean.
Create a plan to enhance the image of the county schools to promote the betterment of all neighborhoods and plan growth of each school.
Under the leadership of the Monroe County Intermediate School District, the school districts would reorganize boundaries and number of districts to gain efficiencies with buildings, transportation, etc.

Parks & Recreation
Goal
A connected system of clean parks and recreation areas throughout the county with active and passive recreation opportunities, paved and natural surface trails, playgrounds, ball fields, historic destinations, promote and utilize water resources and programs for all ages and seasons.
Strategies
Monroe County would establish a task force to: create drawings of the projected plan/locations, obtain property easements/rights for the land, locate funding to complete, promote collaboration between public and private stakeholders.
Create a broad countywide task force to explore and act upon the enhancement of existing waterfront and natural resources in order to improve recreational opportunities for residents and visitors.
Intergovernmental and private sector would cooperatively promote and develop Monroe County’s natural water resources to enhance our quality of life.
Formulate recreational programs which would be enhanced in existing and future parks by providing more sport, greenbelt and recreational areas for use by all.
Capitalize on and continue to develop the war of 1812 Battlefield and other historic destinations as commemorative and national tourist destinations.
Identify and empower businesses, community organizations, educational entities and committed individuals to add value to Monroe County’s recreational and natural resource heritage.

Downtowns
Goal
Beautiful, vibrant downtown areas with historic themes, an attractive selection of shops, riverfront entertainment, restaurants, housing, adequate parking, and a pedestrian-friendly environment.

Strategies
Make a downtown with a French Historic theme, a pedestrian friendly environment with unique shops/restaurants/cafes to attract residents and visitors and enhance economic development.
Maintain consistent, regular and publicized street cleaning schedule in order to beautify and become more livable downtown
Remove or renovate older, underutilized, vacant or dilapidated buildings.
Provide well-planned signage to identify available parking and work to provide a parking garage.
Downtown areas would have well maintained, landscaped, and attractive sidewalks, riverfront, and streetscape emphasizing walk-ability to encourage gatherings of people, outdoor cafes, shopping, and entertainment.
Develop downtowns into a fun destination for day and evening entertainment by offering arts, music, street fairs, festivals, and promoting historic attractions.


Social Issues
Goal
Improve access to affordable healthcare, housing, daycare, senior services, and public safety that serves the diverse needs of Monroe County’s population.

Strategies
Medical Control Authority, in cooperation with area hospitals would coordinate transportation
and satellite facilities. Affordability to be advocated by local and state elected officials.
Bring the community stakeholders together to design a healthcare and social support system that
allows for a single point of access for “aging in place services.”

County, state, and federal agencies should work together to provide safe and affordable housing

for low and moderate income families.
Local, private and public agencies will ensure that all who live and work in Monroe County feel
they are a valued member of their community.

Coordinate best approach to improve availability of day care at work places and for families in
need.
Provide a poverty free community by giving everyone an opportunity to a good paying job.
Include a child care network in improving day care opportunities.



Transportation
Goal
A safe, efficient, accessible public transportation system for vehicles and people with well maintained roads, improved traffic control, adequate parking, bike lanes, sidewalks, and port authority.

Strategies
Local and county agencies would work together with county residents, newspapers, school districts, and transportation professionals to educate the public on the need for additional funding through state and federal grants, county millages, and agencies cost sharing to fund the transportation needs and improvements.
Local and county governmental agencies would work together with area residents who utilize a non-motorized system to design county inter-connected bike, walking and rollerblade path system.
Imagine Monroe County would attract and include county residents as well as transportation professionals in order to develop an accurate identification of priority road improvements.
Develop a system that would utilize existing and future transportation to efficiently connect communities of Monroe County and increase mobility of residents to goods, services, and leisure activities.
Expand affordable public transportation services and opportunities through expanded bus routes in outlying communities with expanded availability during day and evening hours with increased accessibility for all community members including the handicapped and the elderly.
Develop accessibility and convenient free parking for downtown area by creating parking facilities and assigning/designating land use for that purpose.


Leadership and Cooperation
Goal
Better intergovernmental relationships, communication and cooperation that efficiently provide services, plans effectively for the economic development of the county; shares resources, and actively engages citizens in decision making.

Strategies
Volunteer task force would contact local governmental members to create interest in forming MCOG.
Work with county government to promote intergovernmental cooperation and management of infrastructure, roads, and transportation to reduce cost.
All community organizations and governments organize and advertise opportunities for citizen involvement.
Create a county “leadership coalition” to strengthen the relations between schools, businesses, organizations, governments, and municipalities.
Instill community pride and the sharing of resources in a logical manner through an unbiased review of ideas and goals to benefit the community.


Jobs/Economy
Goal
A healthy, diverse economy with large and small environmentally friendly businesses, service oriented businesses (restaurant and retail); a strong manufacturing sector, and a variety of well-paying job opportunities, job training, and exciting entry level jobs that attract and retain a young population and unique Monroe attractions and facilities (like a convention/conference center) that draw capital to the county and support its continued economic growth.
Strategies
A task force to pool information and resources to generate employment, attract new employers, and create an economically diverse county.
Develop a plan to create a convention center with a hotel, meeting center, and restaurants to accommodate 300-500 participants.
Develop a county-wide vocational center to include job placement and internships.
Partnerships to cooperatively advertise and market in and outside the county in order to highlight and promote Monroe County in general.


Community Facilities
Goal
Well advertised programs, activities and facilities for people of all ages, interests, and abilities that include expanded use of fairgrounds, indoor and outdoor sports, volunteer activities, community events, and residential facilities for troubled teens.
Strategies
Create and/or expand year round recreational opportunities for families, youth activities and after school programs.
Initiate a county-wide wellness program in order to increase the overall health of our residents.
Develop a “safe house” for troubled female teens through cooperative efforts.
Heighten the awareness of underutilized recreational facilities and programs to increase use such as more fairground use for youth organized by youth, downtown/St. Mary’s Park.
Create partnership that constructs a conference center to accommodate large groups of people and businesses. Available for local groups, for youth and cultural activities.

Lake and Riverfront
Goal
Lake Erie and the River Raisin are clean, accessible, navigable bodies of water for commerce and recreation complete with shops, restaurants, entertainment, and special events as well as walkways, public beaches, preserved areas, and residences along the waterfront.

Strategies
River Raisin waterfront communities collaborate to implement a vision process to identify, prioritize and initiate a unified waterways project.
Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Natural Resources and Port Authority would dredge from mouth of River Raisin at Lake Erie to City of Monroe for boater access to Downtown.
Shore lands task force inventories potential waterfront access sites and creates strategy for acquisition and development
Promote and strengthen visibility of Lake Erie to attract visitors.
S:/imagine/final goals

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

The Good Old Days of Plating

HOME | CONTACTS | CAPABILITIES | PLANT TOUR | ISO 9002 | FAQ | HISTORY | AESF LIBRARY | SEARCH

Guidance for Worker's Safety
GUIDANCE FOR WORKER'S SAFETY

PLATING SHOPS CIRCA 1890-1930

Workmen exclusively engaged in pickling objects are advised to neutralize the action of the acid upon the enamel of the teeth and the mucous membrane of the mouth and throat by frequently rinsing the mouth with dilute solution of bicarbonate of soda. Those engaged in freeing the objects from grease lose, for want of cleanliness, the skin on the portions of the fingers which come constantly in contact with the lime and caustic lyes. This may be overcome by frequently washing the hands in clean water; and previous to each intermission in the work the workman should, after washing the hands, dip them in dilute sulphuric acid, dry them and thoroughly rub them with cosmoline, or a mixture of equal parts of glycerin and water. The use of rubber gloves by workmen engaged in freeing the objects from grease cannot be recommended, they being expensive and subject to rapid destruction. It is better to wrap a linen rag seven or eight times around a sore finger, many workmen using this precaution to protect the skin from the corrosive action of the lye.

It should be a rule for every employee in the establishment not to drink from vessels used in electroplating manipulations; for instance, porcelain dishes, beer glasses, etc. One workman may this moment use such a vessel to drink from and without his knowledge another may employ it the next morning for dipping out potassium cyanide solution, and the first using it again as a drinking vessel may incur sickness or even fatal poisoning.

The handling of potassium cyanide and its solutions requires constant care and judgment. Working with sore hands in such solutions should e avoided as much as possible; but if it has to be done, and the workman feels a sharp pain in the sore, wash the latter quickly with clean water, and apply a few drops of blue vitriol solution.

(Electro-deposition of Metals, Langbein 1913)



The shop should always have an abundance of fresh air so the poisonous fumes so not pass through the worker's lungs.

The workers must wear protective gloves because cyanide causes painful sores on the hands. They are treated by dipping the sore into dilute sulfuric acid (1 to 10) and enduring the pain as long as possible. Wash the sore in warm soapy water and bind it up with a soapy rag.

Iron sulfate will neutralize the bad effects of cyanide and the nervous exhaustion caused by breathing cyanide fumes. And one must take Parrish's chemical food or a similar preparation of iron.

(Plater's Guide Book, 1891)



In 1932, a Chromium plating manual states: Chrome ulcers or chrome holes are made when a small cut comes in contact with chromium. Before this occurs, the cut should be wrapped in waterproof plaster. Wear gloves at all times.

Chromic acid affects the membranes of the nose, use lanolin ointment smeared on the face and up the nose.

Many up to date firms who have the welfare of their workers at heart have arranged for all workers in chromium plating to receive at the firms expense a pint of fresh milk daily.

Tar & Fether Rick

(Chromium Plating Manual, 1932)



....... THANK GOD FOR OSHA !!!!

Bob Sica


Back to Good Old Days

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Go away nasty rick













"Here I have been sitting reading that most wonderful book -- La Roche on Yellow fever -- written in 1853. Forty-seven years later it has been permitted to me & my assistants to lift the impenetrable veil that has surrounded the causation of this most dreadful pest of humanity and to put it on a rational & scientific basis."

Walter Reed wrote these words to his wife at midnight, December 31st, 1900. In Cuba, at the dawn of the twentieth century, the United States Army Yellow Fever Commission had demonstrated irrefutably that the mosquito was the vector of transmission for yellow fever. Cuban scientist Carlos J. Finlay had first proposed such a connection in 1881, but had not been able to prove his theory conclusively to the world scientific community.

Reed and the other members of the Commission, James Carroll, Aristides Agramonte, and particularly Johns Hopkins scientist Jessie Lazear, had sought Finlay's assistance to clarify and ultimately test the mosquito theory. Indeed in the very early stages of the investigation, Lazear lost his life to a case of yellow fever, very likely experimental in origin.

Deeply dismayed at the loss of his friend and colleague, but intrigued by the very real possibility of a solution within reach, Reed designed an experimental protocol which would withstand strict scientific scrutiny. He obtained permission from the military leadership to establish an experimental facility -- which he named Camp Lazear -- near Columbia Barracks, Quemados, Cuba, on the outskirts of Havana. The Commission also sought volunteers from among the U.S. Army corps stationed at Camp Columbia and from recent Spanish immigrants to Cuba. In conjunction with the use of human subjects, the Commission developed perhaps the first formal informed consent forms surviving from a medical experiment.

As Reed noted to his wife, the experiments proved dramatically successful. Mosquito eradication campaigns began immediately in Cuba with remarkably rapid results. Sanitation efforts took hold in South and Central America, Africa, and the American South, largely under the guidance of Rockefeller Foundation scientist Henry Rose Carter. Yellow fever, once so devastating, had been conquered.

In 1937, Mayo Clinic physician Philip S. Hench began a life-long project to document the story of the yellow fever discovery. His monumental collection of manuscripts, printed materials, photographs, artifacts, and research is the source of this digital archive. For more information on the Yellow Fever story, please see our Web exhibit.

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

the site is twisted by rick

[Enter Hostess and SLY]



SLY

I'll pheeze you, in faith.



Hostess

A pair of stocks, you rogue!



SLY

Ye are a baggage: the Slys are no rogues; look in
the chronicles; we came in with Richard Conqueror.
Therefore paucas pallabris; let the world slide: sessa!



Hostess

You will not pay for the glasses you have burst?



SLY

No, not a denier. Go by, Jeronimy: go to thy cold
bed, and warm thee.



Hostess

I know my remedy; I must go fetch the
third -- borough.


[Exit]



SLY

Third, or fourth, or fifth borough, I'll answer him
by law: I'll not budge an inch, boy: let him come,
and kindly.


[Falls asleep]


[Horns winded. Enter a Lord from hunting, with his train]



Lord

Huntsman, I charge thee, tender well my hounds:
Brach Merriman, the poor cur is emboss'd;
And couple Clowder with the deep -- mouth'd brach.
Saw'st thou not, boy, how Silver made it good
At the hedge-corner, in the coldest fault?
I would not lose the dog for twenty pound.



First Huntsman

Why, Belman is as good as he, my lord;
He cried upon it at the merest loss
And twice to-day pick'd out the dullest scent:
Trust me, I take him for the better dog.



Lord

Thou art a fool: if Echo were as fleet,
I would esteem him worth a dozen such.
But sup them well and look unto them all:
To-morrow I intend to hunt again.



First Huntsman

I will, my lord.



Lord

What's here? one dead, or drunk? See, doth he breathe?



Second Huntsman

He breathes, my lord. Were he not warm'd with ale,
This were a bed but cold to sleep so soundly.



Lord

O monstrous beast! how like a swine he lies!
Grim death, how foul and loathsome is thine image!
Sirs, I will practise on this drunken man.
What think you, if he were convey'd to bed,
Wrapp'd in sweet clothes, rings put upon his fingers,
A most delicious banquet by his bed,
And brave attendants near him when he wakes,
Would not the beggar then forget himself?



First Huntsman

Believe me, lord, I think he cannot choose.



Second Huntsman

It would seem strange unto him when he waked.



Lord

Even as a flattering dream or worthless fancy.
Then take him up and manage well the jest:
Carry him gently to my fairest chamber
And hang it round with all my wanton pictures:
Balm his foul head in warm distilled waters
And burn sweet wood to make the lodging sweet:
Procure me music ready when he wakes,
To make a dulcet and a heavenly sound;
And if he chance to speak, be ready straight
And with a low submissive reverence
Say 'What is it your honour will command?'
Let one attend him with a silver basin
Full of rose-water and bestrew'd with flowers,
Another bear the ewer, the third a diaper,
And say 'Will't please your lordship cool your hands?'
Some one be ready with a costly suit
And ask him what apparel he will wear;
Another tell him of his hounds and horse,
And that his lady mourns at his disease:
Persuade him that he hath been lunatic;
And when he says he is, say that he dreams,
For he is nothing but a mighty lord.
This do and do it kindly, gentle sirs:
It will be pastime passing excellent,
If it be husbanded with modesty.



First Huntsman

My lord, I warrant you we will play our part,
As he shall think by our true diligence
He is no less than what we say he is.



Lord

Take him up gently and to bed with him;
And each one to his office when he wakes.


[Some bear out SLY. A trumpet sounds]


Sirrah, go see what trumpet 'tis that sounds:


[Exit Servingman]


Belike, some noble gentleman that means,
Travelling some journey, to repose him here.


[Re-enter Servingman]


How now! who is it?



Servant

An't please your honour, players
That offer service to your lordship.



Lord

Bid them come near.


[Enter Players]


Now, fellows, you are welcome.



Players

We thank your honour.



Lord

Do you intend to stay with me tonight?



A Player

So please your lordship to accept our duty.



Lord

With all my heart. This fellow I remember,
Since once he play'd a farmer's eldest son:
'Twas where you woo'd the gentlewoman so well:
I have forgot your name; but, sure, that part
Was aptly fitted and naturally perform'd.



A Player

I think 'twas Soto that your honour means.



Lord

'Tis very true: thou didst it excellent.
Well, you are come to me in a happy time;
The rather for I have some sport in hand
Wherein your cunning can assist me much.
There is a lord will hear you play to-night:
But I am doubtful of your modesties;
Lest over-eyeing of his odd behavior, --
For yet his honour never heard a play --
You break into some merry passion
And so offend him; for I tell you, sirs,
If you should smile he grows impatient.



A Player

Fear not, my lord: we can contain ourselves,
Were he the veriest antic in the world.



Lord

Go, sirrah, take them to the buttery,
And give them friendly welcome every one:
Let them want nothing that my house affords.


[Exit one with the Players]


Sirrah, go you to Barthol'mew my page,
And see him dress'd in all suits like a lady:
That done, conduct him to the drunkard's chamber;
And call him 'madam,' do him obeisance.
Tell him from me, as he will win my love,
He bear himself with honourable action,
Such as he hath observed in noble ladies
Unto their lords, by them accomplished:
Such duty to the drunkard let him do
With soft low tongue and lowly courtesy,
And say 'What is't your honour will command,
Wherein your lady and your humble wife
May show her duty and make known her love?'
And then with kind embracements, tempting kisses,
And with declining head into his bosom,
Bid him shed tears, as being overjoy'd
To see her noble lord restored to health,
Who for this seven years hath esteem'd him
No better than a poor and loathsome beggar:
And if the boy have not a woman's gift
To rain a shower of commanded tears,
An onion will do well for such a shift,
Which in a napkin being close convey'd
Shall in despite enforce a watery eye.
See this dispatch'd with all the haste thou canst:
Anon I'll give thee more instructions.


[Exit a Servingman]


I know the boy will well usurp the grace,
Voice, gait and action of a gentlewoman:
I long to hear him call the drunkard husband,
And how my men will stay themselves from laughter
When they do homage to this simple peasant.
I'll in to counsel them; haply my presence
May well abate the over-merry spleen
Which otherwise would grow into extremes.


[Exeunt]

13 July, 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

cut out the crap rick & Linda

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]
[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]
[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]
[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]
[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]







AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt]

[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.


[Exeunt] [A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And for the sake of them thou sorrowest for,
Do me the favour to dilate at full
What hath befall'n of them and thee till now.



AEGEON

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive
After his brother: and importuned me
That his attendant -- so his case was like,
Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name --
Might bear him company in the quest of him:
Whom whilst I labour'd of a love to see,
I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Five summers have I spent in furthest Greece,
Roaming clean through the bounds of Asia,
And, coasting homeward, came to Ephesus;
Hopeless to find, yet loath to leave unsought
Or that or any place that harbours men.
But here must end the story of my life;
And happy were I in my timely death,
Could all my travels warrant me they live.



DUKE SOLINUS

Hapless AEgeon, whom the fates have mark'd
To bear the extremity of dire mishap!
Now, trust me, were it not against our laws,
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity,
Which princes, would they, may not disannul,
My soul would sue as advocate for thee.
But, though thou art adjudged to the death
And passed sentence may not be recall'd
But to our honour's great disparagement,
Yet I will favour thee in what I can.
Therefore, merchant, I'll limit thee this day
To seek thy life by beneficial help:
Try all the friends thou hast in Ephesus;
Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum,
And live; if no, then thou art doom'd to die.
Gaoler, take him to thy custody.



Gaoler

I will, my lord.



AEGEON

Hopeless and helpless doth AEgeon wend,
But to procrastinate his lifeless end.
[A hall in DUKE SOLINUS'S palace.]


[Enter DUKE SOLINUS, AEGEON, Gaoler, Officers, and other Attendants]



AEGEON

Proceed, Solinus, to procure my fall
And by the doom of death end woes and all.



DUKE SOLINUS

Merchant of Syracuse, plead no more;
I am not partial to infringe our laws:
The enmity and discord which of late
Sprung from the rancorous outrage of your duke
To merchants, our well-dealing countrymen,
Who wanting guilders to redeem their lives
Have seal'd his rigorous statutes with their bloods,
Excludes all pity from our threatening looks.
For, since the mortal and intestine jars
'Twixt thy seditious countrymen and us,
It hath in solemn synods been decreed
Both by the Syracusians and ourselves,
To admit no traffic to our adverse towns Nay, more,
If any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again: if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied,
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Thy substance, valued at the highest rate,
Cannot amount unto a hundred marks;
Therefore by law thou art condemned to die.



AEGEON

Yet this my comfort: when your words are done,
My woes end likewise with the evening sun.



DUKE SOLINUS

Well, Syracusian, say in brief the cause
Why thou departed'st from thy native home
And for what cause thou camest to Ephesus.



AEGEON

A heavier task could not have been imposed
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable:
Yet, that the world may witness that my end
Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence,
I'll utter what my sorrows give me leave.
In Syracusa was I born, and wed
Unto a woman, happy but for me,
And by me, had not our hap been bad.
With her I lived in joy; our wealth increased
By prosperous voyages I often made
To Epidamnum; till my factor's death
And the great care of goods at random left
Drew me from kind embracements of my spouse:
From whom my absence was not six months old
Before herself, almost at fainting under
The pleasing punishment that women bear,
Had made provision for her following me
And soon and safe arrived where I was.
There had she not been long, but she became
A joyful mother of two goodly sons;
And, which was strange, the one so like the other,
As could not be distinguish'd but by names.
That very hour, and in the self-same inn,
A meaner woman was delivered
Of such a burden, male twins, both alike:
Those, -- for their parents were exceeding poor, --
I bought and brought up to attend my sons.
My wife, not meanly proud of two such boys,
Made daily motions for our home return:
Unwilling I agreed. Alas! too soon,
We came aboard.
A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm:
But longer did we not retain much hope;
For what obscured light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death;
Which though myself would gladly have embraced,
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife,
Weeping before for what she saw must come,
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes,
That mourn'd for fashion, ignorant what to fear,
Forced me to seek delays for them and me.
And this it was, for other means was none:
The sailors sought for safety by our boat,
And left the ship, then sinking-ripe, to us:
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast,
Such as seafaring men provide for storms;
To him one of the other twins was bound,
Whilst I had been like heedful of the other:
The children thus disposed, my wife and I,
Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fix'd,
Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast;
And floating straight, obedient to the stream,
Was carried towards Corinth, as we thought.
At length the sun, gazing upon the earth,
Dispersed those vapours that offended us;
And by the benefit of his wished light,
The seas wax'd calm, and we discovered
Two ships from far making amain to us,
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this:
But ere they came, -- O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before.



DUKE SOLINUS

Nay, forward, old man; do not break off so;
For we may pity, though not pardon thee.



AEGEON

O, had the gods done so, I had not now
Worthily term'd them merciless to us!
For, ere the ships could meet by twice five leagues,
We were encounterd by a mighty rock;
Which being violently borne upon,
Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst;
So that, in this unjust divorce of us,
Fortune had left to both of us alike
What to delight in, what to sorrow for.
Her part, poor soul! seeming as burdened
With lesser weight but not with lesser woe,
Was carried with more speed before the wind;
And in our sight they three were taken up
By fishermen of Corinth, as we thought.
At length, another ship had seized on us;
And, knowing whom it was their hap to save,
Gave healthful welcome to their shipwreck'd guests;
And would have reft the fishers of their prey,
Had not their bark been very slow of sail;
And therefore homeward did they bend their course.
Thus have you heard me sever'd from my bliss;
That by misfortunes was my life prolong'd,
To tell sad stories of my own mishaps.



DUKE SOLINUS

And